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ADJUSTMENT IN PAYMENT FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES FURNISHED BY DISPROPORTIONATE SHARE HOSPITALS[173]

Sec1923[42 U.S.C. 1396r–4] (a) Implementation of Requirement.—

(1) A State plan under this title shall not be considered to meet the requirement of section 1902(a)(13)(A)(iv) (insofar as it requires payments to hospitals to take into account the situation of hospitals which serve a disproportionate number of low income patients with special needs), as of July 1, 1988, unless the State has submitted to the Secretary, by not later than such date, an amendment to such plan that—

(A) specifically defines the hospitals so described (and includes in such definition any disproportionate share hospital described in subsection (b)(1) which meets the requirements of subsection (d)), and

(B) provides, effective for inpatient hospital services provided not later than July 1, 1988, for an appropriate increase in the rate or amount of payment for such services provided by such hospitals, consistent with subsection (c).

(2)(A) In order to be considered to have met such requirement of section 1902(a)(13)(A) as of July 1, 1989, the State must submit to the Secretary by not later than April 1, 1989, the State plan amendment described in paragraph (1), consistent with subsection (c), effective for inpatient hospital services provided on or after July 1, 1989.

(B) In order to be considered to have met such requirement of section 1902(a)(13)(A) as of July 1, 1990, the State must submit to the Secretary by not later than April 1, 1990, the State plan amendment described in paragraph (1), consistent with subsections (c) and (f), effective for inpatient hospital services provided on or after July 1, 1990.

(C) If a State plan under this title provides for payments for inpatient hospital services on a prospective basis (whether per diem, per case, or otherwise), in order for the plan to be considered to have met such requirement of section 1902(a)(13)(A) as of July 1, 1989, the State must submit to the Secretary by not later than April 1, 1989, a State plan amendment that provides, in the case of hospitals defined by the State as disproportionate share hospitals under paragraph (1)(A), for an outlier adjustment in payment amounts for medically necessary inpatient hospital services provided on or after July 1, 1989, involving exceptionally high costs or exceptionally long lengths of stay for individuals under one year of age.

(D) A State plan under this title shall not be considered to meet the requirements of section 1902(a)(13)(A)(iv) (insofar as it requires payments to hospitals to take into account the situation of hospitals that serve a disproportionate number of low-income patients with special needs), as of October 1, 1998, unless the State has submitted to the Secretary by such date a description of the methodology used by the State to identify and to make payments to disproportionate share hospitals, including children’s hospitals, on the basis of the proportion of low-income and medicaid patients (including such patients who receive benefits through a managed care entity) served by such hospitals. The State shall provide an annual report to the Secretary describing the disproportionate share payments to each such disproportionate share hospital.

(3) The Secretary shall, not later than 90 days after the date a State submits an amendment under this subsection, review each such amendment for compliance with such requirement and by such date shall approve or disapprove each such amendment. If the Secretary disapproves such an amendment, the State shall immediately submit a revised amendment which meets such requirement.

(4) The requirement of this subsection may not be waived under section 1915(b)(4).

(b) Hospitals Deemed Disproportionate Share.—

(1) For purposes of subsection (a)(1), a hospital which meets the requirements of subsection (d) is deemed to be a disproportionate share hospital if—

(A) the hospital’s medicaid inpatient utilization rate (as defined in paragraph (2)) is at least one standard deviation above the mean medicaid inpatient utilization rate for hospitals receiving medicaid payments in the State; or

(B) the hospital’s low-income utilization rate (as defined in paragraph (3)) exceeds 25 percent.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (1)(A), the term “medicaid inpatient utilization rate” means, for a hospital, a fraction (expressed as a percentage), the numerator of which is the hospital’s number of inpatient days attributable to patients who (for such days) were eligible for medical assistance under a State plan approved under this title in a period (regardless of whether such patients receive medical assistance on a fee-for-service basis or through a managed care entity), and the denominator of which is the total number of the hospital’s inpatient days in that period. In this paragraph, the term “inpatient day” includes each day in which an individual (including a newborn) is an inpatient in the hospital, whether or not the individual is in a specialized ward and whether or not the individual remains in the hospital for lack of suitable placement elsewhere.

(3) For purposes of paragraph (1)(B), the term “low-income utilization rate” means, for a hospital, the sum of—

(A) the fraction (expressed as a percentage)—

(i) the numerator of which is the sum (for a period) of (I) the total revenues paid the hospital for patient services under a State plan under this title (regardless of whether the services were furnished on a fee-for-service basis or through a managed care entity) and (II) the amount of the cash subsidies for patient services received directly from State and local governments, and

(ii) the denominator of which is the total amount of revenues of the hospital for patient services (including the amount of such cash subsidies) in the period; and

(B) a fraction (expressed as a percentage)—

(i) the numerator of which is the total amount of the hospital’s charges for inpatient hospital services which are attributable to charity care in a period, less the portion of any cash subsidies described in clause (i)(II) of subparagraph (A) in the period reasonably attributable to inpatient hospital services, and

(ii) the denominator of which is the total amount of the hospital’s charges for inpatient hospital services in the hospital in the period.

The numerator under subparagraph (B)(i) shall not include contractual allowances and discounts (other than for indigent patients not eligible for medical assistance under a State plan approved under this title).

(4) The Secretary may not restrict a State’s authority to designate hospitals as disproportionate share hospitals under this section. The previous sentence shall not be construed to affect the authority of the Secretary to reduce payments pursuant to section 1903(w)(1)(A)(iii) if the Secretary determines that, as a result of such designations, there is in effect a hold harmless provision described in section 1903(w)(4).

(c) Payment Adjustment.—Subject to subsections (f) and (g), in order to be consistent with this subsection, a payment adjustment for a disproportionate share hospital must either—

(1) be in an amount equal to at least the product of (A) the amount paid under the State plan to the hospital for operating costs for inpatient hospital services (of the kind described in section 1886(a)(4)), and (B) the hospital’s disproportionate share adjustment percentage (established under section 1886(d)(5)(F)(iv));

(2) provide for a minimum specified additional payment amount (or increased percentage payment) and (without regard to whether the hospital is described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (b)(1)) for an increase in such a payment amount (or percentage payment) in proportion to the percentage by which the hospital’s medicaid utilization rate (as defined in subsection (b)(2)) exceeds one standard deviation above the mean medicaid inpatient utilization rate for hospitals receiving medicaid payments in the State or the hospital’s low-income utilization rate (as defined in paragraph (b)(3)); or

(3) provide for a minimum specified additional payment amount (or increased percentage payment) that varies according to type of hospital under a methodology that—

(A) applies equally to all hospitals of each type; and

(B) results in an adjustment for each type of hospital that is reasonably related to the costs, volume, or proportion of services provided to patients eligible for medical assistance under a State plan approved under this title or to low-income patients,

except that, for purposes of paragraphs (1)(B) and (2)(A) of subsection (a), the payment adjustment for a disproportionate share hospital is consistent with this subsection if the appropriate increase in the rate or amount of payment is equal to at least one-third of the increase otherwise applicable under this subsection (in the case of such paragraph (1)(B)) and at least two-thirds of such increase (in the case of such paragraph (2)(A)). In the case of a hospital described in subsection (d)(2)(A)(i) (relating to children’s hospitals), in computing the hospital’s disproportionate share adjustment percentage for purposes of paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection, the disproportionate patient percentage (defined in section 1886(d)(5)(F)(vi)) shall be computed by substituting for the fraction described in subclause (I) of such section the fraction described in subclause (II) of that section. If a State elects in a State plan amendment under subsection (a) to provide the payment adjustment described in paragraph (2), the State must include in the amendment a detailed description of the specific methodology to be used in determining the specified additional payment amount (or increased percentage payment) to be made to each hospital qualifying for such a payment adjustment and must publish at least annually the name of each hospital qualifying for such a payment adjustment and the amount of such payment adjustment made for each such hospital.

(d) Requirements To Qualify as Disproportionate Share Hospital.—

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), no hospital may be defined or deemed as a disproportionate share hospital under a State plan under this title or under subsection (b) of this section unless the hospital has at least 2 obstetricians who have staff privileges at the hospital and who have agreed to provide obstetric services to individuals who are entitled to medical assistance for such services under such State plan.

(2)(A) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to a hospital—

(i) the inpatients of which are predominantly individuals under 18 years of age; or

(ii) which does not offer nonemergency obstetric services to the general population as of the date of the enactment of this Act[174].

(B) In the case of a hospital located in a rural area (as defined for purposes of section 1886), in paragraph (1) the term “obstetrician” includes any physician with staff privileges at the hospital to perform nonemergency obstetric procedures.

(3) No hospital may be defined or deemed as a disproportionate share hospital under a State plan under this title or under subsection (b) or (e) of this section unless the hospital has a medicaid inpatient utilization rate (as defined in subsection (b)(2)) of not less than 1 percent.

(e) Special Rule.—

(1) A State plan shall be considered to meet the requirement of section 1902(a)(13)(A)(iv) (insofar as it requires payments to hospitals to take into account the situation of hospitals which serve a disproportionate number of low income patients with special needs) without regard to the requirement of subsection (a) if (A)(i) the plan provided for payment adjustments based on a pooling arrangement involving a majority of the hospitals participating under the plan for disproportionate share hospitals as of January 1, 1984, or (ii) the plan as of January 1, 1987, provided for payment adjustments based on a statewide pooling arrangement involving all acute care hospitals and the arrangement provides for reimbursement of the total amount of uncompensated care provided by each participating hospital, (B) the aggregate amount of the payment adjustments under the plan for such hospitals is not less than the aggregate amount of such adjustments otherwise required to be made under such subsection, and (C) the plan meets the requirement of subsection (d)(3) and such payment adjustments are made consistent with the last sentence of subsection (c).

(2) In the case of a State that used a health insuring organization before January 1, 1986, to administer a portion of its plan on a state-wide basis, beginning on July 1, 1988—

(A) the requirements of subsections (b) and (c) (other than the last sentence of subsection (c)) shall not apply if the aggregate amount of the payment adjustments under the plan for disproportionate share hospitals (as defined under the State plan) is not less than the aggregate amount of payment adjustments otherwise required to be made if such subsections applied,

(B) subsection (d)(2)(B) shall apply to hospitals located in urban areas, as well as in rural areas,

(C) subsection (d)(3) shall apply, and

(D) subsection (g) shall apply.

(f) Limitation on Federal Financial Participation.—

(1) In general.—Payment under section 1903(a) shall not be made to a State with respect to any payment adjustment made under this section for hospitals in a State for quarters in a fiscal year in excess of the disproportionate share hospital (in this subsection referred to as “DSH”) allotment for the State for the fiscal year, as specified in paragraphs (2), (3), and (7)

(2) State dsh allotments for fiscal years 1998 through 2002.—Subject to paragraph (4), the DSH allotment for a State for each fiscal year during the period beginning with fiscal year 1998 and ending with fiscal year 2002 is determined in accordance with the following table:

State or District DSH Allotment (in millions of dollars)
FY 98 FY 99 FY 00 FY 01 FY 02
Alabama 293 269 248 246 246
Alaska 10 10 10 9 9
Arizona 81 81 81 81 81
Arkansas 2 2 2 2 2
California 1,085 1,086 986 931 877
Colorado 93 85 79 74 74
Connecticut 200 194 184 160 160
Delaware 4 4 4 4 4
District of Columbia 23 23 49 49 49
Florida 207 203 197 185 160
Georgia 253 248 241 228 215
Hawaii 0 0 0 0 0
Idaho 1 1 1 1 1
Illinois 203 199 193 182 172
Indiana 2-4 197 191 181 171
Iowa 8 8 8 8 8
Kansas 51 49 42 36 33
Louisiana 880 795 713 658 631
Maine 103 99 84 84 84
Maryland 72 70 68 64 61
Massachusetts 288 282 273 259 244
Michigan 249 244 237 224 212
Minnesota 18 16 33 33 33
Mississippi 143 141 136 129 122
Missouri 436 423 379 379 379
Montana 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Nebraska 5 5 5 5 5
Nevada 37 37 37 37 37
New Hampshire 140 136 130 130 130
New Jersey 600 582 515 515 515
New Mexico 5 5 9 9 9
New York 1,512 1,482 1,436 1,361 1,285
North Carolina 278 272 264 250 236
North Dakota 1 1 1 1 1
Ohio 382 274 363 344 325
Oklahoma 16 16 16 16 16
Oregon 20 20 20 20 20
Pennsylvania 629 518 502 476 440
Rhode Island 62 60 58 55 52
South Carolina 313 303 262 262 262
South Dakota 1 1 1 1 1
Tennessee 0 0 0 0 0
Texas 979 950 806 765 765
Utah 3 3 3 3 3
Vermont 18 18 18 18 18
Virginia 70 68 58 55 52
Washington 174 171 165 157 148
West Virginia 64 83 61 58 54
Wisconsin 7 7 7 7 7
Wyoming 0 0 1 1 1

(3) State dsh allotments for fiscal year 2003 and thereafter.—

(A) In general.—Except as provided in paragraphs (6), (7), and (8)[175] and paragraph (E) the DSH allotment for any State for fiscal year 2003 and each succeeding fiscal year is equal to the DSH allotment for the State for the preceding fiscal year under paragraph (2) or this paragraph, increased, subject to subparagraphs (B) and (C) paragraph (5), by the percentage change in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (all items; U.S. city average), for the previous fiscal year.

(B) Limitation.—The DSH allotment for a State shall not be increased under subparagraph (A) for a fiscal year to the extent that such an increase would result in the DSH allotment for the year exceeding the greater of—

(i) the DSH allotment for the previous year, or

(ii) 12 percent of the total amount of expenditures under the State plan for medical assistance during the fiscal year.

(C) Special, temporary increase in allotments on a one-time, non-cumulative basis.—The DSH allotment for any State (other than a State with a DSH allotment determined under paragraph (5))—

(i) for fiscal year 2004 is equal to 116 percent of the DSH allotment for the State for fiscal year 2003 under this paragraph, notwithstanding subparagraph (B); and

(ii) for each succeeding fiscal year is equal to the DSH allotment for the State for fiscal year 2004 or, in the case of fiscal years beginning with the fiscal year specified in subparagraph (D) for that State, the DSH allotment for the State for the previous fiscal year increased by the percentage change in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (all items; U.S. city average), for the previous fiscal year.

(D) Fiscal year specified.—For purposes of subparagraph (C)(ii), the fiscal year specified in this subparagraph for a State is the first fiscal year for which the Secretary estimates that the DSH allotment for that State will equal (or no longer exceed) the DSH allotment for that State under the law as in effect before the date of the enactment of this subparagraph.

(E) Temporary increase in allotments during recession.—

(i) In general.—Subject to clause (ii), the DSH allotment for any State—

(I) for fiscal year 2009 is equal to 102.5 percent of the DSH allotment that would be determined under this paragraph for the State for fiscal year 2009 without application of this subparagraph, notwithstanding subparagraphs (B) and (C);

(II) for fiscal year 2010 is equal to 102.5 percent of the DSH allotment for the State for fiscal year 2009, as determined under subclause (I); and

(III) for each succeeding fiscal year is equal to the DSH allotment for the State under this paragraph determined without applying subclauses (I) and (II).

(ii) Application.—Clause (i) shall not apply to a State for a year in the case that the DSH allotment for such State for such year under this paragraph determined without applying clause (i) would grow higher than the DSH allotment specified under clause (i) for the State for such year.

(4) Special rule for fiscal years 2001 and 2002.—

(A) In general.—Notwithstanding paragraph (2), the DSH allotment for any State for—

(i) fiscal year 2001, shall be the DSH allotment determined under paragraph (2) for fiscal year 2000 increased, subject to subparagraph (B) and paragraph (5), by the percentage change in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (all items; U.S. city average) for fiscal year 2000; and

(ii) fiscal year 2002, shall be the DSH allotment determined under clause (i) increased, subject to subparagraph (B) and paragraph (5), by the percentage change in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (all items; U.S. city average) for fiscal year 2001.

(B) Limitation.—Subparagraph (B) of paragraph (3) shall apply to subparagraph (A) of this paragraph in the same manner as that subparagraph (B) applies to paragraph (3)(A).

(C) No application to allotments after fiscal year 2002.—The DSH allotment for any State for fiscal year 2003 or any succeeding fiscal year shall be determined under paragraph (3) without regard to the DSH allotments determined under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph.

(5) Special rule for low dsh states.—

(A) For fiscal years 2001 through 2003 for extremely low DSH states.—In the case of a State in which the total expenditures under the State plan (including Federal and State shares) for disproportionate share hospital adjustments under this section for fiscal year 1999, as reported to the Administrator of the HealthCare Financing Administration as of August 31, 2000, is greater than 0 but less than 1 percent of the State’s total amount of expenditures under the State plan for medical assistance during the fiscal year, the DSH allotment for fiscal year 2001 shall be increased to 1 percent of the State’s total amount of expenditures under such plan for such assistance during such fiscal year. In subsequent fiscal years before fiscal year 2004, such increased allotment is subject to an increase for inflation as provided in paragraph (3)(A).

(B) For fiscal year 2004 and subsequent fiscal years.—In the case of a State in which the total expenditures under the State plan (including Federal and State shares) for disproportionate share hospital adjustments under this section for fiscal year 2000, as reported to the Administrator of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as of August 31, 2003, is greater than 0 but less than 3 percent of the State’s total amount of expenditures under the State plan for medical assistance during the fiscal year, the DSH allotment for the State with respect to—

(i) fiscal year 2004 shall be the DSH allotment for the State for fiscal year 2003 increased by 16 percent;

(ii) each succeeding fiscal year before fiscal year 2009 shall be the DSH allotment for the State for the previous fiscal year increased by 16 percent; and

(iii) fiscal year 2009 and any subsequent fiscal year, shall be the DSH allotment for the State for the previous year subject to an increase for inflation as provided in paragraph (3)(A).

(6) Allotment adjustments.—

(A) Tennessee.—

(i) In general.—Only with respect to fiscal year 2007, the DSH allotment for Tennessee for such fiscal year, notwithstanding the table set forth in paragraph (2) or the terms of the TennCare Demonstration Project in effect for the State, shall be the greater of—

(I) the amount that the Secretary determines is equal to the Federal medical assistance percentage component attributable to disproportionate share hospital payment adjustments for the demonstration year ending in 2006 that is reflected in the budget neutrality provision of the TennCare Demonstration Project; and

(II) $280,000,000.

Only with respect to fiscal years 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011the DSH allotment for Tennessee for the fiscal year, notwithstanding such table of terms, shall be the amount specified in the previous sentence for fiscal year 2007. Only with respect to fiscal year 2010 for the period ending on December 31, 2009, the DSH allotment for Tennessee for such portion of the fiscal year, notwithstanding such table or terms, shall be 1/4 of the amount specified in the first sentence for fiscal year 2007.

(ii) Limitation on amount of payment adjustments eligible for federal financial participation.—Payment under section 1903(a) shall not be made to Tennessee with respect to the aggregate amount of any payment adjustments made under this section for hospitals in the State for fiscal year 2007, 2008, 2009, or for a period in fiscal year 2010 described in clause (i) that is in excess of 30 percent of the DSH allotment for the State for such fiscal year or period determined pursuant to clause (i).

(iii) State plan amendment.—The Secretary shall permit Tennessee to submit an amendment to its State plan under this title that describes the methodology to be used by the State to identify and make payments to disproportionate share hospitals, including children’s hospitals and institutions for mental diseases or other mental health facilities. The Secretary may not approve such plan amendment unless the methodology described in the amendment is consistent with the requirements under this section for making payment adjustments to disproportionate share hospitals. For purposes of demonstrating budget neutrality under the TennCare Demonstration Project, payment adjustments made pursuant to a State plan amendment approved in accordance with this subparagraph shall be considered expenditures under such project.

(iv) Offset of federal share of payment adjustments for fiscal years 2007 through 2011 and the first calendar quarter of fiscal year 2012 against essential access hospital supplemental pool payments under the tenncare demonstration project.—

(I) The total amount of Essential Access Hospital supplemental pool payments that may be made under the TennCare Demonstration Project for fiscal year 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, or for a period in fiscal year 2012 described in clause (i) shall be reduced on a dollar for dollar basis by the amount of any payments made under section 1903(a) to Tennessee with respect to payment adjustments made under this section for hospitals in the State for such fiscal year or period.

(II) The sum of the total amount of payments made under section 1903(a) to Tennessee with respect to payment adjustments made under this section for hospitals in the State for fiscal year 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, or for a period in fiscal year 2012 described in clause (i) and the total amount of Essential Access Hospital supplemental pool payments made under the TennCare Demonstration Project for such fiscal year shall not exceed the State’s DSH allotment for such fiscal year or period established under clause (i).

(v) Allotment for 2d, 3rd, and 4th quarters of fiscal year 2012 and for fiscal year 2013.—Notwithstanding the table set forth in paragraph (2):

(I) 2d, 3rd, and 4th quarters of fiscal year 2012 and for fiscal year 2013.—In the case of a State that has a DSH allotment of $0 for the 2d, 3rd, and 4th quarters of fiscal year 2012, the DSH allotment shall be $47,200,000 for such quarters.

(II) Fiscal year 2013.—In the case of a State that has a DSH allotment of $0 for fiscal year 2013, the DSH allotment shall be $53,100,000 for such fiscal year.

(B) Hawaii.—

(i) In general.—Only with respect to each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011, the DSH allotment for Hawaii for such fiscal year, notwithstanding the table set forth in paragraph (2), shall be $10,000,000. Only with respect to fiscal year 2012 for the period ending on December 31, 2011, the DSH allotment for Hawaii for such portion of the fiscal year, notwithstanding the table set forth in paragraph (2), shall be $2,500,000.

(ii) State plan amendment.—The Secretary shall permit Hawaii to submit an amendment to its State plan under this title that describes the methodology to be used by the State to identify and make payments to disproportionate share hospitals, including children’s hospitals and institutions for mental diseases or other mental health facilities. The Secretary may not approve such plan amendment unless the methodology described in the amendment is consistent with the requirements under this section for making payment adjustments to disproportionate share hospitals.

(iii) Allotment for 2d, 3rd, and 4th quarter of fiscal year 2012, fiscal year 2013, and succeeding fiscal years.—Notwithstanding the table set forth in paragraph (2) or paragraph (7):

(I) 2d, 3rd, and 4th quarter of fiscal year 2012.—The DSH allotment for Hawaii for the 2d, 3rd, and 4th quarters of fiscal year 2012 shall be $7,500,000.

(II) Treatment as a low-dsh state for fiscal year 2013 and succeeding fiscal years.—With respect to fiscal year 2013, and each fiscal year thereafter, the DSH allotment for Hawaii shall be increased in the same manner as allotments for low DSH States are increased for such fiscal year under clause (iii) of paragraph (5)(B).

(III) Certain hospital payments.—The Secretary may not impose a limitation on the total amount of payments made to hospitals under the QUEST section 1115 Demonstration Project except to the extent that such limitation is necessary to ensure that a hospital does not receive payments in excess of the amounts described in subsection (g), or as necessary to ensure that such payments under the waiver and such payments pursuant to the allotment provided in this clause do not, in the aggregate in any year, exceed the amount that the Secretary determines is equal to the Federal medical assistance percentage component attributable to disproportionate share hospital payment adjustments for such year that is reflected in the budget neutrality provision of the QUEST Demonstration Project.

(7) Medicaid dsh allotments reductions.—

(A) Reductions.—

(i) In general.—For each of fiscal years 2014 through 2020 the Secretary shall effect the following reductions:

(I) Reduction in dsh allotments.—The Secretary shall reduce DSH allotments to States in the amount specified under the DSH health reform methodology under subparagraph (B) for the State for the fiscal year.

(II) Reduction in payments.—The Secretary shall reduce payments to States under section 1903(a) for each calendar quarter in the fiscal year, in the manner specified in clause (iii), in an amount equal to 1/4of the DSH allotment reduction under subclause (I) for the State for the fiscal year.

(ii) Aggregate reductions.—The aggregate reductions in DSH allotments for all States under clause (i)(I) shall be equal to—

(I) $500,000,000 for fiscal year 2014;

(II) $600,000,000 for fiscal year 2015;

(III) $600,000,000 for fiscal year 2016;

(IV) $1,800,000,000 for fiscal year 2017;

(V) $5,000,000,000 for fiscal year 2018;

(VI) $5,600,000,000 for fiscal year 2019; and

(VII) $4,000,000,000 for fiscal year 2020.

The Secretary shall distribute such aggregate reductions among States in accordance with subparagraph (B).

(iii) Manner of payment reduction.—The amount of the payment reduction under clause (i)(II) for a State for a quarter shall be deemed an overpayment to the State under this title to be disallowed against the State’s regular quarterly draw for all spending under section 1903(d)(2). Such a disallowance is not subject to a reconsideration under subsections (d) and (e) of section 1116.

(iv) Definition.—In this paragraph, the term “State” means the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

(B) DSH health reform methodology.—The Secretary shall carry out subparagraph (A) through use of a DSH Health Reform methodology that meets the following requirements:

(i) The methodology imposes the largest percentage reductions on the States that—

(I) have the lowest percentages of uninsured individuals (determined on the basis of data from the Bureau of the Census, audited hospital cost reports, and other information likely to yield accurate data) during the most recent year for which such data are available; or

(II) do not target their DSH payments on—

(aa) hospitals with high volumes of Medicaid inpatients (as defined in subsection (b)(1)(A)); and

(bb) hospitals that have high levels of uncompensated care (excluding bad debt).

(ii) The methodology imposes a smaller percentage reduction on low DSH States described in paragraph (5)(B).

(iii) The methodology takes into account the extent to which the DSH allotment for a State was included in the budget neutrality calculation for a coverage expansion approved under section 1115 as of July 31, 2009

(8)[176] Special rules for calculating dsh allotments for certain fiscal years.—

(A) Fiscal year 2021.—Only with respect to fiscal year 2021, the DSH allotment for a State, in lieu of the amount determined under paragraph (3) for the State for that year, shall be equal to the DSH allotment for the State as reduced under paragraph (7) for fiscal year 2020, increased, subject to subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (3), and paragraph (5), by the percentage change in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (all items; U.S. city average), for fiscal year 2020.

Only with respect to fiscal year 2022, the DSH allotment for a State, in lieu of the amount determined under paragraph (3) for the State for that year, shall be equal to the DSH allotment for the State for fiscal year 2021, as determined under subparagraph (A), increased, subject to subparagraphs (B) and (C) of paragraph (3), and paragraph (5), by the percentage change in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (all items; U.S. city average), for fiscal year 2021.

(C) Subsequent fiscal years.— The DSH allotment for a State for fiscal years after fiscal year 2022 shall be calculated under paragraph (3) without regard to this paragraph and paragraph (7).

(9)[177] Definition of state.—In this subsection, the term “State” means the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

(g) Limit on Amount of Payment to Hospital.—

(1) Amount of adjustment subject to uncompensated costs.—

(A) In general.—A payment adjustment during a fiscal year shall not be considered to be consistent with subsection (c) with respect to a hospital if the payment adjustment exceeds the costs incurred during the year of furnishing hospital services (as determined by the Secretary and net of payments under this title, other than under this section, and by uninsured patients) by the hospital to individuals who either are eligible for medical assistance under the State plan or have no health insurance (or other source of third party coverage) for services provided during the year. For purposes of the preceding sentence, payments made to a hospital for services provided to indigent patients made by a State or a unit of local government within a State shall not be considered to be a source of third party payment.

(B) Limit to public hospitals during transition period.—With respect to payment adjustments during a State fiscal year that begins before January 1, 1995, subparagraph (A) shall apply only to hospitals owned or operated by a State (or by an instrumentality or a unit of government within a State).

(C) Modifications for private hospitals.—With respect to hospitals that are not owned or operated by a State (or by an instrumentality or a unit of government within a State), the Secretary may make such modifications to the manner in which the limitation on payment adjustments is applied to such hospitals as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(2) Additional amount during transition period for certain hospitals with high disproportionate share.—

(A) In general.—In the case of a hospital with high disproportionate share (as defined in subparagraph (B)), a payment adjustment during a State fiscal year that begins before January 1, 1995, shall be considered consistent with subsection (c) if the payment adjustment does not exceed 200 percent of the costs of furnishing hospital services described in paragraph (1)(A) during the year, but only if the Governor of the State certifies to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the hospital’s applicable minimum amount is used for health services during the year. In determining the amount that is used for such services during a year, there shall be excluded any amounts received under the Public Health Service Act[178], title V, title XVIII, or from third party payors (not including the State plan under this title) that are used for providing such services during the year.

(B) Hospitals with high disproportionate share defined.—In subparagraph (A), a hospital is a “hospital with high disproportionate share” if—

(i) the hospital is owned or operated by a State (or by an instrumentality or a unit of government within a State); and

(ii) the hospital—

(I) meets the requirement described in subsection (b)(1)(A), or

(II) has the largest number of inpatient days attributable to individuals entitled to benefits under the State plan of any hospital in such State for the previous State fiscal year.

(C) Applicable minimum amount defined.—In subparagraph (A), the “applicable minimum amount” for a hospital for a fiscal year is equal to the difference between the amount of the hospital’s payment adjustment for the fiscal year and the costs to the hospital of furnishing hospital services described in paragraph (1)(A) during the fiscal year.

(h) Limitation on Certain State DSH Expenditures.—

(1) In general.—Payment under section 1903(a) shall not be made to a State with respect to any payment adjustments made under this section for quarters in a fiscal year (beginning with fiscal year 1998) to institutions for mental diseases or other mental health facilities, to the extent the aggregate of such adjustments in the fiscal year exceeds the lesser of the following:

(A) 1995 imd dsh payment adjustments.—The total State DSH expenditures that are attributable to fiscal year 1995 for payments to institutions for mental diseases and other mental health facilities (based on reporting data specified by the State on HCFA Form 64 as mental health DSH, and as approved by the Secretary).

(B) Applicable percentage of 1995 total dsh payment allotment.—The amount of such payment adjustments which are equal to the applicable percentage of the Federal share of payment adjustments made to hospitals in the State under subsection (c) that are attributable to the 1995 DSH allotment for the State for payments to institutions for mental diseases and other mental health facilities (based on reporting data specified by the State on HCFA Form 64 as mental health DSH, and as approved by the Secretary).

(2) Applicable percentage.—

(A) In general.—For purposes of paragraph (1), the applicable percentage with respect to—

(i) each of fiscal years 1998, 1999, and 2000, is the percentage determined under subparagraph (B); or

(ii) a succeeding fiscal year is the lesser of the percentage determined under subparagraph (B) or the following percentage:

(I) For fiscal year 2001, 50 percent.

(II) For fiscal year 2002, 40 percent.

(III) For each succeeding fiscal year, 33 percent.

(B) 1995 percentage.—The percentage determined under this subparagraph is the ratio (determined as a percentage) of—

(i) the Federal share of payment adjustments made to hospitals in the State under subsection (c) that are attributable to the 1995 DSH allotment for the State (as reported by the State not later than January 1, 1997, on HCFA Form 64, and as approved by the Secretary) for payments to institutions for mental diseases and other mental health facilities, to

(ii) the State 1995 DSH spending amount.

(C) State 1995 dsh spending amount.—For purposes of subparagraph (B)(ii), the “State 1995 DSH spending a mount”, with respect to a State, is the Federal medical assistance percentage (for fiscal year 1995) of the payment adjustments made under subsection (c) under the State plan that are attributable to the fiscal year 1995 DSH allotment for the State (as reported by the State not later than January 1, 1997, on HCFA Form 64, and as approved by the Secretary).

(i) Requirement for Direct Payment.—

(1) In general.—No payment may be made under section 1903(a)(1) with respect to a payment adjustment made under this section, for services furnished by a hospital on or after October 1, 1997, with respect to individuals eligible for medical assistance under the State plan who are enrolled with a managed care entity (as defined in section 1932(a)(1)(B)) or under any other managed care arrangement unless a payment, equal to the amount of the payment adjustment—

(A) is made directly to the hospital by the State; and

(B) is not used to determine the amount of a prepaid capitation payment under the State plan to the entity or arrangement with respect to such individuals.

(2) Exception for current arrangements.—Paragraph (1) shall not apply to a payment adjustment provided pursuant to a payment arrangement in effect on July 1, 1997.

(j) Annual Reports and Other Requirements Regarding Payment Adjustments.—With respect to fiscal year 2004 and each fiscal year thereafter, the Secretary shall require a State, as a condition of receiving a payment under section 1903(a)(1) with respect to a payment adjustment made under this section, to do the following:

(1) Report.—The State shall submit an annual report that includes the following

(A) An identification of each disproportionate share hospital that received a payment adjustment under this section for the preceding fiscal year and the amount of the payment adjustment made to such hospital for the preceding fiscal year.

(B) Such other information as the Secretary determines necessary to ensure the appropriateness of the payment adjustments made under this section for the preceding fiscal year.

(2) Independent certified audit.—The State shall annually submit to the Secretary an independent certified audit that verifies each of the following:

(A) The extent to which hospitals in the State have reduced their uncompensated care costs to reflect the total amount of claimed expenditures made under this section.

(B) Payments under this section to hospitals that comply with the requirements of subsection (g).

(C) Only the uncompensated care costs of providing inpatient hospital and outpatient hospital services to individuals described in paragraph (1)(A) of such subsection are included in the calculation of the hospital-specific limits under such subsection.

(D) The State included all payments under this title, including supplemental payments, in the calculation of such hospital-specific limits.

(E) The State has separately documented and retained a record of all of its costs under this title, claimed expenditures under this title, uninsured costs in determining payment adjustments under this section, and any payments made on behalf of the uninsured from payment adjustments under this section.


[173]  See Vol. II, P.L. 106-554, §1(a)(6)[701(d)], with respect to assistance for certain public hospitals.

[174]  December 22, 1987, (“this Act” refers to P.L. 100-203).

[175]  P.L. 112-96, §3203(2), struck out “paragraphs (6) and (7)” and inserted “paragraphs (6), (7), and (8)”, effective February 22, 2013.

[176]  P.L. 112-96, §3203(3), added a new paragraph (8), effective February 22, 2012.

P.L. 112-240, §641, amended paragraph (8) in its entirety, effective January 2, 2013. For paragraph (8) as it formerly read, see Vol. II, Appendix J, Superseded Provisions, P.L. 112-240.

[177]  P.L. 112-96, §3203(1), redesignated this former paragraph (8) as paragraph (9).

[178]  P.L. 78-410; 58 Stat. 682.