Research and Program Descriptions About Sweden

International Update, November 2011
(released November 2011)
Caregiver Credits in France, Germany, and Sweden: Lessons for the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 4 (released November 2011)

Analysts have long considered caregiver credits, or pension credits, provided to individuals for time spent out of the workforce caring for dependent children and sick or elderly relatives, as a way to improve the adequacy of retirement benefits for women in the United States. This article examines the experiences of France, Germany, and Sweden with caregiver credits, focusing particularly on the design, administration, and cost of these programs.

International Update, January 2010
(released January 2010)
International Update, November 2008
(released November 2008)
International Update, December 2005
(released December 2005)
Individual Accounts in Other Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 1 (released September 2005)

To date, more than 30 countries have established some form of individual accounts in their retirement systems. This article identifies those countries, categorizes how the individual accounts fit into their retirement income systems, and identifies some basic characteristics of the accounts. Because this analysis of individual accounts is intended to inform the current United States debate involving Social Security, the discussion is limited to countries in which such accounts are part or all of a mandatory retirement income program.

Design and Implementation Issues in Swedish Individual Pension Accounts
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 4 (released May 2005)

Sweden's new multipillar pension system includes a system of mandatory fully funded individual accounts. The Swedish system offers contributors more than 600 fund options from a variety of private-sector fund managers. However, in the most recent rounds of fund choice, more than 90 percent of new labor market entrants have not made an active choice of funds and thus have ended up in a government-sponsored default fund.

The Swedish system offers a number of lessons about implementing a mandatory individual account tier. Centralized administration keeps administrative costs down but requires considerable lead time. A very large number of fund options are likely to be offered unless strong entry barriers are in place. Engaging new labor market entrants in fund choice is likely to be difficult. A significant percentage of those making an active fund choice may choose funds that are very specialized and risky. Finally, special care must be devoted to designing a default fund and continual consumer communication.

International Update, September 2004
(released September 2004)
Improving Return-to-Work Strategies in the United States Disability Programs, with Analysis of Program Practices in Germany and Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 3 (released January 2000)

This article examines suggestions by the General Accounting Office (GAO) to improve the rate of rehabilitation of workers on the disability rolls. It examines GAO's suggestions within the context of research by experts on return-to-work practices in Germany, Sweden, and the United States. It also discusses lessons learned from the European experiences and current and past return-to-work initiatives used in the Social Security Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income programs.

Poverty Among Single Elderly Women Under Different Systems of Old-Age Security: A Comparative Review
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 59 No. 3 (released July 1996)

This study takes stock of available comparative research on the economic status of elderly single women in six industrialized countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. A systematic comparison of income has become easier due to such standardized data bases as the Luxembourg Income Study.

But an explanation for different poverty rates among older women who are on their own requires a further, differentiated assessment of the countries' retirement benefit structures. This article attempts such a review. It makes use of a variety of single-country sources and takes into account the institutional heterogeneity of old-age security systems. The study concludes with a view of the effectiveness of different old-age security systems in preventing poverty among older single women.

Social Insurance Provisions for Children With Disabilities in Selected Industrialized Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 3 (released July 1995)

In the United States, low-income families who have a child or children with a disability may be eligible for cash benefits payable under the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. In the last few years, the number of these children on the SSI rolls has increased dramatically due, in large part, to new standards developed in response to a 1990 Supreme Court decision and the subsequent retroactive activity as a result of that decision. The rise in the number of child beneficiaries has led to increased concerns as to whether cash benefits are the best way to help these children and their families deal with the additional needs and expenses caused by disabilities. This article begins with a summary of recent American developments regarding the childhood disability issue as background to an exploration of comparative practices.

In light of the current interest in the United States concerning children with disabilities, it seems timely to explore the approaches used by other countries' social insurance programs. This study details the practices and provisions of 14 European countries and 4 other developed countries (Australia, Israel, Japan, and New Zealand). In addition to examining the variables involved in making cash benefits available and awarding them to families on behalf of disabled children, the article also provides information of in-kind benefits to which such families would be entitled and gives some insight as to the philosophy and policy goals of selected foreign programs.

Recent European Trends in Disability and Related Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 2 (released April 1994)

Forging Linkages—Modifying Disability Benefit Programs to Encourage Employment
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 10 (released October 1990)

Investment of Social Security Reserves in Three Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 2 (released February 1990)

National Expenditures on Social Security and Health in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 1 (released January 1990)

Worldwide Trends and Developments in Social Security, 1985–87
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 2 (released February 1989)

Administrative Costs for Social Security Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 11 (released November 1988)

International Social Security Agreements: The U.S. Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 9 (released September 1988)

Health Care Expenditures: International Comparisons, 1970–80
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 10 (released October 1987)

Long-Term Disability Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 9 (released September 1987)

Worldwide Trends and Developments in Social Security, 1983–85
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 9 (released September 1986)

Administrative Costs for Social Security Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 8 (released August 1986)

Slowing Down Pension Indexing: The Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 6 (released June 1983)

Social Security Trends and Developments in Industrialized Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 3 (released March 1983)

The Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits in 12 Countries, 1969–80
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 11 (released November 1982)

Retirement Options Under the Swedish National Pension System
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 11 (released November 1982)

Worldwide Trends in Social Security, 1979
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 8 (released August 1980)

Health Care Expenditures in Nine Industrialized Countries, 1960–76
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 1 (released January 1980)

Social Security: A Worldwide Issue
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 8 (released August 1979)

Mandating Private Pensions: Experience in Four European Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 3 (released March 1979)

Flexible Retirement Features Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 5 (released May 1978)

Worldwide Developments in Social Security, 1975–77
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 5 (released May 1978)

Earnings-Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits, 1965–75, Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 1 (released January 1978)

Alimony and Public Income Support: Fifteen Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 1 (released January 1977)

Maintaining Value of Social Security Benefits During Inflation: Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 11 (released November 1976)

Housewives and Pensions Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 9 (released September 1976)

Administrative Costs for Social Security Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 6 (released June 1976)

Social Security Funding Practices in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 5 (released May 1976)

World Developments and Trends in Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 4 (released April 1976)

New Retirement Options in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 3 (released March 1976)

Payroll Taxes Under Social Security Programs: Cross-National Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 12 (released December 1975)

Health Insurance for the Unemployed Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 9 (released September 1975)

Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Pensions for Workers Retiring at End of 1972
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 12 (released December 1974)

Swedish Unemployment Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 3 (released March 1974)

Dental Insurance in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 12 (released December 1973)

Sweden: Cash Maternity Benefits for Fathers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 11 (released November 1973)

The European Experience in Social Health Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 7 (released July 1973)

Medical Care Expenditures in Seven Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 3 (released March 1973)

Children's Allowances: Their Size and Structure in Five Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 5 (released May 1972)

New Benefits for Blue-Collar Workers in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 1 (released January 1972)

Social Security Provisions for Young Adults in Industrialized Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 11 (released November 1971)

Retirement Benefits for Very Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 4 (released April 1971)

Role of the Contribution Ceiling in Social Security Programs: Comparison of Five Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 2 (released February 1971)

International Health Expenditures
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 12 (released December 1970)

Changes in the Sickness Insurance Program in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 8 (released August 1970)

Worldwide Developments in Social Security, 1967–69
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 8 (released August 1970)

Mental Retardation in Four Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 5 (released May 1970)

Adjustment of Old-Age Pensions in Foreign Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 5 (released May 1970)

The Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits: An International Comparison
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 3 (released March 1970)

Income-Tax Treatment of Old-Age Pensions and Contributions Here and Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 8 (released August 1966)

Relation of Social Security Expenditures to Gross National Product in 45 Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 6 (released June 1965)

Social Security Programs of Foreign Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 9 (released September 1964)

Medical Benefits for Old-Age Pensioners Under Foreign Social Security Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 1 (released January 1963)

A Quarter Century of Social Security Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 8 (released August 1960)

Automatic Cost-of-Living Adjustment of Pensions in Foreign Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 3 (released March 1960)

Medical Benefits For Pensioners Under Foreign Social Security Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 1 (released January 1960)

New Graduated Pension System in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 11 (released November 1959)

European Multilateral Social Security Treaties
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 2 (released February 1959)

Foreign Social Security Programs in 1958
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 11 (released November 1958)

Provisions for the Protection of Children in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 9 (released September 1958)

Provisions for the Protection of Children in Belgium and Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 6 (released June 1958)

World Trends in Social Security Benefits, 1955 to 1957
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 8 (released August 1957)

World Trends in Social Security Benefits, 1935–55
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 5 (released May 1956)

Private Pension Plans in Six Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 8 (released August 1953)

World Developments in Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 3 (released March 1950)

Coverage of the Self-Employed Under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance: Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 8 (released August 1949)

Social Welfare in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 4 (released April 1949)

Social Democracy in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 2 (released February 1940)

Old-Age Insurance for Agricultural Workers in Western Europe
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 6 (released June 1938)