Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Asia and the Pacific, 2006

 

Uzbekistan

Exchange rate: US$1.00 equals 1,232 soms.

Old Age, Disability, and Survivors

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1956.

Current law: 1993 (state pension), with 1995, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002, and 2005 amendments.

Type of program: Social insurance and social assistance system.

Local authorities and employers may provide supplementary benefits out of their own budgets.

Coverage

Social insurance: All employed persons residing in Uzbekistan.

Social pension: Needy elderly and disabled pensioners and certain other categories of resident, including victims of the Chernobyl catastrophe.

Source of Funds

Insured person: 2.5% of wages.

The insured's contributions also finance cash sickness and maternity benefits, work injury benefits, and family allowances.

Self-employed person: A monthly contribution at least equal to the value of the national minimum wage; self-employed persons who are of retirement age and disabled self-employed persons contribute at least 50% of this amount.

The self-employed person's contributions also finance family allowances.

Employer: 31% of total payroll; plus 0.5% of the value of gross sales (goods and services) or gross revenue.

The employer's contributions also finance cash sickness and maternity benefits, work injury benefits, and family allowances.

Government: Subsidies as needed and the total cost of social pensions.

Government subsidies also finance cash sickness and maternity benefits, work injury benefits, and family allowances.

Qualifying Conditions

Old-age pension: Age 60 (men) or age 55 (women), with a complete service period. The complete service period is 25 years of covered employment (men) or 20 years of work (women). Retirement from employment is necessary.

The qualifying conditions are reduced for those working in hazardous or arduous employment or in ecologically damaged areas, for unemployed older workers, for teachers with at least 25 years of service, and for other categories of worker.

Pensions are not payable abroad; a lump sum equal to 6 months of benefits is paid to pensioners before they leave the country permanently.

Social pension (old-age): Paid to needy old-age pensioners.

Disability pension: Paid according to three categories of disability: totally disabled, incapable of any work, and requiring constant attendance (Group I); totally disabled, incapable of any work, and not requiring constant attendance (Group II); and partially disabled and incapable of usual work (Group III).

The insured must have a minimum of between 1 and 15 years of covered employment, depending on age at the onset of disability.

An expert medical commission assesses the degree of disability.

Pensions are not payable abroad; a lump sum equal to 6 months of benefits is paid to pensioners before they leave the country permanently.

Social pension (disability): Paid to needy disability pensioners.

Survivor pension: The deceased must have had between 1 and 15 years of work, depending on age at the time of death. The pension is paid to surviving children regardless of whether they were dependent on the deceased and to nonworking dependents (including the spouse; either parent, if disabled and not of pensionable age; and grandparents, if no other support is available).

Pensions are not payable abroad; a lump sum equal to 6 months of benefits is paid to pensioners before they leave the country permanently.

Social pension (survivors): Paid to needy orphans.

Old-Age Benefits

Old-age pension: The pension is paid according to two income categories.

First tier (high-waged): With a complete service period, insured persons receive 55% of average monthly earnings, but not less than 100% of the national minimum wage.

Average earnings are based on the average wage over any consecutive 5-year period.

The minimum pension for high-waged insured persons varies between 50% of the national minimum wage (for an incomplete service period) and 100% of the national minimum wage (for a complete service period).

The maximum pension for high-waged insured persons with a complete service period is 5.25 times the minimum wage.

The national minimum wage is 12,420 soms.

Second tier: Insured persons receive 1% of average earnings a month for every year of service.

Social pension (old-age): Special pensions are awarded to certain categories of older person, including war veterans and former military personnel.

Benefit adjustment: Periodic benefit adjustments according to changes in the cost of living.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Disability pension: The pension depends on the severity of the assessed disability: totally disabled, incapable of any work, and requiring constant attendance (Group I); totally disabled, incapable of any work, and not requiring constant attendance (Group II); and partially disabled and incapable of usual work (Group III).

For a Group I disability, the pension is equal to 55% of average earnings over any consecutive 5-year period; 100% of the high-waged old-age pension with 25 years of covered employment (men) or 20 years of covered employment (women), plus a constant-attendance supplement.

For a Group II disability, the pension is equal to 55% of average earnings; 100% of the high-waged old-age pension with 25 years of covered employment (men) or 20 years of covered employment (women).

For a Group III disability, the pension is equal to 30% of earnings.

The minimum pension for a Group I or II disability is 100% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension; for a Group III disability, 50% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension.

Partial pension: If the insured does not have the required number of years of covered employment, a percentage of the full pension is paid according to the number of years below the required number of years of covered employment.

Social pension (disability): A social pension is paid for a Group I disability if the disability began in childhood and for disabled children younger than age 16. The monthly pension is equal to 100% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension. The monthly pension for a Group II disability for adults is equal to 50% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension; for a Group III disability, 30% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension.

Benefit adjustment: Periodic benefit adjustments according to changes in the cost of living.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: If the deceased had a complete service period, the monthly pension for each dependent survivor is equal to 30% of the deceased's average earnings over any consecutive 5-year period, but not less than 50% of the national minimum wage.

The minimum pension is equal to 30% of the average monthly wage, but not less than the national minimum wage for the death of both parents or for the death of a single mother.

The national minimum wage is 12,420 soms.

Social pension (survivors): A social pension is paid to orphans younger than age 16 (no limit if disabled since childhood). The monthly pension is equal to 50% of the national minimum wage for a half orphan whose parent is receiving government support; orphans without a parent receiving government support, 100% of the national minimum wage.

The national minimum wage is 12,420 soms.

Benefit adjustment: Periodic benefit adjustments according to changes in the cost of living.

Administrative Organization

Ministry of Labor and Social Protection provides general supervision and coordination.

Regional Departments of Social Protection administer the program.

Sickness and Maternity

Regulatory Framework

First and current laws: 1955 (temporary disability), with 1984, 1990, and 1992 amendments; and 1996 (universal medical benefits).

Type of program: Social insurance (sickness and maternity benefits) and universal (medical benefits) system.

Coverage

Cash sickness and maternity benefits: Persons in covered employment; persons on leave from employment while pursuing secondary, technical, or advanced education; and registered unemployed persons.

Medical benefits: All persons residing in Uzbekistan.

Source of Funds

Insured person

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Medical benefits: None.

Self-employed person

Cash benefits: Not applicable.

Medical benefits: None.

Employer

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Medical benefits: None.

Government

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Medical benefits: The total cost.

Qualifying Conditions

Cash sickness benefits: Sickness benefits are paid according to the length of the coverage period.

Cash maternity benefits: There is no minimum qualifying period.

Medical benefits: There is no minimum qualifying period.

Sickness and Maternity Benefits

Sickness benefit: With less than 5 years of uninterrupted employment, the benefit is equal to 60% of the last month's wage; 80% with between 5 and 8 years; 100% with more than 8 years (or if the insured has three or more children).

Maternity benefit: The benefit is equal to 100% of wages and is paid monthly for 70 days before and 56 days after childbirth (may be extended to 70 days after childbirth in the event of complications or multiple births). Mothers caring for children younger than age 2 may receive monthly paid leave equal to 20% of the national minimum wage. Working mothers are entitled to unpaid leave for a child between ages 2 and 3.

The national minimum wage is 12,420 soms.

Workers' Medical Benefits

Medical services are provided directly by government health providers. Benefits include general and specialist care, hospitalization, prostheses, medication, and other medical care services.

Dependents' Medical Benefits

Medical services are provided directly by government health providers. Benefits include general and specialist care, hospitalization, prostheses, medication, and other medical care services.

Administrative Organization

Cash sickness and maternity benefits: Ministry of Labor and Social Protection provides general supervision and coordination. Cash benefits are provided directly by the enterprises and by local Departments of Social Protection.

Medical benefits: Ministry of Health and its regional health departments provide general supervision and coordination. Ministry of Health and its local health departments administer the provision of medical services through government clinics, hospitals, maternity homes, and other facilities.

Work Injury

Regulatory Framework

First and current laws: 1955 (temporary disability) and 1993 (state pension).

Type of program: Social insurance (cash benefits) and universal (medical benefits) system.

Local authorities and employers may provide supplementary pension benefits out of their own budgets.

Coverage

Employed persons.

Source of Funds

Insured person: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Self-employed person: Not applicable.

Employer: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Government: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above; and the cost of medical benefits.

Qualifying Conditions

Work injury benefits: There is no minimum qualifying period.

Temporary Disability Benefits

The benefit is equal to 100% of earnings, but not less than the national minimum wage, and is paid from the first day of incapacity until recovery or the award of a permanent disability pension.

The national minimum wage is 12,420 soms.

An expert medical commission assesses the degree of disability.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Permanent disability pension: The pension depends on the severity of the assessed disability: totally disabled, incapable of any work, and requiring constant attendance (Group I); totally disabled, incapable of any work, and not requiring constant attendance (Group II); and partially disabled and incapable of usual work (Group III). For a Group I disability, the pension is equal to 55% of average earnings over any consecutive 5-year period; 100% of the high-waged old-age pension with 25 years of covered employment (men) or 20 years (women) of covered employment, plus a constant-attendance supplement.

For a Group II disability, the pension is equal to 55% of average earnings; 100% of the high-waged old-age pension with 25 years of covered employment (men) or 20 years of covered employment (women).

For a Group III disability, the pension is equal to 30% of earnings.

The minimum pension for a Group I or II disability is equal to 100% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension; for a Group III disability, 50% of the minimum high-waged old-age pension.

An expert medical commission assesses the degree of disability.

Pensions are payable abroad for a work injury or an occupational disease.

Workers' Medical Benefits

Medical services are provided directly to patients by governmental health providers. Benefits include general and specialist care, hospitalization, laboratory services, transportation, and the full cost of appliances and medicines.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: The monthly pension is equal to 30% of the deceased's earnings over any consecutive 5-year period for each dependent survivor.

The minimum pension is equal to 100% of the national minimum wage; 200% for a full orphan or the death of a single mother.

The national minimum wage is 12,420 soms.

Administrative Organization

Temporary disability benefits: Enterprises and employers pay benefits to their own employees.

Pensions: Ministry of Labor and Social Protection provides general supervision and coordination. Regional Departments of Social Protection administer the program.

Medical benefits: Ministry of Health and its regional health departments provide general supervision and coordination. Ministry of Health and its local health departments administer the provision of medical services through clinics, hospitals, and other facilities.

Unemployment

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1992 (employment), with amendments.

Current law: 1998 (employment), with 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2006 amendments.

Type of program: Social insurance system.

Coverage

Citizens from age 16 to the pensionable age.

Source of Funds

Employee: None.

Self-employed person: Not applicable.

Employer: 3% of payroll.

Government: Subsidies as needed from central and local governments.

Qualifying Conditions

Unemployment benefit: Must have worked for at least 12 weeks in the last 12 months; persons of working age who register as a job seeker for the first time.

Long-term unemployed: Reentrants to the workforce who have less than 12 weeks of employment in the last 12 months but have at least 1 year of total employment.

Registered at an employment office, able and willing to work, and receiving no income from employment. The benefit may be reduced, suspended, or terminated if the insured is discharged for violating work discipline, leaving employment without good cause, violating the conditions for a job placement or vocational training, or filing fraudulent claims.

Unemployment Benefits

The monthly benefit is equal to 50% of average earnings in the last 26 weeks.

The minimum benefit is equal to 100% of the national minimum wage.

The maximum benefit is based on average earnings that do not exceed the national average wage.

Long-term unemployed: Reentrants to the workforce with skills receive 100% of the national minimum wage for the first 13 weeks and 75% of the national minimum wage for the following 13 weeks; reentrants to the workforce without skills receive 75% of the national minimum wage (50% if without dependents) for 13 weeks.

First-time job seeker: 75% of the national minimum wage (50% if no dependents) is paid for 13 weeks.

Dependent's supplement: 10% of the unemployment benefit is paid monthly for each dependent younger than age 16.

The national minimum wage is 12,420 soms.

Early retirement pension: The old-age pension is paid to unemployed persons within 2 years of reaching pensionable age. (See old-age benefits under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.)

Administrative Organization

Employment Service and local counterparts, together with the National Federation of Trade Unions, administer the program.

Family Allowances

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1944.

Current laws: 1994 (family assistance), 1999, and 2002 (family allowances).

Type of program: Social insurance and social assistance system.

Coverage

Social insurance: Insured employed and self-employed persons.

Social assistance: All persons residing in Uzbekistan.

Source of Funds

Insured person: For social insurance benefits, see source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above. For social assistance benefits, none.

Self-employed person: For social insurance benefits, see source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above. For social assistance benefits, none.

Employer: For social insurance benefits, see source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above. For social assistance benefits, none.

Government: For social insurance benefits, see source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above. The total cost of social assistance benefits from republic, regional, city, and district budgets as well as from various extra-budgetary sources.

Qualifying Conditions

Young child allowance (social insurance): Paid for children younger than age 2. The allowance is income-tested, except for single-parent families and families with at least one disabled child.

Family assistance (social assistance): Paid for needy families or single persons on the recommendation of local neighborhood (mahalla) committees.

Family allowance (social assistance): Children must be younger than age 16 (age 18 if a student).

Family Allowance Benefits

Young child allowance (social insurance): A fixed monthly amount is paid equal to 200% of the national minimum wage, regardless of the number of children. The national minimum wage is 12,420 soms.

Family assistance (social assistance): The monthly amount is awarded according to the number of family members and the assessed need. The allowances are normally paid monthly for a period of 3 months; may be extended in certain cases. The monthly financial assistance is between 1.5 and 3 months of the national minimum wage. The national minimum wage is 12,420 soms.

Family allowance (social assistance): For families with one child, the monthly allowance is equal to 50% of the national minimum wage; for families with two children, 100%; for families with three children, 140%; for families with four or more children, 175%. Family allowances may be paid for up to 6 months; may be extended if family income has not changed. The national minimum wage is 12,420 soms.

Administrative Organization

Social insurance: Ministry of Labor and Social Protection provides general supervision and coordination.

Social assistance: Citizens' Commissions, on the recommendation of local neighborhood (mahalla) committees, administer the program locally, assess eligibility for entitlement, and determine the award of benefits.