Social Security Programs Throughout the World: The Americas, 2009

 

Cuba

Exchange rate: US$1.00 equals 0.93 peso.

Old Age, Disability, and Survivors

Regulatory Framework

First laws: 1963 and 1964.

Current law: 2008 (social security), implemented in 2009.

Type of program: Social insurance and social assistance system.

Coverage

All salaried workers.

Special systems for armed forces personnel, interior ministry staff, certain self-employed persons, certain artists, musicians, and members of agricultural cooperatives.

Source of Funds

Insured person: None.

Self-employed person: 10% of declared earnings; certain artists contribute 12% of declared earnings.

There are no minimum or maximum monthly earnings for contribution calculation purposes.

The above contributions also finance sickness and maternity benefits and work injury benefits.

Employer: 14% of gross payroll.

There are no minimum or maximum monthly earnings for contribution calculation purposes.

The above contributions also finance sickness and maternity benefits and work injury benefits.

Government: Finances the cost of burial services and any deficit and guarantees minimum pensions; contributes as an employer.

There are no minimum or maximum monthly earnings for contribution calculation purposes.

Qualifying Conditions

Old-age pension: Between 2009 and 2016, the retirement age and required number of years of employment are rising gradually, from age 60 (men) and 55 (women) with 25 years of work to 65 (men) and 60 (women) with 30 years of work. The qualifying conditions for arduous or dangerous work (if 75% of all employment or 50% of employment immediately before retirement was in dangerous or arduous work) are rising gradually, from age 55 (men) and 50 (women) with 15 years of work to age 60 (men) or age 55 (women) with 20 years of work.

Partial pension: Between 2009 and 2016, the retirement age and required number of years of employment for a partial pension are rising gradually from age 60 (men) and age 55 (women) with at least 15 years of work to age 65 (men) or age 60 (women) with at least 20 years of work.

Early pension: An early pension is possible.

Deferred pension: A deferred pension is possible.

Old-age pensioners may continue to work, but total income must not exceed former income and the employer may not be the same as the pensioner's last employer.

The pension is not payable abroad.

Old-age social assistance (means-tested): Cash or in-kind benefits are paid to any person of pensionable age, according to assessed needs.

Disability pension: The insured must be assessed with a partial, total, or severe disability. The full pension is paid if assessed with a physical or mental incapacity for work.

The Expert Medical Labor Commission assesses the degree of disability.

Constant-attendance allowance: Paid if the insured requires the constant attendance of others to perform daily functions.

Partial pension: The insured has a diminished physical or mental capacity but can continue to work under certain conditions.

The pension is not payable abroad.

Disability social assistance (means-tested): Cash or in-kind benefits are paid to any person assessed with a disability, according to assessed needs.

Survivor pension: The deceased received or was entitled to receive an old-age or disability pension at the time of death or was employed for at least 6 months before the time of death and for at least 75% of his or her adult life.

Eligible survivors are a widow (or partner) with at least one year of marriage or cohabitation with the deceased, or who had children with the deceased, or without restriction if the death was due to an accident; a needy widower or partner aged 65 or older or disabled; orphans younger than age 17 (no limit if disabled and dependent or for a full orphan in higher education); and needy, dependent parents.

A widow younger than age 40 who is unemployed but able to work and without dependents is eligible for up to 2 years of pension (or until she becomes employed).

The pension is not payable abroad.

Survivor social assistance (means-tested): Cash or in-kind benefits are paid to any survivor, according to assessed needs.

Old-Age Benefits

Old-age pension: The monthly pension is 60% of average earnings in the best 5 of the last 15 years plus 2% of earnings for each year of employment exceeding 30 years.

Partial pension: The monthly pension is 40% of average earnings in the best 5 of the last 15 years plus 2% of earnings for each year of employment exceeding 20 years.

Early pension: The monthly pension is 50% of average earnings for the first 25 years of work plus 1% of earnings for each year of work exceeding 25 years (1.5% for those in dangerous or arduous work).

Deferred pension: The pension is increased by 1.5% to 3% for each year of deferral from ages 65 to 70 (men) or ages 60 to 65 (women).

The minimum monthly pension is 200 pesos (2008).

The maximum pension is 90% of the insured's average earnings, if average earnings were greater than 300 pesos.

Old-age social assistance (means-tested): Benefits may be paid periodically or as a lump sum.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted according to government decree, based on social and economic factors.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Disability pension: For an assessed total disability, the monthly pension is 50% of average annual earnings in the best 5 of the last 15 years for up to 20 years of work plus 1% of earnings for each year of employment from 20 to 30 years of work plus 2% for each year of employment exceeding 30 years (1.5% for each year of dangerous or arduous work); 40% of average annual earnings with less than 15 years of work.

Constant-attendance allowance: 20% of the pension is paid.

The minimum monthly pension is 200 pesos (2008).

The maximum pension is 90% of the insured's average earnings, if average earnings were greater than 300 pesos.

Partial disability: An initial disability benefit of 60% of the salary in the year before the disability began is paid. The benefit is paid for up to one year while the insured person is waiting to modify his or her job, switch jobs, or reduce working hours, or until rehabilitated or assessed with a permanent disability.

Thereafter, the partial disability pension is 50% of the difference between the insured's salary before and after the disability began.

Disability social assistance (means-tested): Benefits may be paid periodically or as a lump sum.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted according to government decree, based on social and economic factors.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: The initial pension is 100% of earnings or the pension received for the first month; thereafter, 70%, 85%, or 100% of the old-age or disability pension the deceased received or would have been entitled to receive for one, two, or three or more dependent survivors, respectively. The pension is split equally among all eligible dependents.

Eligible survivors are a widow (or partner), a needy widower (or partner) aged 65 or older or disabled, orphans younger than age 17 (no age limit if disabled or a full-time student), and needy parents.

The minimum monthly pension is 200 pesos (2008).

The maximum pension for a working widow is 25% of the survivor pension.

Unemployed widows aged 40 or older receive the full pension. An unemployed widow younger than age 40 without dependents receives the full pension for up to 2 years or until employed.

Free burial services are provided by the government for all residents of Cuba.

Survivor social assistance (means-tested): Benefits may be paid periodically or as a lump sum.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted according to government decree, based on social and economic factors.

Administrative Organization

Ministry of Labor and Social Security administers the program through the National Institute of Social Security.

Municipal social security offices and work centers process applications.

Pensions are paid through the Popular Savings Bank.

Sickness and Maternity

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1934 (maternity benefits).

Current laws: 1979 (sickness); 2003 (maternity); and 2008 (social security), implemented in 2009.

Type of program: Social insurance (cash benefits) and universal (medical benefits) system.

Coverage

Cash sickness and maternity benefits: Employed persons, members of agricultural cooperatives, armed forces personnel, interior ministry staff, self-employed persons, and artists.

Medical benefits: All residents of Cuba.

Source of Funds

Insured person: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Self-employed person: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Employer: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Government: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above. The cost of medical benefits and services.

Qualifying Conditions

Cash sickness benefits: The insured must be currently employed or self-employed and must present a medical certificate to validate the sickness. There is a 3-day waiting period, except if the insured is hospitalized.

Cash maternity benefits: The insured must be currently employed with at least 75 days in the 12 months before maternity leave. Maternity leave must start no later than the 34th or 32nd (for a multiple birth) week of pregnancy.

Medical benefits: Resident of Cuba.

Sickness and Maternity Benefits

Sickness benefit: The benefit is 60% of average daily earnings in the year prior to the date of the accident or disease; if hospitalized, 50% of earnings. The benefit is paid after a 3-day waiting period (if hospitalized, no waiting period) until medical certification expires (new certification by a medical committee is required every 26 weeks) or a disability pension is paid.

The minimum is 50% of the legal monthly minimum wage.

The maximum benefit is 90% of earnings.

Tuberculosis benefit: The benefit is 100% of earnings until cured.

Maternity benefit: The benefit is 100% of earnings and is paid for 6 weeks before and 12 weeks after the expected date of childbirth.

The minimum maternity benefit is 20 pesos a week.

Maternity social benefit: Beginning 12 weeks after the birth, the benefit is 60% of earnings if the mother is unable to work as the result of having to care for the child. The benefit is paid until the child is aged 12 months or earlier if the mother returns to work.

Workers' Medical Benefits

Free medical services are provided by public medical centers. Benefits include medical, dental, and maternity care; prenatal and postnatal care; hospitalization; medicine during hospitalization; and rehabilitation. Benefits are provided until recovery.

Dependents' Medical Benefits

Free medical services are provided by public medical centers. Benefits include medical, dental, and maternity care; prenatal and postnatal care; hospitalization; medicine during hospitalization; and rehabilitation. Benefits are provided until recovery.

Administrative Organization

Ministry of Labor and Social Security administers the program through the National Institute of Social Security.

Work centers assume the costs and pay short-term cash benefits.

Ministry of Public Health supervises the administration of medical services provided by public medical and hospital centers.

Work Injury

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1916.

Current law: 2008 (social security), implemented in 2009.

Type of program: Social insurance (cash benefits) and universal (medical care) system.

Coverage

All salaried workers.

Special system for armed forces personnel, interior ministry staff, certain self-employed persons, certain artists, musicians, and members of agricultural cooperatives.

Source of Funds

Insured person: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Self-employed person: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Employer: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Government: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors, above.

Qualifying Conditions

Work injury benefits: There is no minimum qualifying period but the insured must be employed when the disability begins.

Temporary Disability Benefits

The benefit is 80% of the insured's average earnings in the year prior to the date of the accident or disease; if hospitalized, 70% of earnings. The benefit is paid from the first day of disability for up to one year, subject to new certification by a medical committee every 26 weeks, or until assessed with a permanent disability.

The minimum benefit is 50% of minimum wage.

The maximum benefit is 90% of the insured's earnings.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted according to government decree, based on social and economic factors.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Permanent disability pension: The pension is 60% of the insured's average earnings in the best 5 of the last 15 years plus 2% of earnings for each year of work exceeding 30 years; the amount is then increased by 10%.

Work injury or occupational disease supplement: 10% of the pension is paid.

Heroic act supplement: 20% of the pension is paid.

Constant-attendance allowance: If the insured requires the constant attendance of others to perform daily functions, 20% of the pension is paid.

The minimum monthly pension is 164 pesos.

The maximum pension is 90% of the insured's average earnings.

Partial disability: The pension is 50% of the difference between the insured's salary before and after the disability began.

Work injury or occupational disease supplement: 10% of the pension is paid.

During rehabilitation, the pension is 70% of the insured's former earnings.

If the insured is unemployed as a result of a work-related disability, a pension of 70% of former earnings in the first year is paid; thereafter, 35% of former earnings is paid.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted according to government decree, based on social and economic factors.

Workers' Medical Benefits

Free medical services are provided by public medical centers. Benefits include medical and dental care, hospitalization, medicine, appliances, and rehabilitation. Benefits are provided until recovery.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: If the deceased was employed at the time of death, the pension is 100% of earnings for the first month and 50% of earnings for the next 2 months. If the deceased was a pensioner, then the pension is 100% of the deceased's pension for 3 months; thereafter, 70%, 85%, or 100% of the deceased's pension for one, two, or three or more dependent survivors, respectively (80%, 90%, or 100% of the deceased's pension if the pension is less than 60 pesos a month). The pension is split equally among all eligible dependents.

Eligible survivors are a widow (or partner) with at least one year of marriage or cohabitation with the deceased, or who had children with the deceased, or without restriction if the death was due to an accident; a needy widower or partner aged 65 or older or disabled; orphans younger than age 17 (no limit if disabled and dependent or for a full orphan in higher education); and needy, dependent parents.

The minimum monthly pension is 200 pesos (2008).

The maximum pension for a working widow is 25% of the survivor pension.

Unemployed widows aged 40 or older receive the full pension. A nonworking widow younger than age 40 without dependents receives the full pension for a limited period of 2 years.

Free burial services are provided by the government for all residents of Cuba.

Survivor social assistance (means-tested): Benefits may be paid periodically or as a lump sum.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted according to government decree, based on social and economic factors.

Administrative Organization

Ministry of Labor and Social Security administers the program through the National Institute of Social Security.

Work centers assume the costs and pay short-term cash benefits.

Ministry of Public Health supervises the administration of medical services provided by public medical and hospital centers.

Family Allowances

Regulatory Framework

Dependents of young workers conscripted into military service are eligible for assistance from the Social Security Fund. Cash benefits and institutional care is available for families whose head of household is unemployed due to health, disability, or other justifiable causes, and has insufficient income for food and medicine for the family or for basic household needs.