Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Asia and the Pacific, 2010

 

Turkmenistan

Exchange rate: US$1.00 = 2.84 new manat.

Old Age, Disability, and Survivors

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1956.

Current laws: 2007 (social security).

Type of program: Social insurance and social assistance system.

Note: Local governments and employers may provide supplementary benefits from their own budgets.

Coverage

Social insurance: All employed and self-employed persons.

Social assistance: Persons not eligible for benefits under social insurance.

Source of Funds

Insured person: 1% of all earnings.

The insured's contributions also finance sickness and maternity benefits, work injury benefits, and family allowances.

Self-employed person: 1% of all earnings.

Employer: 20% of payroll. For certain employers, the contribution varies according to sector.

The employer's contributions also finance sickness, maternity, and work injury benefits.

Government: Subsidies as needed and the total cost of social allowances.

The government also subsidizes cash benefits for sickness, maternity, and work injury.

Qualifying Conditions

Old-age pension (social insurance): A full pension is paid at age 62 with at least 25 years of covered employment (men) or age 57 with at least 20 years of covered employment (women); the age and number of years of covered employment required for a full pension are reduced for mothers with three or more children and for children with disabilities. A minimum pension is paid for insured persons with at least 5 years of covered employment.

Age 52 (men) or age 48 (women) for military personnel; age 50 (men) or age 48 (women) for pilots and flight crew.

Social pension (old-age): Age 62 (men) or age 57 (women) and not eligible for the old-age pension (social insurance).

Disability pension: The pension is paid according to three groups of assessed disability: Group I (total disability, incapacity for any work, and requires constant care); Group II (disability, reduced working capacity, and occasionally requires care); Group III (disability and reduced working capacity).

Eligible persons include persons disabled while in military service, children younger than age 16 with disabilities, and persons with disabilities since childhood.

Constant-attendance allowance: Paid to persons with Group I and II vision disabilities.

Dependent's supplement: Paid to persons with Group I and II disabilities for nonworking dependents.

A territorial or state medical commission under the Ministry of Social Security assesses the degree of disability.

Social pension (disability): Paid to persons with disabilities who are not eligible for the disability pension (social insurance).

Survivor pension: Paid to surviving dependent family members regardless of whether the deceased was insured.

Old-Age Benefits

Old-age pension: The monthly pension is 2.5% for each year of covered employment of an amount based on gross monthly national average earnings in the last quarter before retirement, a personal pension coefficient, and the number of years of covered employment.

The personal pension coefficient is the ratio of assessed earnings to gross national average earnings. Assessed earnings are the insured's gross average earnings during the best 5 consecutive years of covered employment. Gross national average earnings are based on the years of covered employment used to calculate assessed earnings.

The minimum pension is 121 new manat a month (January 2010).

The maximum pension is 532 new manat a month (January 2010).

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the national average wage.

Social pension (old-age): 70% of the minimum old-age pension is paid a month.

The minimum pension is 84.70 new manat a month (January 2010).

Permanent Disability Benefits

Disability pension: 90% of the personal coefficient multiplied by the gross national average earnings is paid for a Group I disability; 80% for a Group II disability; 50% for a Group III disability.

The personal pension coefficient is the ratio of assessed earnings to gross national average earnings. Assessed earnings are the insured's gross average earnings during the best 5 consecutive years of covered employment. Gross national average earnings are based on the years of covered employment used to calculate assessed earnings.

The minimum pensions are 80% (Group I), 70% (Group II), or 60% (Group III) of a basic amount established by law.

The minimum pensions are 150% (Groups I and II) or 80% (Group III) of a basic amount established by law.

Persons eligible for more than one benefit (sickness, maternity, child care allowance, survivor, or social pension) must choose only one benefit.

Constant-attendance allowance (Groups I and II): 20% of a basic amount is paid a month.

Dependent's supplement (Groups I and II): 20% of a basic amount is paid a month for each eligible dependent.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the national average wage.

Social pension (disability): At least 80% of a basic amount is paid a month if the disability began after childhood (Groups I and II) or for children younger than age 16 with disabilities.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: 100% of the minimum pension is paid for one eligible survivor; if more than one eligible survivor, each receives 30% of the deceased's personal coefficient (40% for military personnel) multiplied by the gross national average earnings.

The personal pension coefficient is the ratio of assessed earnings to gross national average earnings. Assessed earnings are the insured's gross average earnings during the best 5 consecutive years of covered employment. Gross national average earnings are based on the years of covered employment used to calculate assessed earnings.

The minimum pension is 40% of the national minimum wage.

The maximum pension is 100% of the national minimum wage.

The public sector monthly minimum wage is 330 new manat (March 2010).

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the national average wage.

Administrative Organization

Ministry of Social Security (http://www.socialsecurity.gov.tm) provides general coordination and supervision.

Regional and local social security departments administer the program.

Sickness and Maternity

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1955.

Current laws: 1994 and 2007 (social security).

Type of program: Social insurance (cash benefits) and universal (medical care) system.

Coverage

Cash benefits: Employed and unemployed citizens.

Medical benefits: All persons residing in Turkmenistan.

Source of Funds

Insured person

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors.

Medical benefits: Voluntary supplementary contributions for medical benefits.

Self-employed person

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors.

Medical benefits: Voluntary supplementary contributions for medical benefits.

Employer

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors.

Medical benefits: None.

Government

Cash benefits: The total cost for nonworking citizens.

Medical benefits: The total cost.

Qualifying Conditions

Cash and medical benefits: There is no minimum qualifying period.

Sickness and Maternity Benefits

Sickness benefit: 60% of earnings is paid with less than 5 years of uninterrupted work; 80% with 5 to 8 years; 100% with more than 8 years (or with three or more children younger than age 16; age 18 if a student).

Insured persons may receive 5 days of paid leave to care for a sick family member; 7 days in certain cases or 14 days if caring for a child younger than age 14 (or for the duration if the sick child is hospitalized).

Fourteen days of unpaid leave is provided to women caring for children younger than age 3, a woman or a single parent raising two or more children younger than age 14, or a man whose wife is on maternity leave. Workers with disabilities are entitled to 30 days of unpaid leave.

Maternity benefit: 100% of earnings is paid for 56 days before and 56 days after the expected date of childbirth (72 days after for a difficult childbirth; 96 days after for multiple births).

Birth grant: A lump sum is paid for the first four children, regardless of whether parents are in covered work. 157.30 new manat is paid for each of the first two children; 302.50 new manat for the third child; and 605 new manat for the fourth child.

Child care allowance: 78 new manat a month is paid for children older than age 18 months.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the national average wage.

Workers' Medical Benefits

Public health suppliers provide medical services directly to patients. Benefits include general and specialized care, hospitalization, laboratory services, dental care, maternity care, vaccination, and transportation. Medicine is free if hospitalized.

Dependents' Medical Benefits

Public health suppliers provide medical services directly to patients. Benefits include general and specialized care, hospitalization, laboratory services, dental care, maternity care, vaccination, and transportation. Medicine is free if hospitalized.

Administrative Organization

Cash benefits: Ministry of Social Security and regional social security departments administer the program. Regional and local departments of social security administer maternity benefits for the unemployed and other nonworking citizens.

Enterprises and employers pay benefits to their own employees using funds from the Social Insurance Fund.

Medical benefits: Ministry of Health and Medical Industry and regional health departments are responsible for implementing state health care policy and developing health care programs. Ministry of Health and Medical Industry and regional health departments are responsible for providing medical services through clinics, hospitals, maternity homes, and other medical facilities, including private health suppliers.

Work Injury

Regulatory Framework

First law: 1955.

Current law: 1998 (state allowances).

Type of program: Social insurance (cash benefits) and universal (medical care) system.

Local authorities and employers can provide supplementary pension benefits out of their own budgets.

Coverage

All employed persons.

Exclusions: Self-employed persons (for medical benefits).

Source of Funds

Insured person

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors.

Medical benefits: None.

Self-employed person

Cash benefits: Not applicable.

Medical benefits: None.

Employer

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors.

Medical benefits: None.

Government

Cash benefits: See source of funds under Old Age, Disability, and Survivors.

Medical benefits: The total cost.

Qualifying Conditions

Work injury benefits: There is no minimum qualifying period.

Temporary Disability Benefits

The benefit is 100% of earnings and is paid from the first day of disability until recovery or the award of a permanent disability pension.

Work injuries must be assessed by the relevant authority.

Permanent Disability Benefits

Permanent disability pension: 90% of the personal coefficient multiplied by the gross national average earnings is paid for a Group I disability (total disability, incapacity for any work, and requires constant care); 80% for a Group II disability (disability, reduced working capacity, and occasionally requires care); 50% for a Group III disability (disability and reduced working capacity).

The personal pension coefficient is the ratio of assessed earnings to gross national average earnings. Assessed earnings are the insured's gross average earnings during the best 5 consecutive years of covered employment. Gross national average earnings are based on the years of covered employment used to calculate assessed earnings.

The minimum pensions are 80% (Group I), 70% (Group II), or 60% (Group III) of a basic amount established by law.

The minimum pensions are 150% (Groups I and II) or 80% (Group III) of a basic amount established by law.

Persons eligible for more than one benefit (sickness, maternity, child care allowance, survivor, or social pension) must choose only one benefit.

Constant-attendance allowance (Groups I and II): 20% of a basic amount is paid a month to persons with Group I and II sight disabilities.

Dependent's supplement (Groups I and II): 20% of a basic amount is paid a month for each nonworking dependent.

The competent authority must assess the work injury.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the national average wage.

Workers' Medical Benefits

Public health suppliers provide medical services directly to patients. Benefits include general and specialized care, hospitalization, laboratory services, transportation, and the full cost of appliances and medicine.

Survivor Benefits

Survivor pension: 100% of the minimum pension is paid for one eligible survivor; if more than one eligible survivor, each receives 30% of the deceased's personal coefficient (40% for military personnel) multiplied by the gross national average earnings.

The personal pension coefficient is the ratio of assessed earnings to gross national average earnings. Assessed earnings are the insured's gross average earnings during the best 5 consecutive years of covered employment. Gross national average earnings are based on the years of covered employment used to calculate assessed earnings.

The minimum pension is 40% of the national minimum wage.

The maximum pension is 100% of the national minimum wage.

The public sector monthly minimum wage is 330 new manat (March 2010).

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the national average wage.

Administrative Organization

Temporary disability benefits: Enterprises and employers pay benefits to their own employees using funds from the Social Insurance Fund.

Pensions: Ministry of Social Security provides general coordination and supervision.

Regional and local departments of social security administer pensions.

Medical benefits: Ministry of Health and Medical Industry and health departments of local governments provide general supervision and policy coordination. Ministry of Health and health departments of local governments administer the provision of medical services through clinics, hospitals, and other facilities.

Unemployment

Regulatory Framework

First and current law: 1991 (employment).

Type of program: Social insurance system.

Coverage

All persons of working age residing permanently in Turkmenistan.

Source of Funds

Insured person: None.

Self-employed person: None.

Employer: 2% of payroll.

Government: Subsidies as needed from central and local governments.

Qualifying Conditions

Unemployment benefits: Registered at an employment office, able and willing to work, and receiving no income from employment. The benefit may be reduced, suspended, or terminated if the insured is discharged for violating work discipline, leaving employment without good cause, violating the conditions for job placement or vocational training, or filing fraudulent claims.

Unemployment Benefits

The total benefit is 3 times the worker's gross average earnings.

Benefit adjustment: Benefits are adjusted periodically according to changes in the national average wage.

Administrative Organization

State Employment Service and local employment offices regulate and administer the program.

Employers pay cash benefits.

Family Allowances

Regulatory Framework

A child care allowance is provided under Sickness and Maternity.