Disability Benefit Coverage and Program Interactions in the Working-Age Population

by Kalman Rupp, Paul S. Davies, and Alexander Strand
Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68 No. 1, 2008
Table equivalent for Chart 1. Percent ever participated in DI/SSI by November 1996 among subgroups, by educational attainment and age (in percent)
Age in 1996 Less than high school High school More than high school
Less than 20 4.94 1.01 0.40
20–24 7.73 3.96 0.58
25–29 6.59 4.41 0.90
30–34 8.78 2.97 0.70
35–39 12.51 4.46 1.78
40–44 14.44 5.25 2.12
45–49 19.06 6.58 2.74
50–54 20.42 7.29 4.59
55–59 27.14 10.62 5.74
60–64 34.64 10.28 7.08
SOURCE: Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to Social Security Administration administrative records, November 1996.
NOTE: DI = Disability Insurance; SSI = Supplemental Security Income.

Text description for Chart 2. Simplified DI and SSI benefit stream determination conditional on passing the SSA disability screen

Chart 2 is a flow chart with eight labeled boxes linked by arrows and dotted lines. There are three starting points in the flow chart. The flow is one-directional; that is, none of the arrows point back to a previous box, although one arrow laterally connects a box to a flow that descends from a different starting point.

The starting points represent the different types of benefits. The benefit types are SSI-only, DI-only, and concurrent. There are two possible outcomes for concurrent benefit awardees; the other benefit types have only one outcome.

The possible flows originating with each starting point are presented as lists.

Starting point A

  1. Benefit type: SSI-only benefit awardee.
  2. Outcome: SSI-only benefit.

Starting point B

  1. Benefit type: DI-only benefit awardee.
  2. Dotted-line: 5-month DI waiting period.
  3. Dotted-line: 24-month Medicare waiting period.
  4. Outcome: DI-only benefit.

Starting point C, first possible outcome

  1. Benefit type: Concurrent benefits awardee.
  2. First intermediate stage: SSI-only benefit.
  3. Conditional stage: If expected DI benefit is greater than or equal to the expected SSI benefit, awardee is a "serial beneficiary."
  4. Dotted-line: 24-month Medicare waiting period.
  5. Outcome: DI-only benefit.

Starting point C, second possible outcome

  1. Benefit type: Concurrent benefits awardee.
  2. First intermediate stage: SSI-only benefit.
  3. Conditional stage: If expected DI benefit is not greater than or equal to the expected SSI benefit, awardee is a "joint beneficiary."
  4. Outcome: both DI and SSI benefits.
Table equivalent for Chart 4. Percent of DI-insured only and SSI-only eligible nonparticipants with health insurance from three major sources, by employment status, November 1996
Coverage Covered by DI only Covered by SSI only
Currently
employed
Currently
not employed
Currently
employed
Currently
not employed
Medicaid 0.53 1.61 11.92 30.48
Own health insurance 70.40 26.18 23.44 3.93
Insured under another's policy 30.96 60.07 27.80 31.64
SOURCE: Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to Social Security Administration administrative records, November 1996.
NOTES: Some persons may have coverage from more than one source; the percentages are not additive.
DI = Disability Insurance; SSI = Supplemental Security Income.
Table equivalent for Chart 5. Cumulative disability program (SSI and/or DI) entry among nonparticipants aged 18–54 in November 1996, by DI-insured and SSI financial-eligibility status (cumulative percent entered)
Number of years from the November 1996 survey reference month DI only SSI only Serial Joint Neither
0 0 0 0 0 0
1 0.45 0.80 0.40 1.05 0.23
2 0.83 1.67 0.83 1.87 0.60
3 1.14 2.80 1.44 2.72 0.89
4 1.54 3.66 2.19 3.15 1.20
5 1.97 4.51 2.84 4.21 1.50
6 2.41 5.21 3.53 4.98 1.80
7 2.86 5.96 4.13 5.14 2.08
8 3.20 6.60 4.76 5.34 2.49
9 3.40 7.15 5.09 5.76 2.80
10 3.50 7.54 5.39 6.14 2.92
SOURCE: Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to Social Security Administration administrative records, November 1996.
NOTES: SSI = Supplemental Security Income; DI = Disability insurance.
Table equivalent for Chart 6. Cumulative disability program (SSI and/or DI) entry among nonparticipants aged 18–54 in November 1996, overall and for selected subgroups (cumulative percent entered)
Number of years from the November 1996 survey reference month All Less than high school education Three or more disability indicators
0 0 0 0
1 0.35 0.75 8.36
2 0.70 1.84 14.16
3 1.11 2.87 18.54
4 1.58 4.19 21.72
5 2.08 5.40 24.61
6 2.60 6.25 26.78
7 3.07 7.30 27.91
8 3.51 8.17 29.95
9 3.89 8.90 31.79
10 4.02 9.47 32.34
SOURCE: Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to Social Security Administration administrative records, November 1996.
NOTES: SSI = Supplemental Security Income; DI = Disability insurance.