MEDICARE AND MEDICAID PROGRAM INTEGRITY PROVISIONS
(1) Integrated data repository.—
(A) Inclusion of certain data.—
(i) In general.—The Integrated Data Repository of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services shall include, at a minimum, claims and payment data from the following:
(I) The programs under titles XVIII and XIX (including parts A, B, C, and D of title XVIII).
(II) The program under title XXI.
(III) Health-related programs administered by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs.
(IV) Health-related programs administered by the Secretary of Defense.
(V) The program of old-age, survivors, and disability insurance benefits established under title II.
(VI) The Indian Health Service and the Contract Health Service program.
(ii) Priority for inclusion of certain data.—Inclusion of the data described in subclause (I) of such clause in the Integrated Data Repository shall be a priority. Data described in subclauses (II) through (VI) of such clause shall be included in the Integrated Data Repository as appropriate.
(B) Data sharing and matching.—
(i) In general.—The Secretary shall enter into agreements with the individuals described in clause (ii) under which such individuals share and match data in the system of records of the respective agencies of such individuals with data in the system of records of the Department of Health and Human Services for the purpose of identifying potential fraud, waste, and abuse under the programs under titles XVIII and XIX.
(ii) Individuals described.—The following individuals are described in this clause:
(I) The Commissioner of Social Security.
(II) The Secretary of Veterans Affairs.
(III) The Secretary of Defense.
(IV) The Director of the Indian Health Service.
(iii) Definition of system of records.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term “system of records” has the meaning given such term in section 552a(a)(5) of title 5, United States Code.
(2) Access to claims and payment databases.—For purposes of conducting law enforcement and oversight activities and to the extent consistent with applicable information, privacy, security, and disclosure laws, including the regulations promulgated under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 and section 552a of title 5, United States Code, and subject to any information systems security requirements under such laws or otherwise required by the Secretary, the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services and the Attorney General shall have access to claims and payment data of the Department of Health and Human Services and its contractors related to titles XVIII, XIX, and XXI.
(b) OIG Authority To Obtain Information.—
(1) In general.—Notwithstanding and in addition to any other provision of law, the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services may, for purposes of protecting the integrity of the programs under titles XVIII and XIX, obtain information from any individual (including a beneficiary provided all applicable privacy protections are followed) or entity that—
(A) is a provider of medical or other items or services, supplier, grant recipient, contractor, or subcontractor; or
(B) directly or indirectly provides, orders, manufactures, distributes, arranges for, prescribes, supplies, or receives medical or other items or services payable by any Federal health care program (as defined in section 1128B(f)) regardless of how the item or service is paid for, or to whom such payment is made.
(2) Inclusion of certain information.—Information which the Inspector General may obtain under paragraph (1) includes any supporting documentation necessary to validate claims for payment or payments under title XVIII or XIX, including a prescribing physician’s medical records for an individual who is prescribed an item or service which is covered under part B of title XVIII, a covered part D drug (as defined in section 1860D–2(e)) for which payment is made under an MA–PD plan under part C of such title, or a prescription drug plan under part D of such title, and any records necessary for evaluation of the economy, efficiency, and effectiveness of the programs under titles XVIII and XIX.
(c) Administrative Remedy for Knowing Participation by Beneficiary in Health Care Fraud Scheme.—
(1) In general.—In addition to any other applicable remedies, if an applicable individual has knowingly participated in a Federal health care fraud offense or a conspiracy to commit a Federal health care fraud offense, the Secretary shall impose an appropriate administrative penalty commensurate with the offense or conspiracy.
(2) Applicable individual.—For purposes of paragraph (1), the term “applicable individual” means an individual—
(A) entitled to, or enrolled for, benefits under part A of title XVIII or enrolled under part B of such title;
(B) eligible for medical assistance under a State plan under title XIX or under a waiver of such plan; or
(C) eligible for child health assistance under a child health plan under title XXI.
(d) Reporting and Returning of Overpayments.—
(1) In general.—If a person has received an overpayment, the person shall—
(A) report and return the overpayment to the Secretary, the State, an intermediary, a carrier, or a contractor, as appropriate, at the correct address; and
(B) notify the Secretary, State, intermediary, carrier, or contractor to whom the overpayment was returned in writing of the reason for the overpayment.
(2) Deadline for reporting and returning overpayments.—An overpayment must be reported and returned under paragraph (1) by the later of—
(A) the date which is 60 days after the date on which the overpayment was identified; or
(B) the date any corresponding cost report is due, if applicable.
(3) Enforcement.—Any overpayment retained by a person after the deadline for reporting and returning the overpayment under paragraph (2) is an obligation (as defined in section 3729(b)(3) of title 31, United States Code) for purposes of section 3729 of such title.
(4) Definitions.—In this subsection:
(A) Knowing and knowingly.—The terms “knowing” and “knowingly” have the meaning given those terms in section 3729(b) of title 31, United States Code.
(B) Overpayment.—The term “overpayment” means any funds that a person receives or retains under title XVIII or XIX to which the person, after applicable reconciliation, is not entitled under such title.
(i) In general.—The term “person” means a provider of services, supplier, medicaid managed care organization (as defined in section 1903(m)(1)(A)), Medicare Advantage organization (as defined in section 1859(a)(1)), or PDP sponsor (as defined in section 1860D–41(a)(13)).
(ii) Exclusion.—Such term does not include a beneficiary.
(e) Inclusion of National Provider Identifier on All Applications and Claims.—The Secretary shall promulgate a regulation that requires, not later than January 1, 2011, all providers of medical or other items or services and suppliers under the programs under titles XVIII and XIX that qualify for a national provider identifier to include their national provider identifier on all applications to enroll in such programs and on all claims for payment submitted under such programs.
 See Vol. II, 31 U.S.C. 3729.