Social Security/Medicare Trustees

Henry J. Aaron joined the staff of the Brookings Institution as a Senior Fellow in 1968. He became a member of the Department of Economics at the University of Maryland in 1967 and was promoted to professor in 1973. He is a member of the board of directors of Abt Associates, Inc. He is also Senior Associate of the Policy Economics Group of Peat, Marwick, and Mitchell, Inc.

He attended college at the University of California at Los Angeles and graduate school at Harvard University from which he received a Ph.D. in economics. Before joining the faculty at Maryland and the staff at Brookings, he served as a staff member of the President's Council of Economic Advisers.

His tenure at Brookings and the University of Maryland was interrupted in 1977 and 1978 when he served as Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation at the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. He chaired the 1979 Advisory Council on Social Security and chaired the panel on housing allowance experiments of the Department of Housing and Urban Development.

He has been distinguished policy fellow at the University of California's Graduate School of Public Policy and a visiting professor at Harvard University. He is member of the Institute of Medicine. He has consulted with numerous federal agencies, law firms, private research firms, and the American Council of Life Insurance.

He is the author or editor of nine books and coauthor or coeditor of five others. In addition, he is the author or coauthor of 50 published articles, or chapters in other books. His most recent publications are The Comparable Worth Controversy (coauthored with Cameran Lougy), Economic Choices 1987 (coauthored with Harvey Galper, Joseph Pechman, George Perry, Alice Rivlin, and Charles Schultze), Assessing Tax Reform (coauthored with Harvey Galper), Retirement and Economic Behavior (coedited with Gary Burtless), The Painful Prescription: Rationing Hospital Care (coauthored with William B. Schwartz), The Peculiar Problem of Taxing Life Insurance Companies. and Economic Effects of Social Security.
Joseph Anderson is currently Vice President of Lewin-ICF, a firm he joined in 1979. Mr. Anderson, an economist, is a graduate of Princeton, Berkeley and Harvard Universities and studied in Brazil under auspices of the Fulbright Scholarship. A member of the economics faculty at Williams College from 1975 to 1978, Mr. Anderson is responsible for the development of ICF's Macroeconomic/Demographic Model of the U.S. Retirement Income System. Mr. Anderson previously served with the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense. He has testified before Congress on several occasions.
Barry P. Bosworth joined the staff of the Brookings Institution as a Senior Fellow in 1979. Before joining the Brookings, he was the Director of Council on Wage and Price Stability from 1977 to 1979 and prior to that, had held teaching positions at the University of California at Berkeley, and Harvard University. He also served as a staff member of the President's Council of Economic Advisors.

Mr. Bosworth attended the University of Michigan from which he received a Ph.D. in economics. His recent publications include: Can America Afford to Grow Old? ( coauthored with Henry Aaron and Gary Burtless, forthcoming), The Economics of Federal Credit Programs (1987, with Andrew Carron and Elisabeth Rhyne), and The Swedish Economy (1987, coedited with Alice Rivlin).
Gary Burtless is a Senior Fellow in the Economic Studies program at the Brookings Institution, where he does research on labor markets, income distribution, and the economic effects of taxes. Since receiving his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1977, he has written and published numerous articles on applied econometrics and microeconomics, including recent papers on the effects of Social Security, welfare, unemployment insurance, and manpower training. He is the author of several books including : Retirement and Economic Behavior (with Henry Aaron); and Work, Health, and Income Among the Elderly.

Before coming to Brookings in 1981, Dr. Burtless served as an economist in the Policy Evaluation offices of the Secretaries of Labor and Health, Education and Welfare. His responsibilities in those offices included technical monitoring of several large-scale social experiments, including manpower and training projects and the two largest of the negative-income tax (or NIT) experiments.
Stephen Entin, currently Resident Scholar at the Institute for Research on the Economics of Taxation (IRET), is a former Deputy Assistant Secretary for Economic Policy at the Department of the Treasury.

Mr. Entin joined the Treasury Department in 1981, and participated in preparation of economic forecasts for the President's budgets and mid-session budget reviews, and the development of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 and the Tax Reform Act of 1986.

Mr. Entin represented the Treasury Department in the preparation of the Annual Reports of the Board of Trustees of the Social Security System. He directed the development of the Treasury's social security simulation model, and conducted research into the long run outlook for the system. Mr. Entin also served on a number of interdepartmental working groups, including the Interagency Working Group on Health Policy.

Prior to joining Treasury, Mr. Entin was staff economist and legislative assistant to Senator Robert Taft, Jr. (R-Ohio) in 1975 and 1976, and was then appointed to a staff position on the Joint Economic Committee by Ranking Minority Member Clarence J. Brown (R-Ohio).

Mr. Entin is a graduate of Dartmouth College. He holds a masters degree in economics from the University of Chicago, where he has also completed the course work and qualifying examination for the Ph.D.
Robert Eisner is the William R. Kanan Professor of Economics at Northwestern University . He is currently President of the American Economic Association.

Professor Eisner received his B.S.S. from City College of New York in 1940, his M.A. from Columbia in 1942, and his doctorate from Johns Hopkins in 1951. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the Econometric Society. He has been a Vice-President and a member of the Executive Committee off The American Economic Association, President of the Midwest Economic Association, and a member of the Board of Directors of the Social Science Research Council and of its Executive Committee. He has also been a Guggenheim Fellow and a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Studies in the Behavioral Sciences.

He has been a member of the Board of Editors of The American Economic Review and is currently a member of the Board of Editors of The Journal of Economic Literature. The Review of Income and Wealth. and The Journal of Economic Education, and of the Advisory Borax of The Journal of Economic Perspectives, and an Associate Editor of The Review of Economics and Statistics.

Professor Eisner has devoted major parts of his career to study of the determinants of business investment and to the development of extended measures of income and output. He has also written extensively and testified before various government bodies on issues of monetary and fiscal policy, depreciation, employment and economic growth.

Professor Eisner is the author of a number of books, including Factors in Business Investment (Ballinger, 1978), How Real Is the Federal Deficit? (Macmillan, The Free Press. 1986), the forthcoming The Total Incomes System of Accounts (University of Chicago Press, 1989), and many articles in The American Economic Review and other leading professional journals as well as in more general print media.
Since 1976, Edward Gramlich has served as Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the University of Michigan. A graduate of Williams College and Yale University, Mr. Gramlich has held several prominent positions in government. During 1986 and 1987, Mr. Gramlich served first as Deputy Director and later as Acting Director of the Congressional Budget Office. Mr. Gramlich's other affiliations include: the Federal Reserve; the Office of Economic Opportunity; and the Brookings Institution.
Herman B. Leonard is the Baker Professor of Public Sector Financial Management at Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government. He conducts research and teaches courses on corporate finance, finance theory, financial markets, financial management, and state and local fiscal issues. Professor Leonard was a member of the Governor's Council on Economic Policy of the State of Alaska, of thee Governor's Advisory Council on Infrastructure in Massachusetts, and of the Senate Budget Committee Private Sector Advisory Committee on Infrastructure. He served as chairman of the Massachusetts Governor's Task Force on Tuition Prepayment Plans, and serves on the National Academy of Sciences Committees on National Urban Policy and on the Superconducting Super Collider. In addition to his academic studies and teaching, he has been chief financial officer and chief executive officer of a human services agency and has served as a director of several firms.
Donald W. Moran joined Lewin/ICF in 1985 as Vice President. He holds a B.S. in Mathematics from The University of Illinois and has extensive experience in analyzing and evaluating public policy in the health care field. Prior to joining Lewin/ICF, Mr. Moran served as the Executive Associate Director for Budget and Legislation at the Office of Management and Budget, where he directed government-wide policy analysis and budget review and managed OMB's participation in the congressional budget and appropriations process. Before serving in this position, Mr. Moran was OMB's Associate Director for Human Resources, Veterans and Labor, where he directed OMB's policy analysis and budget review for the Department of Health and Human Services, the Veterans Administration, and other related agencies.
Alicia H. Munnell is Senior Vice President and Director of Research for the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. In addition to herr responsibilities as Director, Ms. Munnell conducts research in the areas of tax policy, social security, and public and private pensions.

Prior to joining the Boston Fed in 1973, Ms Munnell earned her doctorate in Economics from Harvard University. She began her studies in economics at Wellesley College, earning her B.A. in 1964. She then earned an M.A. from Boston University, where she is currently a member of the Academy of Distinguished Alumni.

A member of many advisory committees and task forces, Ms. Munnell has served as Staff Director for the National Planning Association's Joint Committee on Public Pensions and as a member of the Carnegie Corporation's Commission on College Retirement. She is currently a member of the Institute of Medicine, the National Academy of Public Administration, and the Pension Research Council of the Wharton School of Finance and Commerce.

Ms. Munnell has written numerous articles on the subjects of tax policy, social security and pensions, and her books include The Economics of Private Pensions (Brookings Institution) and The Future of Social Security (Brookings Institution, 1977).
In 1986, William Nordhaus assumed his current position as Provost of Yale University where he was serving as John Musser Professor of Economics. Mr. Nordhaus, a graduate of Yale University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, served as a member of the President's Council of Economic Advisors from 1977 to 1979 and also served as a member of the NASA Advisory Committee during 1982 and 1983. Mr. Nordhaus is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a Fellow of the Econometrics Society and is the author of numerous works including: Invention, Growth and Welfare: A Theoretical Treatment of Technical Change; The Efficient Use of Energy Resources; Reforming Federal Regulation (with Robert E. Litan); The 12th Edition of Economics (with Paul Samuelson); and Toward a New Iron Age? A Study of Patterns of Resource Exhaustion (Robert Gorden, Tjalling Koopman and Brian Skinner). Please Welcome William Nordhaus.
Mr. Penner, an economist, is currently Senior Fellow at the Urban Institute. Prior to joining the Urban Institute, Mr. Penner served as Director of the Congressional Budget Office. Mr. Penner has also held a variety of other distinguished positions in both government and academia. Some of these positions include: Deputy Assistant Secretary for Economics, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development; Resident Scholar, the American Enterprise Institute; Assistant Director for Economics, Office of Management and Budget; Professor of Economics University of Rochester; Staff Economist of the Council of Economic Advisors; and Assistant Professor of Economics, Princeton University.
Since 1972 Robert H. Rasche has served as a Professor of Economics at Michigan State University. Mr. Rasche, received his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. While affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mr. Rasche developed the Federal Reserve/MIT Economic Model along with Edward Gramlich then at the Federal Reserve. Mr. Rasche is currently a Research Associate with the National Bureau of Economics Research.
A. Haeworth Robertson is President and Founder of the Retirement Policy Institute, a Washington-based research and education organization devoted to the study of national retirement policy matters.

Mr. Robertson was Chief Actuary of the U.S. Social Security Administration from 1975 to 1978, the years during which Social Security's financial problems first began to be revealed. The Coming Revolution in Social Security, his full-length book dealing with Social Security's problems and proposed reform, was published in 1981.

Mr. Robertson is Chairman of the Department of Defense Retirement Board of Actuaries appointed by President Reagan in 1984 to oversee the financing of the military retirement system. He is listed in Who's Who in America.
Sherwin Rosen has been a Professor of Economics at the University of Chicago since 1977. Prior to this, he taught at the University of Rochester from 1964 to 1977. During his tenure at Rochester and Chicago, he served as a Senior Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research, a Senior Research Fellow at the Hoover Institution and an Adjunct Scholar with the American Enterprise Institute. From 1973 to 1975, he served as a Consultant to the Social Security Administration.

Dr. Rosen received both his M.A. and Ph.D. in Economics at the University of Chicago and has held a number of editorial positions over the years. Currently, he is the Editor of the Journal of Political Economy and the Associate Editor of the Journal of Labor Economics.
Dallas Salisbury is one of the most widely recognized commentators in the employee benefits field. National Journal ranks him as one of the "150 Who Make A Difference" in influencing the federal government. Institutional Investor headlined a recent feature article: "When Dallas Talks, Washington Listens - When it comes to employee benefits, few in Washington have more clout than think-tanker Dallas Salisbury."

Dallas is president of the Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI), a Washington, D.C. based public policy research organization. Increasing knowledge and understanding of employee benefits among the public, the media and government decision-makers is a major focus of EBRI, as is the provision of information to the private sector that can provide the basis for strategic planning. EBRI undertakes and publishes major studies on pension, health and other employee benefits issues: produces and publishes analyses of legislative and regulatory issues; and publishes Employee Benefit Notes, EBRI Issue Briefs, and the EBRI Quarterly Pension Investment Report.

Prior to joining EBRI, Dallas served in senior employee benefits regulatory policy positions at the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC) and the pension and welfare benefit programs, U.S. Department of Labor.

Before entering the employee benefits field, Dallas held public and private-sector positions in Washington, D.C. and the State of Washington. He attended the University of Washington and the Maxwell Graduate School in Syracuse, N.Y.
Lawrence H. Summers is the Nathaniel Ropes Professor of Political Economy at Harvard University where is specializes in financial markets. He served as Domestic Policy Economist at the President's Council of Economic Advisers during the 1982-83 and currently serves on the Congressional Budget Office's Board of Economic Advisors. His books, Tax Policy and the Economy and Understanding Unemployment, will be published in l988.

Born in New Haven, Connecticut in 1954, Summers received his S.B. degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.) in 1975 and his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1982. Prior to joining the Harvard faculty in 1983, he was an assistant and associate professor of economics at M.I.T.

In 1987, he was the first social scientist to receive the National Science Foundation's $500,000 Alan T. Waterman Award. He was also elected as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Summers has served as a consultant to the Department of Labor and the Treasury in the United States as well as to the governments of Jamaica, Indonesia, and Mexico, and a number of major U.S. corporations. He is the editor of The Quarterly Journal of Economics, a member of the Brookings Panel of Economic Activity, and a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. In addition to his academic research, Dr. Summers writes regularly in the business press on economic policy issues and frequently testifies before congressional committees.
Dr. Carolyn L. Weaver is a resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, where she conducts public policy research on Social Security and entitlement programs and also serves as editor of Regulation magazine.

Dr. Weaver has been a senior research fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University and a member of the economics department and research associate of the Center for Study of Public Choice at Virginia Tech. From 1981 to 1984, she served as chief professional staff member on Social Security for the U.S. Senate Finance Committee. Dr. Weaver was senior adviser to President Reagan's 1983 National Commission on Social Security Reform, and a member of the 1987 Social Security Disability Advisory Council. She is the author of Crisis in Social Security: Economic and Political Origins, as well as numerous articles in professional journals on Social Security and political economy.

Dr. Weaver resides in Alexandria, Virginia with her husband, Robert J. Mackay. She is a member of Phi Beta Kappa.