Government Pension Offset (GPO)
Your Noncovered Pension May Affect Your Benefits As Spouse or Widow/Widower.
If you receive a pension from a government job in which you did not pay Social Security taxes, some or all of your Social Security spouse's, widow's, or widower's benefit may be offset due to receipt of that pension. This offset is referred to as the Government Pension Offset, or GPO.
The GPO reduces the amount of your Social Security spouse's, widow's, or widower's benefits by two-thirds of the amount of your government pension. For example, if you receive a monthly civil service pension of $600, two-thirds of that, or $400, must be used to offset your Social Security spouse's, widow's, or widower's benefits. If you are eligible for a $500 spouse's benefit, you will receive $100 per month from Social Security ($500 - $400 = $100).
Some individuals are exempt from the offset. Generally, your Social Security benefits as a spouse, widow, or widower will not be reduced if you:
- Are receiving a government pension that is not based on your earnings; or
- Are a federal (including Civil Service Offset), state, or local government employee whose government pension is based on a job where you were paying Social Security taxes; and
- you filed for and were entitled to spouse's, widow's, or widower's benefits before April 1, 2004;
- your last day of employment (that your pension is based on) is before July 1, 2004; or
- you paid Social Security taxes on your earnings during the last 60 months of government service. (Under certain conditions, fewer than 60 months may be required for people whose last day of employment falls after June 30, 2004, and before March 2, 2009.)
If you need additional information about the exemption, please read the "When won't my Social Security benefits be reduced?" section of our "Government Pension Offset" factsheet.