Research & Analysis About Estonia

International Update, February 2013
(released February 2013)
International Update, September 2011
(released September 2011)
International Update, August 2009
(released August 2009)
International Update, October 2006
(released October 2006)
Individual Accounts in Other Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66, No. 1 (released September 2005)

To date, more than 30 countries have established some form of individual accounts in their retirement systems. This article identifies those countries, categorizes how the individual accounts fit into their retirement income systems, and identifies some basic characteristics of the accounts. Because this analysis of individual accounts is intended to inform the current United States debate involving Social Security, the discussion is limited to countries in which such accounts are part or all of a mandatory retirement income program.

Social Security Reform in Central and Eastern Europe: Variations on a Latin American Theme
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64, No. 4 (released June 2003)

The Latin American model of social security reform with individual accounts has been adopted by a number of Central and Eastern European countries. That alternative to a pay-as-you-go system is sometimes advocated as a desirable model for solving problems in developed systems such as that of the United States. This article describes the Central and Eastern European systems and compares them with the Latin American systems.