PERSPECTIVES: Long-Term Work Activity and Use of Employment Supports Among New Supplemental Security Income Recipients

by Yonatan Ben-Shalom and David C. Stapleton
Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 75, No. 1, 2015
Table equivalent for Chart 1. Cumulative percentage of SSI recipients in the 2001 award cohort with at least 1 month in DI current-pay status: Total and by age group, 2001–2007
Age group 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Total 30.4 32.3 33.5 34.4 35.1 35.8 36.3
18–19 15.7 18.5 21.2 23.9 26.5 29.0 30.8
20–39 37.3 38.9 39.6 40.1 40.5 41.0 41.3
40–49 32.1 33.4 33.8 34.3 34.7 35.1 35.6
50–61 30.3 32.8 34.1 34.8 35.1 35.3 35.5
62–64 34.8 35.4 35.6 35.6 35.6 35.6 35.6
SOURCE: Authors' calculations based on the 2008 DAF.
Table equivalent for Chart 2. Employment and work-incentive milestones reached by members of the 2001 SSI award cohort as of December 2007
Milestone Number Percent
2001 SSI award cohort 358,157 100.0
PCE 69,830 19.4
Section 1619(a) or 1619(b) status 37,288 10.4
Section 1619(b) status 30,075 8.4
In DI current-pay status 14,091 3.9
Not in DI current-pay status 15,984 4.5
NSTW 35,021 9.8
In DI current-pay status 15,279 4.3
Not in DI current-pay status 19,742 5.5
SOURCE: Authors' calculations based on the 2008 DAF.
Table equivalent for Chart 3. Cumulative percentage of SSI recipients in the 2001 award cohort that ever attained various work-incentive milestones, 2001–2007
Milestone 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
PCE 6.3 10.0 12.6 14.9 16.8 18.3 19.4
Employment service enrollment a 1.9 4.6 6.5 8.3 9.3 10.1 10.7
NSTW status (total) 1.6 3.8 5.3 6.7 7.9 8.9 9.8
1619(b) status (total) 1.2 3.0 4.3 5.5 6.6 7.6 8.4
NSTW status (excluding DI beneficiaries) 0.6 1.6 2.5 3.4 4.2 4.9 5.5
1619(b) status (excluding DI beneficiaries) 0.5 1.3 2.0 2.7 3.4 4.0 4.5
SOURCE: Authors' calculations based on the 2008 DAF.
a. Data for 2005–2007 are preliminary.
Table equivalent for Chart 4. Cumulative percentage of SSI recipients in the 2001 award cohort that ever attained NSTW, by age at award, 2001–2007
Age group 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
  NSTW (total)
Total 1.6 3.8 5.3 6.7 7.9 8.9 9.8
18–19 1.9 5.3 8.3 11.3 14.4 17.1 19.2
20–39 2.6 6.0 8.4 10.5 12.2 13.7 14.9
40–49 1.3 2.9 3.8 4.7 5.3 5.9 6.3
50–61 1.0 2.0 2.5 2.9 3.2 3.5 3.7
62–64 1.0 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
  NSTW (excluding DI beneficiaries)
Total 0.6 1.6 2.5 3.4 4.2 4.9 5.5
18–19 1.2 3.3 5.3 7.4 9.6 11.3 12.7
20–39 0.7 1.9 3.1 4.4 5.5 6.7 7.6
40–49 0.5 1.2 1.7 2.2 2.6 3.1 3.4
50–61 0.4 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.7 1.9 2.0
62–64 0.4 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8
SOURCE: Authors' calculations based on the 2008 DAF.
Table equivalent for Chart 5. Cumulative years in NSTW per 1,000 SSI recipients in the 2001 award cohort, by age at award, 2001–2007
Age group 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
  NSTW (total)
Total 4 16 33 56 85 122 164
18–19 1 3 7 13 22 34 50
20–39 2 7 14 25 37 52 70
40–49 1 3 6 9 13 18 24
50–61 1 3 5 9 12 16 20
  NSTW (excluding DI beneficiaries)
Total 1 6 14 24 38 55 75
18–19 0 2 4 7 12 19 26
20–39 0 2 5 8 14 20 28
40–49 0 1 2 4 6 8 10
50–61 0 1 3 4 6 8 10
SOURCE: Authors' calculations based on the 2008 DAF.
NOTE: Recipients aged 62–64 cumulatively accounted for less than one-half of 1 NSTW year per 1,000 beneficiaries as of 2007.
Table equivalent for Chart 6. Cumulative percentage of SSI recipients with at least 1 month in DI current-pay status by the end of the year of SSI award, the third year after award, and the fifth year after award, by award cohort
Award cohort Year of award Third year after award Fifth year after award
1996 30.8 33.6 35.9
1997 32.3 35.6 38.3
1998 30.6 34.5 36.7
1999 30.0 34.2 36.0
2000 30.1 34.5 36.0
2001 30.4 34.4 35.8
2002 31.6 35.0 36.3
2003 32.2 35.2 . . .
2004 32.2 35.1 . . .
2005 33.3 . . . . . .
2006 33.4 . . . . . .
SOURCE: Authors' calculations based on the 2008 DAF.
NOTES: Cohorts are tracked through December 2007. By then, members of the 2003 and 2004 cohorts had not reached their fifth year after award and members of the 2005 and 2006 cohorts had not reached their third year after award.
Data for all cohorts are weighted to the 2001 cohort's age-sex composition.
. . . = not applicable.
Table equivalent for Chart 7. Cumulative percentage of SSI recipients with at least 1 month in DI current-pay status by the end of the year of SSI award, the third year after award, and the fifth year after award: Two youngest age-at-award groups, by award cohort
Award cohort Year of award Third year after award Fifth year after award
  Ages 18–19
1996 11.3 17.8 24.1
1997 13.9 22.7 29.9
1998 13.6 23.3 29.0
1999 14.4 24.0 29.1
2000 14.8 23.7 28.9
2001 15.7 23.9 29.0
2002 15.5 23.0 27.8
2003 15.2 22.6 . . .
2004 15.0 22.1 . . .
2005 14.6 . . . . . .
2006 15.6 . . . . . .
  Ages 20–39
1996 38.6 41.1 42.2
1997 39.4 42.1 43.1
1998 38.1 40.9 41.8
1999 37.1 40.0 40.8
2000 36.7 39.8 40.7
2001 37.3 40.1 41.0
2002 38.6 41.3 42.2
2003 39.1 41.7 . . .
2004 39.3 41.8 . . .
2005 39.2 . . . . . .
2006 38.2 . . . . . .
SOURCE: Authors' calculations based on the 2008 DAF.
NOTES: Cohorts are tracked through December 2007. By then, members of the 2003 and 2004 cohorts had not reached their fifth year after award and members of the 2005 and 2006 cohorts had not reached their third year after award.
Data for all cohorts are weighted to the 2001 cohort's age-sex composition.
. . . = not applicable.
Table equivalent for Chart 8. Cumulative percentage of SSI recipients with at least 1 month in 1619(b) status by the end of the first, third, and fifth years after SSI award: Total and excluding DI beneficiaries, by award cohort
Award cohort Year of award Third year after award Fifth year after award
  1619(b) status (total)
1996 2.8 6.1 8.7
1997 3.1 6.7 8.7
1998 3.4 6.6 8.4
1999 3.8 6.5 8.2
2000 3.4 5.8 7.7
2001 3.0 5.5 7.6
2002 2.8 5.6 7.8
2003 2.9 5.9 . . .
2004 3.1 6.1 . . .
2005 3.3 . . . . . .
2006 3.2 . . . . . .
  1619(b) status (excluding DI beneficiaries)
1996 1.4 3.6 5.4
1997 1.4 3.6 5.0
1998 1.5 3.6 4.7
1999 1.8 3.4 4.5
2000 1.6 3.0 4.2
2001 1.3 2.7 4.0
2002 1.2 2.8 4.1
2003 1.3 3.0 . . .
2004 1.4 3.1 . . .
2005 1.5 . . . . . .
2006 1.5 . . . . . .
SOURCE: Authors' calculations based on the 2008 DAF.
NOTES: Cohorts are tracked through December 2007. By then, members of the 2003 and 2004 cohorts had not reached their fifth year after award and members of the 2005 and 2006 cohorts had not reached their third year after award.
Data for all cohorts are weighted to the 2001 cohort's age-sex composition.
. . . = not applicable.
Table equivalent for Chart 9. Cumulative percentage of SSI recipients with at least 1 month in NSTW by the end of the first, third, and fifth years after SSI award: Total and excluding DI beneficiaries, by award cohort
Award cohort Year of award Third year after award Fifth year after award
  NSTW (total)
2001 3.8 6.7 8.9
2002 4.1 7.2 9.6
2003 4.4 7.7 . . .
2004 4.5 7.8 . . .
2005 4.9 . . . . . .
2006 4.8 . . . . . .
  NSTW (excluding DI beneficiaries)
2001 1.6 3.4 4.9
2002 1.6 3.6 5.2
2003 1.7 3.8 . . .
2004 1.8 3.8 . . .
2005 1.9 . . . . . .
2006 1.8 . . . . . .
SOURCE: Authors' calculations based on the 2008 DAF.
NOTES: Cohorts are tracked through December 2007. By then, members of the 2003 and 2004 cohorts had not reached their fifth year after award and members of the 2005 and 2006 cohorts had not reached their third year after award.
Data for all cohorts are weighted to the 2001 cohort's age-sex composition.
. . . = not applicable.
Table equivalent for Chart 10. Cumulative years per 1,000 awardees in NSTW by the end of the first, third, and fifth years after SSI award: Total and excluding DI beneficiaries, by award cohort
Award cohort Year of award Third year after award Fifth year after award
  NSTW (total)
2001 15.6 56.2 121.6
2002 18.7 68.0 144.3
2003 21.2 76.4 . . .
2004 22.8 81.4 . . .
2005 26.1 . . . . . .
2006 26.3 . . . . . .
  NSTW (excluding DI beneficiaries)
2001 6.2 24.0 54.8
2002 6.4 26.5 60.7
2003 6.5 28.0 . . .
2004 7.2 29.8 . . .
2005 7.8 . . . . . .
2006 7.1 . . . . . .
SOURCE: Authors' calculations based on the 2008 DAF.
NOTES: Cohorts are tracked through December 2007. By then, members of the 2003 and 2004 cohorts had not reached their fifth year after award and members of the 2005 and 2006 cohorts had not reached their third year after award.
Data for all cohorts are weighted to the 2001 cohort's age-sex composition.
. . . = not applicable.
Table equivalent for Chart 11. Cumulative percentage of 2001 SSI awardees attaining paid employment, by age at award, 2003–2007
Age group 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Total 8.7 12.0 14.7 16.9 18.6
18–19 19.1 26.4 32.2 36.3 39.4
20–39 12.0 16.9 20.9 24.3 27.1
40–49 5.6 7.7 9.5 10.9 12.2
50–61 3.2 4.2 5.0 5.8 6.4
62–64 2.4 3.0 3.5 3.8 4.2
SOURCE: Authors' calculations based on matched 2008 DAF and MEF data.
NOTES: Employment is defined as having annual earnings of at least $1,000 (adjusted to 2007 wage levels).
Cumulative employment rates are calculated from the beginning of the second calendar year after award through the given calendar year.
Table equivalent for Chart 12. Average annual earnings among members of the 2001 SSI award cohort with positive earnings, by age at award, 2003–2007 (in 2007 dollars)
Age group 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007
Total 4,906 5,653 6,331 7,118 7,761
18–19 3,540 4,189 5,029 5,921 6,693
20–39 5,428 6,391 7,099 7,882 8,621
40–49 6,436 7,200 7,698 8,309 8,581
50–61 6,390 6,970 7,117 7,606 7,736
62–64 6,643 7,165 7,340 7,126 7,200
SOURCE: Authors' calculations based on matched 2008 DAF and MEF data.