PERSPECTIVES: Changes to the Ticket to Work Regulations in 2008 Attracted Providers and Participants, but Impacts on Work and Benefits Are Unclear

by Jody Schimmel Hyde and David C. Stapleton
Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 75, No. 4, 2015
Table equivalent for Chart 1. Percentage of TTW participants with any positive earnings, by ticket-assignment cohort: 2002–2010
Year Ticket-assignment cohort
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
2002 49.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 47.1 53.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2004 43.7 54.6 52.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 41.7 51.4 53.1 54.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 40.5 49.6 50.7 56.0 55.7 . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 38.9 47.1 48.5 52.4 55.8 54.9 . . . . . . . . .
2008 35.9 43.9 45.3 48.0 49.7 52.2 51.7 . . . . . .
2009 31.4 38.7 39.3 41.2 42.2 42.9 45.0 45.1 . . .
2010 28.6 36.2 36.6 38.3 38.8 38.8 40.1 43.5 45.3
SOURCE: Authors' calculations based on TRF10 and DAF11.
NOTES: Cohort is determined by the most recent ticket assignment for participants aged 18–64 during the month of assignment.
. . . = not applicable.
Table equivalent for Chart 2. Percentage of TTW participants with earnings of $12,000 or more, by ticket-assignment cohort: 2002–2010
Year Ticket-assignment cohort
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010
2002 3.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2003 6.7 4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2004 7.8 8.2 4.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2005 8.8 10.2 8.3 4.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2006 9.3 10.9 9.9 8.6 4.4 . . . . . . . . . . . .
2007 9.4 11.5 10.7 10.0 7.8 3.8 . . . . . . . . .
2008 9.3 11.6 11.0 10.4 8.8 6.5 3.7 . . . . . .
2009 8.7 10.9 10.4 10.0 8.6 6.8 5.5 2.9 . . .
2010 8.1 10.2 9.8 9.4 8.1 6.5 6.0 4.6 3.0
SOURCE: Authors' calculations based on TRF10 and DAF11.
NOTES: $12,000 approximates an annualized equivalent of SGA.
Cohort is determined by the most recent ticket assignment for participants aged 18–64 during the month of assignment.
. . . = not applicable.
Table equivalent for Chart 3. Beneficiaries who first attained NSTW status in 2002: Percentage retaining NSTW status in each of the 96 months following attainment, by benefit type a and TTW participation status
Months after first NSTW month TTW participants Nonparticipants
DI-only Concurrent DI-SSI SSI-only DI-only Concurrent DI-SSI SSI-only
0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
1 90.6 86.4 48.7 89.5 70.9 50.0
2 84.6 72.9 46.0 85.8 65.5 43.9
3 77.8 59.3 43.9 82.5 60.9 38.5
4 73.5 64.4 39.6 79.5 56.8 34.4
5 71.8 52.5 41.2 77.3 54.8 35.1
6 68.4 50.8 35.3 75.2 52.4 33.1
7 67.5 49.2 33.7 73.3 50.3 30.4
8 65.0 44.1 34.8 72.0 48.1 28.2
9 65.8 45.8 33.7 70.3 47.6 27.7
10 61.5 42.4 31.6 69.1 46.9 26.6
11 61.5 40.7 32.6 68.2 46.6 26.7
12 59.0 44.1 35.3 67.2 45.9 27.6
13 57.3 40.7 31.0 65.9 43.7 24.2
14 56.4 40.7 31.0 65.1 42.9 23.8
15 56.4 42.4 31.0 64.1 42.0 22.6
16 54.7 40.7 35.3 62.9 41.7 22.0
17 55.6 39.0 32.1 62.6 41.1 22.8
18 55.6 32.2 28.9 61.7 39.9 21.0
19 49.6 30.5 29.4 61.1 39.2 20.6
20 48.7 25.4 31.0 60.4 39.0 20.0
21 47.9 28.8 27.3 59.8 38.7 19.5
22 47.0 23.7 29.4 59.0 38.2 19.4
23 47.9 25.4 27.3 58.6 38.2 20.2
24 47.0 27.1 25.1 58.1 38.2 19.6
25 46.2 27.1 26.2 57.3 37.3 19.0
26 45.3 28.8 26.7 56.7 36.8 18.7
27 42.7 25.4 23.0 55.9 36.0 18.2
28 42.7 27.1 25.1 55.5 36.2 18.4
29 43.6 25.4 23.0 54.9 35.8 18.2
30 41.9 27.1 25.1 54.6 35.4 17.8
31 41.0 27.1 25.1 54.0 35.0 17.8
32 41.9 27.1 26.7 53.5 34.6 17.4
33 42.7 30.5 24.1 52.4 34.2 17.3
34 41.9 28.8 25.1 52.1 33.6 17.2
35 43.6 28.8 25.7 51.8 33.7 17.5
36 44.4 28.8 21.9 51.5 33.5 17.1
37 43.6 27.1 21.9 51.1 33.1 17.0
38 44.4 25.4 20.3 50.8 33.0 16.6
39 44.4 22.0 17.6 50.5 32.7 16.5
40 42.7 23.7 21.4 50.1 32.4 16.7
41 42.7 28.8 18.7 49.8 32.1 16.4
42 42.7 25.4 18.7 49.4 31.8 16.2
43 42.7 23.7 21.9 49.1 31.6 16.2
44 42.7 25.4 20.3 48.8 31.3 15.9
45 42.7 23.7 20.9 48.5 31.1 15.9
46 43.6 22.0 21.4 48.2 31.1 16.2
47 41.9 25.4 20.9 47.9 30.9 16.0
48 41.0 27.1 19.3 47.6 31.1 15.9
49 41.0 25.4 19.8 47.3 30.7 15.7
50 40.2 25.4 21.4 47.0 30.3 15.4
51 40.2 22.0 21.9 46.8 30.0 15.7
52 40.2 22.0 20.9 46.5 29.9 15.7
53 40.2 25.4 20.9 46.2 29.6 15.4
54 41.0 23.7 20.3 46.0 29.4 15.3
55 41.9 23.7 22.5 45.6 29.6 15.3
56 39.3 27.1 21.4 45.3 29.3 15.0
57 39.3 25.4 21.4 45.0 29.1 15.2
58 40.2 25.4 21.9 44.8 29.1 15.4
59 40.2 25.4 20.9 44.5 28.5 15.1
60 40.2 25.4 21.4 44.3 28.6 15.2
61 40.2 27.1 20.9 44.1 28.4 14.7
62 39.3 27.1 19.8 43.8 28.3 14.8
63 39.3 27.1 20.9 43.6 28.3 15.1
64 39.3 28.8 21.4 43.3 28.1 14.6
65 38.5 25.4 20.3 43.1 27.8 14.6
66 37.6 22.0 18.7 42.8 27.6 14.4
67 37.6 18.6 17.6 42.6 27.4 14.3
68 37.6 23.7 18.7 42.3 27.1 14.5
69 36.8 25.4 18.7 42.0 27.1 14.4
70 36.8 27.1 18.2 41.8 26.7 14.2
71 37.6 27.1 17.6 41.5 26.5 14.1
72 37.6 27.1 19.3 41.2 26.4 14.1
73 37.6 27.1 18.2 41.0 25.9 14.0
74 37.6 25.4 19.3 40.7 26.0 13.7
75 36.8 25.4 18.7 40.4 25.7 13.6
76 35.0 23.7 17.6 40.1 25.6 13.3
77 35.0 22.0 17.6 39.9 25.3 13.2
78 35.0 22.0 17.6 39.5 25.0 12.9
79 35.0 22.0 16.0 39.2 24.7 12.8
80 35.9 20.3 16.0 38.9 24.7 12.6
81 35.9 22.0 15.5 38.6 24.5 12.6
82 35.9 23.7 15.5 38.3 24.1 12.3
83 36.8 20.3 15.5 38.0 24.1 12.3
84 36.8 22.0 15.0 37.7 23.9 12.3
85 36.8 22.0 17.1 37.4 23.6 12.2
86 36.8 22.0 18.2 37.1 23.4 12.0
87 35.9 20.3 16.6 36.8 23.1 11.9
88 35.9 23.7 16.6 36.5 22.9 11.7
89 35.9 22.0 15.5 36.3 22.8 11.6
90 35.0 20.3 13.4 36.0 22.5 11.5
91 35.0 20.3 13.4 35.8 22.4 11.4
92 35.0 18.6 13.9 35.5 22.3 11.2
93 35.0 22.0 13.4 35.2 22.1 11.0
94 35.0 22.0 11.8 35.1 21.8 11.0
95 34.2 20.3 10.7 34.8 21.7 10.8
96 34.2 20.3 11.2 34.7 21.6 10.8
SOURCE: Authors' calculations based on TRF10 and DAF11.
NOTES: Data are for beneficiaries aged 18–64 who are eligible for DI or SSI benefits. TTW participants are those whose most recently assigned tickets remain in use, regardless of the year of assignment. Nonparticipants are all other beneficiaries, including former or future TTW participants with tickets not currently assigned.
First NSTW status occurs in the first month in which a beneficiary's administrative record is coded for suspended or terminated benefits following the full calendar year 2001 in current-pay status. (For recipients of concurrent DI-SSI benefits, this definition requires current-pay status in both programs for the entire calendar year 2001.) Eligibility for first NSTW status is restricted to beneficiaries aged 18–64 who had at least 1 month in 2002 in current-pay or NSTW status.
a. As of the first month that benefits are in current-pay, suspended-for-work, or terminated-for-work status.