Geographic Mobility and Annual Earnings in the United States

by Patrick J. Purcell
Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 80 No. 2, 2020
Table equivalent for Chart 1. Men who moved to another county or state, by age group: Overall and by selected earnings quartile, various periods 1994–2016 (annual average percentages)
Age group and observation period All Highest quartile Lowest quartile
Ages 25–29
1994–1996 19.6 15.6 25.8
2004–2006 19.2 15.2 24.2
2014–2016 15.0 13.5 17.3
Ages 30–34
1994–1996 15.3 13.1 21.7
2004–2006 14.4 12.3 19.2
2014–2016 11.9 11.2 14.3
Ages 35–39
1994–1996 11.8 10.3 17.9
2004–2006 11.4 9.4 16.2
2014–2016 9.0 8.1 11.8
Ages 40–44
1994–1996 9.7 8.3 15.3
2004–2006 9.0 6.9 13.6
2014–2016 7.1 6.1 9.9
Ages 45–49
1994–1996 8.4 7.4 13.0
2004–2006 7.0 5.6 10.9
2014–2016 5.5 4.6 8.2
SOURCE: Author's calculations using CWHS data.
Table equivalent for Chart 2. Women who moved to another county or state, by age group: Overall and by selected earnings quartile, various periods 1994–2016 (annual average percentages)
Age group and observation period All Highest quartile Lowest quartile
Ages 25–29
1994–1996 17.5 15.9 20.6
2004–2006 16.6 15.1 19.8
2014–2016 13.9 13.7 15.3
Ages 30–34
1994–1996 12.6 11.6 15.8
2004–2006 11.8 11.1 14.5
2014–2016 10.0 10.1 11.3
Ages 35–39
1994–1996 9.6 8.6 12.8
2004–2006 8.7 7.8 11.6
2014–2016 7.3 6.9 9.0
Ages 40–44
1994–1996 7.7 6.4 10.5
2004–2006 6.8 5.6 9.3
2014–2016 5.4 4.5 7.2
Ages 45–49
1994–1996 6.9 5.7 9.5
2004–2006 5.6 4.5 7.9
2014–2016 4.6 3.9 5.9
SOURCE: Author's calculations using CWHS data.
Table equivalent for Chart 3. Men who changed employers, by age group: Overall and by selected earnings quartile, various periods 1994–2016 (annual average percentages)
Age group and observation period All Highest quartile Lowest quartile
Ages 25–29
1994–1996 37.2 19.9 60.0
2004–2006 36.1 20.9 57.6
2014–2016 36.4 21.5 54.8
Ages 30–34
1994–1996 28.2 16.7 51.0
2004–2006 27.9 17.7 48.4
2014–2016 28.0 17.2 47.2
Ages 35–39
1994–1996 22.6 14.4 43.4
2004–2006 23.5 15.7 42.7
2014–2016 23.2 14.4 41.9
Ages 40–44
1994–1996 18.9 12.4 37.0
2004–2006 20.7 13.7 38.6
2014–2016 20.0 12.7 36.7
Ages 45–49
1994–1996 16.2 11.8 31.1
2004–2006 17.8 11.9 33.3
2014–2016 18.0 11.9 32.6
SOURCE: Author's calculations using CWHS data.
Table equivalent for Chart 4. Women who changed employers, by age group: Overall and by selected earnings quartile, various periods 1994–2016 (annual average percentages)
Age group and observation period All Highest quartile Lowest quartile
Ages 25–29
1994–1996 35.6 22.1 55.6
2004–2006 35.5 22.2 53.6
2014–2016 36.4 22.9 51.3
Ages 30–34
1994–1996 27.1 17.2 45.3
2004–2006 27.2 17.8 43.7
2014–2016 27.3 17.2 42.4
Ages 35–39
1994–1996 22.7 14.4 38.5
2004–2006 22.8 15.1 37.1
2014–2016 22.5 14.0 36.8
Ages 40–44
1994–1996 18.8 11.5 32.5
2004–2006 19.9 12.5 33.1
2014–2016 19.7 12.6 32.0
Ages 45–49
1994–1996 16.4 9.8 28.5
2004–2006 17.0 11.1 28.4
2014–2016 17.4 11.0 28.4
SOURCE: Author's calculations using CWHS data.
Table equivalent for Chart 5. Interactions between moving and changing employers among men, by age group: Percentage of movers who changed employers, and percentage of employer-changers who moved, various periods 1994–2016
Age group and observation period Movers who also changed employers Employer-changers who also moved
Ages 25–29
1994–1996 66.6 35.2
2004–2006 62.8 33.4
2014–2016 63.4 26.0
Ages 30–34
1994–1996 59.9 32.5
2004–2006 56.3 29.3
2014–2016 55.9 23.8
Ages 35–39
1994–1996 56.0 29.4
2004–2006 54.5 26.6
2014–2016 52.1 20.1
Ages 40–44
1994–1996 53.4 27.4
2004–2006 55.2 24.3
2014–2016 50.4 17.7
Ages 45–49
1994–1996 50.2 25.9
2004–2006 54.2 21.4
2014–2016 50.8 15.6
SOURCE: Author's calculations using CWHS data.
Table equivalent for Chart 6. Interactions between moving and changing employers among women, by age group: Percentage of movers who changed employers, and percentage of employer-changers who moved, various periods 1994–2016
Age group and observation period Movers who also changed employers Employer-changers who also moved
Ages 25–29
1994–1996 63.4 31.3
2004–2006 63.5 29.9
2014–2016 64.2 24.5
Ages 30–34
1994–1996 57.6 26.8
2004–2006 57.7 25.3
2014–2016 55.4 20.4
Ages 35–39
1994–1996 55.5 23.5
2004–2006 55.9 21.7
2014–2016 52.3 16.9
Ages 40–44
1994–1996 52.7 21.8
2004–2006 55.4 19.2
2014–2016 52.1 14.4
Ages 45–49
1994–1996 49.8 21.0
2004–2006 53.2 17.9
2014–2016 50.0 13.1
SOURCE: Author's calculations using CWHS data.
Table equivalent for Chart 7. Men's earnings in the 3-year period ending with the year of relocation for movers, and in the same period for nonmovers, by age group, 1994–1996 and 2004–2006
Age group and observation period Movers Nonmovers
Ages 25–29
1994–1996 24,603 27,836
2004–2006 28,079 30,344
Ages 30–34
1994–1996 39,861 42,109
2004–2006 44,243 45,894
Ages 35–39
1994–1996 50,514 52,621
2004–2006 52,795 55,052
Ages 40–44
1994–1996 53,811 59,196
2004–2006 55,482 60,087
Ages 45–49
1994–1996 59,786 64,832
2004–2006 58,764 63,739
SOURCE: Author's calculations using CWHS data.
NOTES: Earnings are the medians of 3-year annual averages, expressed in 2016 dollars.
Earnings occurred in or prior to the move/nonmove observation period.
Table equivalent for Chart 8. Women's earnings in the 3-year period ending with the year of relocation for movers, and in the same period for nonmovers, by age group, 1994–1996 and 2004–2006
Age group and observation period Movers Nonmovers
Ages 25–29
1994–1996 21,947 22,721
2004–2006 24,688 24,864
Ages 30–34
1994–1996 29,022 29,593
2004–2006 35,348 33,766
Ages 35–39
1994–1996 29,879 32,155
2004–2006 36,644 36,479
Ages 40–44
1994–1996 32,150 35,631
2004–2006 36,640 37,791
Ages 45–49
1994–1996 35,045 38,161
2004–2006 37,474 40,229
SOURCE: Author's calculations using CWHS data.
NOTE: Earnings are the medians of 3-year annual averages, expressed in 2016 dollars.
Earnings occurred in or prior to the move/nonmove observation period.
Table equivalent for Chart 9. Men's earnings in the 4th through 6th years after relocating for movers, and in the same period for nonmovers, by age group, 1994–1996 and 2004–2006
Age group and observation period Movers Nonmovers
Ages 25–29
1994–1996 51,606 46,915
2004–2006 48,813 43,417
Ages 30–34
1994–1996 58,178 54,720
2004–2006 59,328 54,084
Ages 35–39
1994–1996 62,787 60,992
2004–2006 61,038 59,848
Ages 40–44
1994–1996 62,153 64,863
2004–2006 59,525 61,859
Ages 45–49
1994–1996 62,901 66,565
2004–2006 59,061 62,549
SOURCE: Author's calculations using CWHS data.
NOTES: Earnings are the medians of 3-year annual averages, expressed in 2016 dollars.
Earnings occurred in years following the move/nonmove observation period.
Table equivalent for Chart 10. Women's earnings in the 4th through 6th years after relocating for movers, and in the same period for nonmovers, by age group, 1994–1996 and 2004–2006
Age group and observation period Movers Nonmovers
Ages 25–29
1994–1996 37,622 34,454
2004–2006 39,331 34,363
Ages 30–34
1994–1996 38,446 37,684
2004–2006 43,389 39,320
Ages 35–39
1994–1996 39,845 39,957
2004–2006 42,778 41,303
Ages 40–44
1994–1996 40,122 42,938
2004–2006 40,857 41,543
Ages 45–49
1994–1996 39,784 43,059
2004–2006 37,997 42,096
SOURCE: Author's calculations using CWHS data.
NOTE: Earnings are the medians of 3-year annual averages, expressed in 2016 dollars.
Earnings occurred in years following the move/nonmove observation period.