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1

A 10-Year Review of the Supplemental Security Income Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 1 (released January 1984)
by John Trout and David R. Mattson
The 1944 International Labor Conference
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 6 (released June 1944)
by Jessica H. Barr
The 1946 Amendments to the Railroad Retirement and Railroad Unemployment Insurance Acts
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 12 (released December 1946)
by Jack M. Elkin
1955 Amendments to the Railroad Retirement Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 10 (released October 1955)
by John A. MacDougall
1956 Amendments to the Railroad Retirement Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 5 (released May 1957)
by John A. MacDougall
1959 Amendments to the Railroad Retirement Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 7 (released July 1959)
by Jacob A. Lazerson
1959 Amendments to the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 8 (released August 1959)
1961 Amendments Affecting the Civil Service Retirement Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 12 (released December 1961)
by John P. Jones
1972 Survey of Disabled and Nondisabled Adults: Chronic Disease, Injury, and Work Disability
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 4 (released April 1978)
by Aaron Krute and Mary Ellen Burdette
The 1973 CPS-IRS-SSA Exact Match Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 7 (released July 1988)
by Beth Kilss and Frederick J. Scheuren
The 1973 CPS-IRS-SSA Exact Match Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 10 (released October 1978)
by Beth Kilss and Frederick J. Scheuren
1981 and 1982 Changes in the Unemployment Insurance Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 5 (released May 1983)
by Daniel N. Price
The 1982 New Beneficiary Survey: An Introduction
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 3 (released March 1988)
by Linda Drazga Maxfield
The 1982 New Beneficiary Survey: An Introduction
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 11 (released November 1983)
by Linda Drazga Maxfield
The 1984 Amendments to the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 4 (released April 1985)
by Daniel N. Price
The 1984 Federal Poverty Income Guidelines
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 7 (released July 1984)
by Gordon M. Fisher
The 1985 Federal Poverty Income Guidelines
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 7 (released July 1985)
by Gordon M. Fisher
The 1993 SIPP and CPS Pension Surveys
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 4 (released October 1995)
by Howard M. Iams

2

The 2006 Earnings Public-Use Microdata File: An Introduction
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 4 (released November 2011)
by Michael Compson

This article introduces the 2006 Earnings Public-Use File (EPUF), a data file containing earnings records for individuals drawn from a 1-percent sample of all Social Security numbers issued before January 2007. The EPUF contains selected demographic and earnings information for 4.3 million individuals. It provides aggregate earnings data for 1937 to 1950 and annual earnings data for 1951 to 2006.

A

A Comprehensive Social Security Program: Excerpts From the President's Messages
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 1 (released January 1948)
A National Health Program: Message From the President
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 12 (released December 1945)
Access Restrictions and Confidentiality Protections in the Health and Retirement Study
Research and Statistics Note No. 2009-01 (released July 2009)
by Lionel P. Deang and Paul S. Davies

Organizations involved in statistical surveys of human subjects face two important and competing challenges: protecting data confidentiality while maximizing data accessibility to potential researchers. This note examines how the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), conducted by the Institute for Social Research of the University of Michigan, attempts to balance data confidentiality with the desire to broaden the pool of potential data users. Current HRS procedures are summarized and compared with those of organizations with similar programs, and potential ways to expand HRS use without compromising confidentiality are discussed.

Access to Social Security Microdata Files for Research and Statistical Purposes
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 8 (released August 1978)
by Lois A. Alexander and Thomas B. Jabine
Accounting Operations of the Bureau of Old-Age Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 6 (released June 1938)
by Joseph L. Fay and Max J. Wasserman
The Accuracy of Survey-Reported Marital Status: Evidence from Survey Records Matched to Social Security Records
ORES Working Paper No. 80 (released January 1999)
by David A. Weaver

Many researchers have concluded that, in surveys, divorced persons often fail to report accurate marital information. In this paper, I revisit this issue using a new source of data—surveys exactly matched to Social Security data. I find that divorced persons frequently misreport their marital status, but there is evidence that the misreporting is unintentional. A discussion of possible improvements in surveys is presented. Implications for the study of differential mortality and the study of poverty among aged women are discussed.

Activities and Expenditures of Preretirees
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 8 (released August 1975)
by Janet H. Murray
Actual Costs of the Social Security System Over the Years Compared with 1935 Estimates
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 3 (released March 1982)
by Robert J. Myers
Actuarial Aspects of Financing Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 11 (released November 1988)
by Robert J. Myers
Actuarial Aspects of Financing Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 6 (released June 1953)
by Robert J. Myers
Actuarial Cost Estimates For OASDI and HI and for Various Possible Changes in OASDI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 3 (released March 1983)
Actuarial Factors in Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 4 (released April 1944)
Actuarial Status of the HI and SMI Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 6 (released June 1988)
Actuarial Status of the HI and SMI Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 54 No. 6 (released June 1991)
Actuarial Status of the HI and SMI Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 6 (released June 1987)
by Barbara Klees and Carter Warfield
Actuarial Status of the HI and SMI Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 7 (released July 1986)
by Barbara Klees and Carter Warfield
Actuarial Status of the HI and SMI Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 6 (released June 1985)
by Sol Mussey
Actuarial Status of the HI and SMI Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 5 (released May 1984)
by Sol Mussey
Actuarial Status of the HI Trust Fund
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 6 (released June 1990)
Actuarial Status of the Hospital Insurance and Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 10 (released October 1983)
by Roland E. King
Actuarial Status of the OASI and DI Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 6 (released June 1988)
by Harry C. Ballantyne
Actuarial Status of the OASI and DI Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 54 No. 6 (released June 1991)
Actuarial Status of the OASI and DI Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 6 (released June 1990)
by Harry C. Ballantyne
Actuarial Status of the OASI and DI Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 6 (released June 1989)
Actuarial Status of the OASI and DI Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 6 (released June 1987)
by Harry C. Ballantyne
Actuarial Status of the OASI and DI Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 7 (released July 1986)
by Harry C. Ballantyne
Actuarial Status of the OASI and DI Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 6 (released June 1985)
by Harry C. Ballantyne
Actuarial Status of the OASI and DI Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 5 (released May 1984)
by Harry C. Ballantyne
Actuarial Status of the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Disability Insurance Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 10 (released October 1983)
by Harry C. Ballantyne
Actuarial Status of the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Disability Insurance Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 6 (released June 1982)
by Harry C. Ballantyne
Actuarial Status of the SMI Trust Fund
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 6 (released June 1990)
Actuarial Status of the Social Security and Medicare Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 1 (released January 1994)
Actuarial Status of the Social Security and Medicare Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 1 (released January 1993)
Actuarial Status of the Social Security and Medicare Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 2 (released April 1992)
Adding Immigrants to Microsimulation Models
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68 No. 1 (released August 2008)
by Harriet Orcutt Duleep and Daniel J. Dowhan

Given immigration's recent resurgence as an important demographic fact in the U.S. economy, U.S. policy modelers are just beginning to grapple with how best to integrate immigrants into policy models. Building on the research reviewed in the first article of this series, this article puts forth a conceptual basis for incorporating immigration into a key type of policy model—microsimulation—with a focus on the projection of immigrant earnings.

Addressing the Challenges Facing SSA's Disability Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 3 (released August 2006)

An outline of the current initiatives—for example, the implementation of the Ticket to Work program and various demonstration projects designed to promote work resumption—undertaken to address the challenges facing SSA's disability programs. The article also contains a summary of the agency's efforts to enhance the efficiency of its administration of the disability programs, including the establishment of an eDib electronic disability folder and the creation of a workgroup to consider ideas for simplifying the SSI program.

Adequacy of Benefit Duration in Michigan, 1938-39: A Survey of Experience in a Minor Depression
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 9 (released September 1940)
by Paul L. Stanchfield
Adequacy of the Income of Beneficiaries Under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 2 (released February 1948)
by Lelia M. Easson
Adequacy of Unemployment Benefits in the Detroit Area During the 1938 Recession
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 11 (released November 1940)
by Daniel Creamer and Arthur C. Wellman
Adjusted Estimates of the Size Distribution of Family Money Income for 1972
ORES Working Paper No. 24 (released October 1981)
by Daniel B. Radner

It is well-known that for most purposes income size distribution data collected in household surveys are far from ideal. The problems with those data can be separated into two types: the data items that are collected, and the accuracy of the data collected. Usually, although there are important exceptions, the income data collected are confined to cash income before taxes, thus ignoring the effects of both taxes and noncash income of all types. Also, the income estimates usually are for one year, which often is not the best accounting period for analysis. Furthermore, there usually is a lack of adequate detail by income type, and the data ordinarily are not sufficiently detailed to adjust for changes in the composition of the family unit during the income accounting period.

Adjusting Administration to War Time
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 11 (released November 1943)
by Oscar M. Powell
Adjustment of Old-Age Pensions in Foreign Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 5 (released May 1970)
by Max Horlick and Doris Lewis
Administering Old-Age Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 5 (released May 1938)
by John J. Corson
Administering Social Security: Challenges Yesterday and Today
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70 No. 3 (released August 2010)
by Carolyn Puckett

During its 75-year history, the Social Security Administration (SSA) has faced many administrative challenges. This article depicts some of those challenges—involving legislative demands, staffing and workloads, infrastructure and technology, logistics and procedures, emergency response operations, and other matters—and the steps that SSA has taken to deal with them.

Administering Unemployment Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 11 (released November 1945)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
Administration and Service Delivery in the SSI Program: The First 10 Years
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 8 (released August 1984)
by William Farrell, Rene Parent, and Michael Tenney
Administration of Aid to Dependent Children and Mothers' Aid in December 1937
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 12 (released December 1938)
by Dorothy R. Bucklin and John M. Lynch
The Administration of General Relief in the States During 1940
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 3 (released March 1941)
by Dorothy R. Bucklin and Alden J. Teske
The Administration of Merit Rating Under Pooled-Fund Laws
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 11 (released November 1938)
by Charles V. Kidd
Administration of the Servicemen's Dependents Allowance Act of 1942
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 7 (released July 1943)
by Harry Grossman
Administrative Costs for Social Security Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 11 (released November 1988)
by Alexander Estrin
Administrative Costs for Social Security Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 8 (released August 1986)
by Max Horlick
Administrative Costs for Social Security Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 6 (released June 1976)
by Max Horlick
Administrative Developments in the Social Security Programs Since 1965
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 4 (released April 1972)
by Jack S. Futterman
Administrative Expenses of the Social Security Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 9 (released September 1969)
by Robert J. Myers
Administrative Expenses Under OASDI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 3 (released March 1981)
by Bruce D. Schobel
The Administrative Review in Federal-State Social Security Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 7 (released July 1946)
by William L. Mitchell
Administrative Review in Public Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 10 (released October 1943)
by Kathryn D. Goodwin
Adoption of Children in 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 3 (released March 1953)
by I. Richard Perlman and Jack Wiener
Adoptions in 1955
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 6 (released June 1957)
by Henry C. Lajewski
Adult Assistance Programs Under the Social Security Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 10 (released October 1985)
by Herman F. Grundmann
The Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Social Welfare Strategies
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 3 (released July 1994)
by Lawrence H. Thompson
AFDC: Good Cause Claims for Refusing to Cooperate in Establishing Paternity or Securing Child Support
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 5 (released May 1983)
by Ruthellen Mulberg
African Americans: Description of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income Participation and Benefit Levels Using the American Community Survey
Research and Statistics Note No. 2014-01 (released January 2014)
by Patricia P. Martin and John L. Murphy

The authors use American Community Survey (ACS) data to compare Social Security and Supplemental Security Income program participation and benefit levels of African Americans with those of the general population. The ACS data show that African Americans are more likely to be Supplemental Security Income recipients, and less likely to be Social Security beneficiaries. Higher rates of poverty, disability, and mortality among African Americans mean that they are also more likely to rely on Social Security survivor and disability benefits than are other beneficiaries.

After Fifteen Years: A Report on Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 1 (released January 1952)
by Oscar C. Pogge
Age and Sex Differentials in Taxable Wages Reported for 1937
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 6 (released June 1939)
by Max J. Wasserman and Katherine D. Wood
Age and Sex of Persons Receiving Both OASI Benefits and OAA Payments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 10 (released October 1963)
by Robert J. Myers
Age Differences in Health Care Spending, Fiscal Year 1974
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 6 (released June 1975)
by Marjorie Smith Mueller and Robert M. Gibson
Age Differences in Health Care Spending, Fiscal Year 1975
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 6 (released June 1976)
by Marjorie Smith Mueller and Robert M. Gibson
Age Differences in Health Care Spending, Fiscal Year 1976
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 8 (released August 1977)
by Robert M. Gibson, Marjorie Smith Mueller, and Charles R. Fisher
Age Differences in Health Care Spending, Fiscal Year 1977
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 1 (released January 1979)
by Robert M. Gibson and Charles R. Fisher
Age Differences in Medical Care Spending, Fiscal Year 1972
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 5 (released May 1973)
by Barbara S. Cooper and Nancy L. Worthington
Age Differences in Medical Care Spending, Fiscal Year 1973
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 5 (released May 1974)
by Barbara S. Cooper and Paula A. Piro
Age Distribution of Workers in Industries Under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 3 (released March 1947)
by George H. Trafton
Age of the Population and Per Capita Income, by State, 1953
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 12 (released December 1954)
Age of Wife When Husband Retires
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 12 (released December 1955)
by Robert J. Myers
Age of Workers in Covered Employment: Industry Differences, 1949
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 4 (released April 1953)
by Anna Bercowitz
Age, Sex, and Color of Applicants for Account Numbers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 9 (released September 1938)
Age, Sex, and Color of Wage Earners for Whom Death Claims Were Certified in 1937
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 7 (released July 1939)
by Willard C. Smith and Katherine D. Wood
Age, Work and Capacity Devaluation
ORES Working Paper No. 30 (released September 1983)
by Joseph Greenblum

To be awarded Disability Insurance benefits, an individual must have an objectively determinable, severe medical condition or impairment that, according to Social Security regulations, is serious enough that it can be presumed to keep the individual from working. We know, however, that some people who have medical conditions serious enough to qualify them for disability benefits are nevertheless able to continue working, while others who consider themselves unable to work do not have a serious enough impairment to qualify them for benefits. Whether or not a seriously impaired individual files for Social Security Disability Insurance benefits (SSDI) will depend, in part, on his or her own self-assessment of his ability to work, i.e., whether he considers himself to be severely disabled. This self-assessment depends upon many factors in addition to the actual severity of the individual's medical condition. These factors, therefore, become important elements in the decision to apply for SSDI benefits. This report examines how the relationship between measures of actual individual functional capacity and individual self-assessments of work capacity vary by age and other important job-related attributes.

The Age-18 Redetermination and Postredetermination Participation in SSI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 69 No. 4 (released December 2009)
by Jeffrey Hemmeter and Elaine Gilby

This article describes the outcomes of the redetermination of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) eligibility when a child recipient reaches age 18. Statistics on the characteristics of youth whose eligibility is redetermined are presented using 8 years of administrative data, and the relationship between these characteristics and both an initial cessation decision and a successful appeal or reapplication for SSI are discussed.

Aged Beneficiaries of OASI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 12 (released December 1956)
Aged Beneficiaries of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and the Aged Population
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 1 (released January 1949)
Aged Beneficiaries, Assistance Recipients, and the Aged in the General Population
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 6 (released June 1946)
by Jacob Fisher
The Aged in The Population in 1960 and Their Income Sources
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 7 (released July 1961)
by Lenore A. Epstein
The Aged Negro and His Income
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 2 (released February 1964)
by Mollie Orshansky
Aged OASDHI Beneficiaries: Interstate Migration
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 5 (released May 1970)
by William J. Nelson, Jr.
Aged OASI Beneficiaries Outnumber OAA Recipients
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 8 (released August 1951)
Aged Persons Receiving Both OASDHI and OAS, Early 1970
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 2 (released February 1971)
Aged Persons Receiving Both OASDI and OAA, Early 1967
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 4 (released April 1968)
Aged Persons Receiving Both OASDI and PA, Early 1963
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 10 (released October 1964)
by David B. Eppley
Aged Persons Receiving Both OASDI and PA, Early 1966
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 5 (released May 1967)
Aged SSI Recipients: Income, Work History, and Social Security Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 54 No. 8 (released August 1991)
by Charles G. Scott
Aged Widows and OASDI: Age At and Economic Status Before and After Receipt of Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 3 (released March 1981)
by Gayle Thompson Rogers
Aged Women OASDI Beneficiaries: Income and Characteristics, 1971
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 4 (released April 1977)
by Gayle B. Thompson
The Aged, Family and Friends
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 11 (released November 1965)
by Irving Rosow
The Agricultural Wage Worker In Employment Covered by Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 7 (released July 1941)
by Fred Safier, Walter Quinn, and Edward J. Fitzgerald
Aid to Dependent Children in a Postwar Year
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 8 (released August 1950)
by Elizabeth T. Alling and Agnes Leisy
Aid to Dependent Children of Unemployed Parents: The First Seven Months of Operation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 8 (released August 1962)
Aid to Families Width Dependent Children: Characteristics of Recipients in 1979
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 4 (released April 1982)
by Henrietta J. Duvall, Karen W. Goudreau, and Robert E. Marsh
Aid to Families With Dependent Children: An Overview, October 1977
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 10 (released October 1977)
by Leon D. Platky
Aid to Families With Dependent Children: Initial Findings of the 1961 Report on the Characteristics of Recipients
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 3 (released March 1963)
by Robert H. Mugge
Aid to the Blind: Earned Income of Recipients, September 1950
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 1 (released January 1953)
by Sadie Saffian
Aid to the Permanently and Totally Disabled
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 12 (released December 1950)
by Phyllis Hill
Aid to the Permanently and Totally Disabled: Characteristics of Men and Women Recipients
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 11 (released November 1953)
by Saul Kaplan
Aid to the Permanently and Totally Disabled: Recipients with Heart Disease
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 7 (released July 1953)
by Charles E. Hawkins
Aid to the Permanently and Totally Disabled: The Young Recipients
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 10 (released October 1953)
by Garnett A. Lester
Alcoholics and Drug Addicts Receiving SSI Payments, August 1977
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 1 (released January 1980)
by Thomas V. Rush
Alimony and Public Income Support: Fifteen Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 1 (released January 1977)
by Elizabeth Kreitler Kirkpatrick
Allocation of Time and Resources by Married Couples Approaching Retirement
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 4 (released April 1980)
by Robert L. Clark, Thomas Johnson, and Ann Archibald McDermed
Allotment Formula, Hospital Survey and Construction Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 5 (released May 1954)
Alternate Measures of Replacement Rates for Social Security Benefits and Retirement Income
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68 No. 2 (released October 2008)
by Andrew G. Biggs and Glenn R. Springstead

Replacement rates are common and useful tools used by individuals and policy analysts to plan for retirement and assess the sufficiency of Social Security benefits and overall retirement income. Because the calculation and meaning of replacement rates differs depending on the definition of preretirement earnings, this article examines four alternative measures: final preretirement earnings, constant income payable from the present value of lifetime earnings (PV payment), wage-indexed average of lifetime earnings, and inflation-adjusted average of lifetime earnings (CPI average). The article also calculates replacement rates for Social Security beneficiaries aged 64–66 in 2005.

Alternative Estimates of Economic Well-Being by Age Using Data on Wealth and Income
ORES Working Paper No. 42 (released March 1990)
by Daniel B. Radner

Most analyses of economic status use only income as the measure of resources. It is clear, however, that wealth also plays an important role in economic well-being. The existence of both income and asset tests for eligibility purposes in several government transfer programs (e.g., Supplemental Security Income, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, food stamps) suggests the importance of both wealth and income. Units of the same age, income, and needs are not equally well off if they have different amounts of wealth. A fully satisfactory way of taking differences in wealth into account in a combined income-wealth measure is not available. Particularly controversial is the comparison of different age groups when such measures are used. This exploratory paper examines the use of income-wealth measures for the analysis of the distribution of economic well-being for age groups in the current period.

Amended OASI Benefit Formula
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 5 (released May 1951)
Amendments to Australia's National Health Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 12 (released December 1971)
by Evelyn Peel
Amendments to the Civil Service Retirement Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 11 (released November 1952)
Amendments to the Civil Service Retirement Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 12 (released December 1950)
Amendments to the Civil Service Retirement Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 11 (released November 1949)
Amendments to the Civil Service Retirement Act, 1962
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 2 (released February 1963)
by John P. Jones
Amendments to the Public Assistance Provisions of the Social Security Act, 1961
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 7 (released July 1961)
Amendments to the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 1 (released January 1964)
by Marice C. Hart
Amendments to the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 11 (released November 1940)
by Solomon Kuznets
American Indian SSI Recipients in Selected Areas
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 7 (released July 1977)
by Jack Schmulowitz and Richard A. Bell
Analysis of Grants to 586,000 Recipients of Old-Age Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 11 (released November 1938)
An Analysis of Medicare Administrative Costs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 8 (released August 1974)
by Ronald J. Vogel and Roger D. Blair
Analysis of Nonparticipation in the SSI Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 6 (released June 1981)
by John A. Menefee, Bea Edwards, and Sylvester J. Schieber
Analysis of Social Security Proposals Intended to Help Women: Preliminary Results
ORES Working Paper No. 88 (released January 2001)
by Sharmila Choudhury, Michael V. Leonesio, Kelvin R. Utendorf, Linda Del Bene, and Robert V. Gesumaria

One aspect of the current debate about changing the Social Security program concerns how new rules might affect elderly women, many of whom have low income. This paper examines three possible changes: (1) a reduction in spousal benefits combined with a change in the computation of the survivor benefit, (2) a redefined minimum benefit, and (3) a 5 percent increase in benefits for persons aged 80 or older. The paper assesses the cost, distributional consequences, and antipoverty impact of each option.

An Analysis of the Administrative Expenses of 28 Public-Assistance Agencies During 1938-39
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 2 (released February 1940)
by Joel Gordon
Analysis of the Advisory Council's Proposal to Tax One-Half of Social Security Benefits
ORES Working Paper No. 25 (released October 1981)
by Richard F. Dye

This paper presents analysis of the distributional and other effects of a change from the existing income tax exclusion of Social Security benefits to the proposed 50 percent inclusion. In emphasizing the differences between these two policies, very limited attention will be given to other policy alternatives.

Analyzing the Administrative Expenses of Public-Assistance Agencies
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 5 (released May 1939)
by Joel Gordon
Annual Earnings and the Taxable Maximum for OASDHI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 11 (released November 1966)
by Michael Resnick
Annual Wage Trends for Supplemental Security Income Recipients
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 2 (released August 2004)
by Richard Balkus and Susan Wilschke

As a means-tested program, the Supplemental Security Income program considers a recipient's income from wages and other sources when determining eligibility and the monthly benefit amount. This study examines annual earnings for a sample of Supplemental Security Income recipients and, in the case of child recipients, their spouses and parents to evaluate the feasibility of using average annual wages in place of monthly wages when determining benefit amounts. The data show substantial variation in earnings from one year to the next. The results do not point to any clear distinctions in wage patterns among recipients or ineligible spouses and parents that would make any one group a better candidate for estimating and verifying wages on an annual basis.

Another Dimension to Measuring Early Retirement
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 12 (released December 1967)
Another Look at Workmen's Compensation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 10 (released October 1970)
by Alfred M. Skolnik and Daniel N. Price
Antecedents of Mortality Among the Old-Age Assistance Population
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 7 (released July 1979)
by John L. McCoy
Antipoverty Policies and Changing Welfare Concepts in Canada
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 7 (released July 1970)
The Appeals System in Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 7 (released July 1946)
by Ernest R. Burton
Appeals Under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 1 (released January 1952)
Appeals Under the SSI Program: January 1974-August 1976
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 4 (released April 1979)
by Satya Kochhar
Applicants for Account Numbers, 1948
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 7 (released July 1949)
Applicants for Account Numbers, 1949
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 8 (released August 1950)
Applicants for Account Numbers, 1950
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 8 (released August 1951)
Applicants for Account Numbers, 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 8 (released August 1952)
Applicants for Account Numbers, 1952
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 8 (released August 1953)
Applicants for Account Numbers, 1953
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 8 (released August 1954)
Applicants for Account Numbers, 1954
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 7 (released July 1955)
Applicants for Account Numbers, 1955
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 8 (released August 1956)
Applicants for Account Numbers, 1956
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 9 (released September 1957)
Applicants for Account Numbers, 1957
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 9 (released September 1958)
Applicants for Account Numbers, 1958
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 10 (released October 1959)
Applicants for Account Numbers, 1959
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 1 (released January 1961)
by George Aberle, Jr.
Applicants for Account Numbers, 1960
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 2 (released February 1962)
by George Aberle, Jr.
Applicants for Account Numbers, April–June 1949
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 11 (released November 1949)
Applicants for Account Numbers, by Age, Sex, and Color, January-March 1939
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 8 (released August 1939)
by Willard C. Smith and Katherine D. Wood
Applicants for Account Numbers, January–March 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 11 (released November 1951)
Application of Experimental Poverty Measures to the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 3 (released January 2000)
by Kelly A. Olsen

This article examines poverty among persons aged 65 or older under experimental measures, which are based on a 1995 report released by the National Academy of Sciences. When compared with the official measure, the experimental measure produces higher poverty rates for all groups and narrower differences in poverty rates across groups.

Applications for Public Assistance Under the Social Security Act--1937
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 4 (released April 1938)
Applications Received in 1987 and Allowance Rates for Supplemental Security Income
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 54 No. 7 (released July 1991)
by Howard D. Oberheu
Argentina's Pensions System
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 1 (released April 2002)
by Barbara E. Kritzer
Arkansas Missile-Site Disaster: Survivor Benefits Payable
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 4 (released April 1966)
by George I. Kowalczyk
As the Bulletin Turns Fifty…
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 3 (released March 1988)
Assessing the Economic Status of the Aged and Nonaged Using Alternative Income-Wealth Measures
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 3 (released March 1990)
by Daniel B. Radner
Assessing the Performance of Life-Cycle Portfolio Allocation Strategies for Retirement Saving: A Simulation Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70 No. 1 (released February 2010)
by Benjamin Bridges, Robert V. Gesumaria, and Michael V. Leonesio

The investment performance of life-cycle portfolio allocation strategies is evaluated using a stochastic simulation based on historical asset returns during 1926–2008. Lifetime contribution streams to the accounts are determined using the actual earnings histories of 13,000 workers born in 1915–1942. The results are compared with those of four alternative strategies that vary in terms of investor exposure to stock and bond market risk.

Assessment of Retirement Plan Coverage by Firm Size Using W-2 Tax Records
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 2 (released May 2011)
by Irena Dushi, Howard M. Iams, and Jules Lichtenstein

Of particular interest in this article is the relationship between firm size and pension coverage and participation because small businesses tend to be less likely to offer retirement benefits to their employees than do large businesses. This relationship is particularly important given the current administration's retirement proposals to create automatic individual retirement accounts. Obviously, accurate information is important not only in formulating retirement income security policies that target workers without retirement plan coverage, but also to assess the impact of such policies on workers' retirement plan participation.

An Assessment of the Economic Status of the Aged
ORES Working Paper No. 55 (released April 1992)
by Daniel B. Radner

This paper discusses what is known about the economic status of the aged. Numerous complexities involved in the assessment of the economic status of the aged are discussed. Compared with most other recent assessments, this study shows a less favorable status for the aged relative to other age groups. The focus is on an examination of detailed age groups, rather than summary aged and nonaged groups, thus providing a more complete picture of age differences. More than most other assessments, this study stresses uncertainty about the relative status of the aged and emphasizes what we do not know. The need for better adjustments for differences in needs among age and other subgroups of the population is stressed. The need for consistency between the definition of resources and the specification of needs is also emphasized. The vulnerability of the aged to economic risks is discussed.

Asset Holdings of the Newly Disabled: Findings From the New Beneficiary Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 12 (released December 1986)
by Martynas A. Yčas
Assets Held by Aged Beneficiaries of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance at End of 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 5 (released May 1956)
by Vivian B. Norman
Assets of New Retired-Worker Beneficiaries: Findings From the New Beneficiary Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 7 (released July 1985)
by Sally R. Sherman
Assets of the Aged in 1962: Findings of the 1963 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 11 (released November 1964)
by Leon D. Platky
Assets of the Elderly as They Retire
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 1 (released January 1981)
by Joseph Friedman and Jane Sjogren
Assets on the Threshold of Retirement
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 8 (released August 1973)
by Sally R. Sherman
Assistance Expenditures Per Inhabitant, 1940–50
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 3 (released March 1951)
by Frank J. Hanmer and Ellen J. Perkins
Assistance Expenditures Per Inhabitant, 1949
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 5 (released May 1950)
Assistance Expenditures Per Inhabitant, 1950–51
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 4 (released April 1952)
Assistance Expenditures Per Inhabitant, 1951–52
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 4 (released April 1953)
Assistance Expenditures Per Inhabitant, 1952–53
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 3 (released March 1954)
Assistance Expenditures Per Inhabitant, 1953–54
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 5 (released May 1955)
Assistance Expenditures Per Inhabitant, 1954-55
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 3 (released March 1956)
Assistance Expenditures Per Inhabitant, 1955–56
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 3 (released March 1957)
Assistance Expenditures Per Inhabitant, 1956–57
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 4 (released April 1958)
by Frank J. Hanmer
Assistance Expenditures Per Inhabitant, 1957–58
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 5 (released May 1959)
by Frank J. Hanmer
Assistance Expenditures Per Inhabitant, 1958–59
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 4 (released April 1960)
by Frank J. Hanmer
Assistance Expenditures Per Inhabitant, 1959–60
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 5 (released May 1961)
by Frank J. Hanmer
Assistance Expenditures Per Inhabitant, 1960–61
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 7 (released July 1962)
by Frank J. Hanmer
Assistance Expenditures Per Inhabitant, 1961–62
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 7 (released July 1963)
by Frank J. Hanmer
Assistance Payments in Relation to Federal Maximums
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 8 (released August 1948)
Assistance Payments to Patients in Public Medical Institutions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 5 (released May 1952)
Attrition in the New Beneficiary Survey and Followup, and Its Correlates
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 1 (released July 2000)
by Kate Antonovics, Robert Haveman, Karen C. Holden, and Barbara Wolfe

In this article we explore the extent of and reasons for attrition in the New Beneficiary Survey (NBS) between the first interview in 1982 and the followup interview in 1991. We examine a variety of potential determinants of attrition, separating the probability of attrition due to death from a refusal to be interviewed. Because the NBS sample is drawn from and linked to Social Security administrative records, information on mortality as a cause of attrition is exact. Hence, we are able to examine differences in the patterns and predictors of attrition due to these two causes of attrition and differences between attrition among retired and disabled workers.

Austrian Experience with Retraining to Meet Labor-Market Needs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 10 (released October 1940)
by Arnold Steinbach
Automatic Adjustment of OASDHI Cash Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 5 (released May 1970)
by Daniel N. Price and Robert O. Brunner
Automatic Cost-of-Living Adjustment of Pensions in Foreign Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 3 (released March 1960)
by Daniel S. Gerig
Automatic Increases Under the Social Security Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 7 (released July 1976)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Automatic Increases Under the Social Security Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 7 (released July 1975)
by Albert Rettig
Average Wages for 1985–90 for Indexing Under the Social Security Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 4 (released October 1992)
by Michael D. Clingman and Jeffrey L. Kunkel

B

A Basic Minimum Program of Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 1 (released January 1944)
The Basic Skill in Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 1 (released January 1944)
by Karl de Schweinitz
Basis and Background of the Retirement Test
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 3 (released March 1954)
by Robert J. Myers
Behavioral and Psychological Aspects of the Retirement Decision
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 4 (released November 2011)
by Melissa A. Z. Knoll

The majority of research dealing with the retirement decision has focused on the health and wealth aspects of retirement. Research in the areas of judgment and decision making and behavioral economics suggests that there may be a number of behavioral factors that influence the retirement decision as well. This review highlights such factors and offers a unique perspective on potential determinants of retirement behavior, including anchoring and framing effects, affective forecasting, hyperbolic discounting, and the planning fallacy. The author describes findings from previous research, as well as draws novel connections between existing decision-making research and the retirement decision.

The Bellmon Report
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 5 (released May 1982)
Beneficiaries Affected by Annual Earnings Test in 1973
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 9 (released September 1977)
by Barbara A. Lingg
Beneficiaries Affected by the Annual Earnings Test in 1975
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 12 (released December 1978)
by Barbara A. Lingg
Beneficiaries Affected by the Annual Earnings Test in 1977
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 12 (released December 1980)
by Barbara A. Lingg
Beneficiaries Affected by the Annual Earnings Test in 1978
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 4 (released April 1983)
by Barbara A. Lingg
Beneficiaries Affected by the Annual Earnings Test in 1980
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 11 (released November 1984)
by Barbara A. Lingg
Beneficiaries Affected by the Annual Earnings Test in 1982
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 5 (released May 1986)
by Barbara A. Lingg
Beneficiaries Affected by the Annual Earnings Test, 1989
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 1 (released January 1993)
by Joseph Bondar
Beneficiaries Prefer to Work
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 1 (released January 1951)
by Margaret L. Stecker
Beneficiaries With Minimum Benefits: Their Characteristics in 1967
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 10 (released October 1969)
by Harry Shulman
Beneficiaries With Minimum Benefits: Work-History of Retired Workers Newly Entitled in 1966
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 12 (released December 1969)
by Judith S. Bretz
Benefit Adequacy Among Elderly Social Security Retired-Worker Beneficiaries and the SSI Federal Benefit Rate
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 3 (released April 2008)
by Kalman Rupp, Alexander Strand, Paul S. Davies, and James Sears

The federal benefit rate (FBR) of the Supplemental Security Income program provides an inflation-indexed income guarantee for aged and disabled people with low assets. Some consider the FBR as an attractive measure of Social Security benefit adequacy. Others propose the FBR as an administratively simple, well-targeted minimum Social Security benefit. However, these claims have not been empirically tested. Using microdata from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this article finds that the FBR is an imprecise measure of benefit adequacy; it incorrectly identifies as economically vulnerable many who are not poor, and disregards some who are poor. The reason for this is that the FBR-level benefit threshold of adequacy considers the Social Security benefit in isolation and ignores the family consumption unit. The FBR would provide an administratively simple but poorly targeted foundation for a minimum Social Security benefit. The empirical estimates quantify the substantial tradeoffs between administrative simplicity and target effectiveness.

Benefit Adequacy in State Workers' Compensation Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 4 (released May 2005)
by H. Allan Hunt

This article summarizes several different methods used to measure the adequacy of wage replacement in state workers' compensation systems in the United States. Empirical research casts serious doubt on benefit adequacy, especially in the case of more serious disabilities.

[Errata: The electronic versions of this article that were originally posted contained incorrect labels on the lines in Chart 3. The labels have been updated in the electronic versions and are correct in the print publication.]

Benefit Amounts Under 1971 Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 9 (released September 1971)
by Harry Shulman
Benefit Increases Resulting From the Conversion of Monthly Rates Under the 1965 Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 2 (released February 1966)
by Gerald Hutchinson and Terence Hawkes
Benefit Levels and Socio-economic Characteristics: Findings from the 1969 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 8 (released August 1970)
by Patience Lauriat
Benefit Levels of Newly Retired Workers: Findings from the Survey of New Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 7 (released July 1971)
by Virginia P. Reno and Carol Zuckert
A Benefit of One's Own: Older Women's Entitlement to Social Security Retirement
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 3 (released July 2001)
by Philip B. Levine, Olivia S. Mitchell, and John W. R. Phillips

Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and linked administrative records, we explore differences in old-age benefits between men and women attributable to differences in length of work life and pay. We find that most women are fully insured for Social Security purposes, but those who are not would have to work substantially more to become eligible. Among those who are eligible, additional work would translate into only slightly higher benefits.

Benefit Rights Under Multiple Social Insurance and Public Retirement Systems
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 5 (released May 1943)
by Ida C. Merriam
Benefit Rights Under Unemployment Insurance, April-June 1948
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 12 (released December 1948)
Benefit Suspensions and "Dry Spells" When Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Beneficiaries Go to Work
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 12 (released December 1944)
by Mignon Sauber
Benefits and Beneficiaries Under Public Employee Retirement Programs, 1980
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 1 (released January 1984)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Benefits and Beneficiaries Under Public Employee Retirement Systems, 1979
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 12 (released December 1982)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Benefits and Beneficiaries Under Public Employee Retirement Systems, 1981 and 1982
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 4 (released April 1985)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Benefits and Beneficiaries Under Public Employee Retirement Systems, 1983
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 4 (released April 1986)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Benefits and Beneficiaries Under Public Employee Retirement Systems, Calendar Year 1977
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 4 (released April 1980)
by Ann Kallman Bixby and Alma W. McMillan
Benefits and Beneficiaries Under Public Employee Retirement Systems, Fiscal Year 1987
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 6 (released June 1990)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Benefits and Beneficiaries Under Public Employee Retirement Systems, Fiscal Year 1989
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 2 (released April 1992)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Benefits and Beneficiaries Under Public Employee Retirement Systems, Fiscal Year 1990
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 3 (released July 1993)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Benefits and Beneficiaries Under Public Employee Retirement Systems, Fiscal Year 1991
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 1 (released January 1995)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Benefits and Beneficiaries Under the Civil Service Retirement Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 4 (released April 1941)
by Ruth Reticker
Benefits and Contributions Under National Compulsory Health Insurance Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 1 (released January 1951)
Benefits Awarded Under 1965 Amendments, September–November 1965
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 3 (released March 1966)
Benefits for Grandchildren and Certain Blind Persons Under 1972 Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 6 (released June 1974)
by Barbara A. Lingg
Benefits for Individual Retired Workers and Couples Now Approaching Retirement Age
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 2 (released February 1982)
by Virginia P. Reno and Anne Dee Rader
Benefits for Survivors of Men Lost on the U.S.S. Thresher
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 2 (released February 1964)
by George I. Kowalczyk
Benefits in Current-Payment Status, State Distribution
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 7 (released July 1951)
Benefits Paid Abroad Under OASDHI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 2 (released February 1969)
by William M. Yoffee
Bermuda's New Social Security Law
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 2 (released February 1969)
Bibliography on War Measures of Foreign Countries in Social Insurance and Related Fields
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 4 (released April 1942)
by Fred Safier and Arthur F. Ackermann
Big-City Dropouts and Illiterates
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 7 (released July 1966)
by Robert A. Dentler and Mary Ellen Warshauer
Bipartisan Commission on Entitlement and Tax Reform
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 2 (released April 1995)
by Rita L. DiSimone
Black Lung Amendments of 1977
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 8 (released August 1978)
Black Lung Benefits Revision
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 11 (released November 1982)
by Daniel N. Price
Black Lung Benefits, July 1970
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 3 (released March 1971)
by Philip R. Lerner and Jack Schmulowitz
Black Lung Benefits: An Administrative Review
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 10 (released October 1971)
Blacks and Social Security Benefits: Trends, 1960–73
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 4 (released April 1975)
by Gayle B. Thompson
Black-White Differences in Private Pensions: Findings From the Retirement History Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 2 (released February 1979)
by Gayle B. Thompson
Blind and Disabled Persons Awarded Federally Administered SSI Payments, 1975
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 6 (released June 1979)
by Satya Kochhar
Blue Cross Provisions for Aged Persons, Late 1958
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 5 (released May 1959)
by Agnes W. Brewster and Ruth Bloodgood
Born To Be Poor: Birthplace and Number of Brothers and Sisters As Factors in Adult Poverty
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 1 (released January 1976)
by Mollie Orshansky and Judith S. Bretz
British Commonwealth Areas of the Caribbean
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 4 (released April 1969)
by Robert W. Weise, Jr.
British Contributory Pensions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 4 (released April 1939)
by Alexander Fleisher and Eric Kocher
British National Health Services Expenditures
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 6 (released June 1950)
British Proposals for the Future of Social Insurance and Services
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 12 (released December 1942)
by Elizabeth L. Otey
The British White Paper on Employment Policy
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 9 (released September 1944)
British White Paper On Social Security Reform
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 5 (released May 1969)
Budget for an Elderly Couple
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 7 (released July 1949)
A Budget for an Elderly Couple
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 2 (released February 1948)
Budget for an Elderly Couple: Interim Revision by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 12 (released December 1960)
by Mollie Orshansky
Budget Summary, 1949–50
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 2 (released February 1949)
Budgeting To Meet Total Needs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 2 (released February 1948)
by Evalyn G. Weller
Bulgaria Revises Family Allowances
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 10 (released October 1968)
The Bulletin Turns Forty
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 6 (released June 1978)

C

Canada Pension Plan Amended
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 8 (released August 1975)
by Robert W. Weise, Jr.
Canada Pension Plan of 1965
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 11 (released November 1965)
by Daniel S. Gerig and Robert J. Myers
The Canada Pension Plan's Experience with Investing Its Portfolio in Equities
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 2 (released September 2002)
by Mark A. Sarney and Amy M. Preneta

This article examines the experience of the Canada Pension Plan (CPP) in investing its surplus funds in equities. The CPP investment policy is viewed by some experts as a possible model for increasing the investment income of Social Security. The article discusses the key features of this policy, its implementation, and results to date.

Canada's Federal-Provincial Program of Hospitalization Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 7 (released July 1959)
by Agnes W. Brewster
Canada's New Unemployment Insurance Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 2 (released February 1972)
by Robert W. Weise, Jr.
Canada's Old-Age Security Program: First Decade of Operations
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 12 (released December 1962)
by Robert J. Myers
Canadian Act for Assistance to Disabled Persons
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 2 (released February 1955)
Canadian Medical Care Insurance Inaugurated
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 9 (released September 1968)
Canadian Programs for the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 5 (released May 1958)
by Robert J. Myers
Canadian Provisions for Aid for Dependents of Members of the Army and Air Force
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 11 (released November 1941)
The Canadian Safety Net for the Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68 No. 2 (released October 2008)
by Michael Wiseman and Martynas A. Yčas

Canada's Public Pensions System is widely applauded for reducing poverty among the elderly. This article reviews benefits provided to Canada's older people and compares the Canadian system to the U.S. Supplemental Security Income program. Although Canada's system would probably be judged prohibitively expensive for the United States, the authors argue that there are nevertheless lessons to be learned from the Canadian experience.

Canadian Unemployment Insurance Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 7 (released July 1950)
A Career in Public Service
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 12 (released December 1943)
Caregiver Credits in France, Germany, and Sweden: Lessons for the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 4 (released November 2011)
by John Jankowski

Analysts have long considered caregiver credits, or pension credits, provided to individuals for time spent out of the workforce caring for dependent children and sick or elderly relatives, as a way to improve the adequacy of retirement benefits for women in the United States. This article examines the experiences of France, Germany, and Sweden with caregiver credits, focusing particularly on the design, administration, and cost of these programs.

Case Management at Work for SSA Disability Beneficiaries: Process Results of the Project NetWork Return-to-Work Demonstration
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 60 No. 1 (released January 1997)
by Valerie Leiter, Michelle L. Wood, and Stephen H. Bell

This article presents the results of the process analysis of the evaluation of the Project NetWork demonstration, a Federal demonstration undertaken by the Social Security Administration (SSA) in 1991 to test alternative methods of providing rehabilitation and employment services to SSA's Disability Insurance beneficiaries and Supplemental Security Income disabled and blind applicants and recipients. The major findings are: (1) from an operational standpoint, it is feasible to expand access to vocational rehabilitation (VR) services to a broad spectrum of SSA beneficiaries, and (2) roughly similar results are achieved, in terms of client intake and provision of services, when case management services are provided by SSA staff, contracted out to State VR agencies, or contracted with private VR providers. Later evaluation reports will trace demonstration impacts on earnings and disability benefits and report the overall benefits and costs of return-to-work services for this population.

Cash Benefits for Short-Term Sickness, 1948–69
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 1 (released January 1971)
by Daniel N. Price
Cash Benefits for Short-Term Sickness, 1948–70
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 1 (released January 1972)
by Daniel N. Price
Cash Benefits for Short-Term Sickness, 1948–71
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 1 (released January 1973)
by Daniel N. Price
Cash Benefits for Short-Term Sickness, 1948–72
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 1 (released January 1974)
by Daniel N. Price
Cash Benefits for Short-Term Sickness, 1948–74
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 7 (released July 1976)
by Daniel N. Price
Cash Benefits for Short-Term Sickness, 1948–76
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 10 (released October 1978)
by Daniel N. Price
Cash Benefits for Short-Term Sickness, 1948–81
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 8 (released August 1984)
by Daniel N. Price
Cash Benefits For Short-Term Sickness, 1970–94
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 60 No. 1 (released January 1997)
by Wilmer L. Kerns
Cash Benefits for Short-Term Sickness, 1973
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 3 (released March 1975)
by Daniel N. Price
Cash Benefits for Short-Term Sickness, 1975
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 5 (released May 1977)
by Daniel N. Price
Cash Benefits For Short-Term Sickness, 1977
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 11 (released November 1979)
by Daniel N. Price
Cash Benefits for Short-Term Sickness, 1979
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 9 (released September 1982)
by Daniel N. Price
Cash Benefits for Short-Term Sickness: Thirty-five Years of Data, 1948–83
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 5 (released May 1986)
by Daniel N. Price
Cash Benefits Under Voluntary Disability Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 2 (released February 1939)
by Elizabeth L. Otey
Casting up Accounts in Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 12 (released December 1948)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
A Causative Matrix Approach to Mobility Studies
ORES Working Paper No. 5 (released April 1979)
by Barry V. Bye and John C. Hennessey

Markov models have been widely used for the analysis and prediction of shifts in population distribution over time. The point of departure for most of these analyses has been the finite state, time stationary Markov chain. The usual Markov chain model has, however, been shown to be inadequate for most social science applications.

This paper presents a particular kind of discrete time nonstationary Markov chain. Such chains will be built using a mathematical quantity called a causative matrix.

Census Classifications and Social Security Categories
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 4 (released April 1938)
by Laura Wendt
Centralizing Welfare Program Data in Canada and the U.S.
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 7 (released July 1979)
by Christopher Leman
Certification of Disability in Social Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 6 (released June 1941)
by Ruth E. Stocking, M.D.
The Challenge of the 21st Century: Innovating and Adapting Social Security Systems to Economic, Social, and Demographic Changes in the English-Speaking Americas
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 4 (released October 1994)
by Martynas A. Yčas

The Social Security Programs in the United States are complex and have evolved over a long span of years. However, it is possible to categorize much of this experience into two different eras in which Social Security functioned in a distinctive environment, and a third era that is now beginning. The middle third of this century was an "age of invention," in which the programs grew rapidly under favorable social and economic conditions. Since then, the programs have experienced an "age of accommodation," in which growing financial constraints have permitted only limited changes in the program. We can look forward to an "age of maturation" in the decades to come, as most persons reaching retirement will have been covered by Social Security during their entire working careers. The declining ratio of workers to beneficiaries and a wide range of demographic and social changes will present significant challenges. The Social Security programs must change considerably to respond to the demands of a new era, and vigorous efforts to do so are underway.

Changes in Diagnostic Codes at Age 18
Research and Statistics Note No. 2012-04 (released October 2012)
by Jeffrey Hemmeter

This note provides data on the changes in the primary diagnosis codes of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) youth resulting from age-18 redeterminations from 2005 through 2009. It also provides information on the percent of youth continuing on or leaving the SSI program at age 18 by primary diagnosis. Although there is some movement between primary diagnosis codes, most youth remain in the same overall diagnostic group even if program eligibility ceases.

Changes in Food Expenditures, 1969–73: Findings From the Retirement History Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 7 (released July 1978)
by Janet H. Murray
Changes in Italian Social Security System
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 7 (released July 1968)
by Max Horlick and Robert Lucas
Changes in the Demographic and Economic Characteristics of SSI and DI Beneficiaries Between 1984 and 1999
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 2 (released August 2004)
by Teran Martin and Paul S. Davies

During the past 20 years, legislative and judicial actions have affected Supplemental Security Income and Disability Insurance beneficiaries. This article compares important changes in demographics, income sources and amounts, and poverty status of beneficiaries of both programs between 1984 and 1999, using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation matched to administrative data from the Social Security Administration. The average age of both groups has decreased, while their education levels increased. In 1999, Disability Insurance beneficiaries and their families relied less on Social Security, while their poverty rate remained fairly constant. The Supplemental Security Income population had a lower poverty rate, while beneficiaries were slightly more reliant on Social Security for personal income.

Changes in the Incomes of Age Groups, 1984–1989
ORES Working Paper No. 51 (released September 1991)
by Daniel B. Radner

In recent years there has been great interest in the economic status of the aged, especially in connection with the debates about the appropriate level of Social Security benefits and Medicare coverage and financing. The economic status of the aged relative to other age groups has been of particular interest in these debates. This paper examines changes in the before-tax cash income of the aged and of other age groups from 1984 to 1989. Earlier research found that the real income of the aged rose substantially, both absolutely and relative to the income of the nonaged, from about 1970 to the mid-1980s. It is shown here that from 1984 to 1989 the real income of the aged rose slowly, and fell slightly relative to the income of the nonaged. The different rates of income growth for different aged groups are explored in this paper, with the emphasis on differences between the aged and nonaged. This paper also serves as an update of an earlier paper that contained estimates for the 1967–1984 period. The estimates in this paper generally are consistent with those presented in the earlier article.

Changes in the Incomes of Age Groups, 1984–89
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 54 No. 12 (released December 1991)
by Daniel B. Radner
Changes in the Resources of Beneficiary Groups in St. Louis
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 8 (released August 1947)
by Lelia M. Easson
Changes in the Sickness Insurance Program in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 8 (released August 1970)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Changing Commitments of American Women to Work and Family Roles
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 6 (released June 1980)
by Helena Znaniecka Lopata and Kathleen Fordham Norr
The Changing Impact of Social Security on Retirement Income in the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 3 (released January 2005)
by Barbara A. Butrica, Howard M. Iams, and Karen E. Smith

This article assesses the role of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) in the economic well-being of baby-boomer retirees and their predecessors. The results suggest that, similar to current retirees, Social Security will account for about two-fifths of projected income for baby-boomer retirees. On average, SSI will contribute almost nothing to total income and will be received by fewer baby-boomer retirees than by current retirees. Although baby boomers can expect higher incomes and lower poverty rates at retirement than current retirees have, they can also expect lower replacement rates. The decline in replacement rates is driven, in part, by a decline in Social Security replacement rates.

Changing Social Security Benefits to Reflect Child-Care Years: A Policy Proposal Whose Time Has Passed?
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 4 (released October 1994)
by Howard M. Iams and Steven H. Sandell

This article estimates the effects of proposals to increase the retirement benefits of women who reduce their earnings to care for young children. Using the 1990 Survey of Income and Program Participation file—exactly matched to the Social Security Administration's record of lifetime earnings—the authors present the distribution of child-care dropout years by retirement cohort and other demographic characteristics, and estimate the dollar impact of adjustments for caregiving years. The policies examined do increase the retirement benefits of some women, but the increases on average are small, are lowered with each successive retirement cohort, and benefit women from the more privileged socioeconomic groups. Thus, because the policy effects are small and will diminish in the future, the time of efficacy for these proposals has passed. Subsidizing child-care dropout years does not seem to be a well-targeted policy.

Changing the Method for Calculating Quarters of Coverage: The Impact on Workers' Insured Status
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 4 (released April 1984)
by William J. Nelson, Jr.
Changing the Taxable Maximum: Effect on Social Security Taxes by Industry and Firm Size
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 7 (released July 1980)
by Louis Esposito, David Podoff, and Aaron J. Prero
Characteristics and Incomes of Families Assisted by Aid to Dependent Children
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 7 (released July 1946)
Characteristics and Taxable Wages of Negro Workers, 13 Selected Southern States, 1938
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 3 (released March 1941)
by Charles L. Franklin
Characteristics of Aged Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Beneficiaries Who Receive Public Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 10 (released October 1959)
by Sue Ossman
Characteristics of Applicants for Childhood Disability Benefits, 1957
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 8 (released August 1959)
by Phoebe H. Goff
Characteristics of Disabled- Worker Beneficiaries with Workmen's Compensation Offset
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 2 (released February 1972)
by Ralph Treitel
Characteristics of Employees Under Old-Age Insurance in 1938
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 12 (released December 1940)
by John J. Corson
Characteristics of Individuals with Integrated Pensions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 3 (released January 2000)
by Keith A. Bender

This article uses data from the Health and Retirement Survey to examine the characteristics of individuals who are covered under integrated pension plans by comparing them with people covered by nonintegrated plans and those with no pension plan.

Characteristics of Individuals with Integrated Pensions
ORES Working Paper No. 83 (released July 1999)
by Keith A. Bender

Employer pensions that integrate benefits with Social Security have been the focus of relatively little research. Potentially this is an important omission given the current Social Security reform debate. Since changes in Social Security benefit levels and other program characteristics can affect the benefit levels and other features of integrated pension plans, it is important to know who is covered by these plans. This paper uses data from the Health and Retirement Survey to examine the characteristics of individuals who are covered under integrated pension plans by comparing them with people covered by non-integrated plans and those with no pension plan. The results show that individuals who are female, white, non-unionized, or do not have postgraduate education are significantly more likely to be in an integrated employer pension plan.

Characteristics of 'New' Old-Age Assistance Recipients, 1965
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 7 (released July 1968)
by Philip Frohlich
Characteristics of Newly Awarded Recipients of the Social Security Regular Minimum Benefit
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 6 (released June 1982)
by Bruce D. Schobel and Steven F. McKay
Characteristics of Noninstitutionalized DI and SSI Program Participants
Research and Statistics Note No. 2008-02 (released January 2008)
by Anne DeCesaro and Jeffrey Hemmeter
Characteristics of Noninstitutionalized DI and SSI Program Participants, 2010 Update
Research and Statistics Note No. 2014-02 (released February 2014)
by Michelle Stegman Bailey and Jeffrey Hemmeter

The authors use data from the 2008 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) matched to Social Security administrative records to produce tables providing detailed information on the economic and demographic characteristics of Disability Insurance beneficiaries and Supplemental Security Income recipients in December 2010. The tables update those published in a 2008 Research and Statistics Note that used 2002 SIPP data.

Characteristics of Student OASDI Beneficiaries in 1973: An Overview
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 11 (released November 1976)
by Philip B. Springer
Characteristics of Supplemental Security Income Recipients, December 1984
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 4 (released April 1986)
by Arthur L. Kahn
Characteristics of the Longest Job for New Disabled Workers: Findings From the New Beneficiary Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 12 (released December 1986)
by Howard M. Iams
Characteristics of the Longest Job for New Retired Workers: Findings From the New Beneficiary Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 3 (released March 1985)
by Howard M. Iams
Characteristics of Workers With Pension Coverage on Longest Job: New Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 11 (released November 1971)
by Walter W. Kolodrubetz
Child Support Enforcement Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 3 (released March 1980)
by Kurt Beron
Child Support Payments and the SSI Program
Policy Brief No. 2004-02 (released February 2004)
by Susan Wilschke and Richard Balkus

In determining the benefit amount for a child, the Supplemental Security Income program excludes one-third of child support payments from countable income. Legislation reauthorizing the 1996 welfare reform law contains provisions that would encourage states to allow children receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) to keep more of the child support paid by an absent parent. These potential changes provide impetus to revisit the way the SSI program treats child support.

Child Tax Benefits: A Comparison of the Canadian and U.S. Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 3 (released July 1994)
by Wayne S. Long
Child Welfare Services: Report of the Advisory Council
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 2 (released February 1960)
Childhood Disability Beneficiaries, 1957–64: Characteristics and Geographic Distribution
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 2 (released February 1967)
by Phoebe H. Goff
Children and Family Income
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 1 (released January 1945)
by Thomas J. Woofter, Jr.
Children and Family Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 3 (released March 1945)
by Thomas J. Woofter, Jr.
Children and Income in Urban Single-Family Households
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 11 (released November 1939)
by Barkev S. Sanders
Children From Public Assistance Families Who Receive Child Welfare Services
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 8 (released August 1962)
by Helen R. Jeter
Children in Urban and Rural Families
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 10 (released October 1939)
by Barkev S. Sanders and Doris Carlton
Children of the Poor
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 7 (released July 1963)
by Mollie Orshansky
Children Receiving SSI Payments, December 1991
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 2 (released April 1992)
by Lenna D. Kennedy
Children Receiving SSI Payments, December 1992
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 2 (released April 1993)
by Lenna D. Kennedy
Children Served by Public Child Welfare Programs, 1946–57
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 5 (released May 1958)
by Helen R. Jeter and Henry C. Lajewski
Children's Allowances and Income-Tested Supplements: Costs and Redistributive Effects
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 2 (released February 1970)
by Dorothy S. Projector
Children's Allowances in Japan
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 6 (released June 1972)
by Elizabeth Kreitler Kirkpatrick
Children's Allowances in the United Kingdom
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 10 (released October 1980)
by Lynn M. Ellingson
Children's Allowances: Their Size and Structure in Five Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 5 (released May 1972)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Children's Contributions to Old-Age Assistance Recipients in North Dakota and South Dakota
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 8 (released August 1951)
by Saul Kaplan
Chile Changes its Health Care System
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 12 (released December 1983)
by Barbara E. Kritzer
Chile Changes Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 5 (released May 1981)
by Barbara E. Kritzer
Chile's Next Generation Pension Reform
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68 No. 2 (released October 2008)
by Barbara E. Kritzer

Since its inception in 1981, Chile's system of mandatory individual retirement accounts has become a model for pension reformers around the world. A March 2008 comprehensive pension reform law made major changes that address some key policy challenges including worker coverage, gender equity, pension adequacy, and administrative fees. The cornerstone of the new law sets up a basic universal pension as a supplement to the individual accounts system.

Choice and Other Determinants of Employee Contributions to Defined Contribution Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 2 (released August 2004)
by Leslie E. Papke

Understanding the role that 401(k) plan characteristics, such as investment choice, play in participation and employee contributions is important as more workers rely on this type of retirement plan and as proposals for Social Security solvency include individual savings plans. Using the 1992 Health and Retirement Study, this article investigates which individual and job characteristics are associated with asset choice in defined contribution plans. Investment choice is found to substantially increase contributions to such plans.

Chronology of Health Insurance Proposals, 1915–76
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 7 (released July 1976)
Citizenship and Family Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 5 (released May 1940)
by A. Delafield Smith
Civil Service Refunds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 2 (released February 1949)
Civil Service Retirement Act Amendments, 1954
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 7 (released July 1955)
Civil Service Retirement Act Amendments, 1955
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 11 (released November 1955)
Civil Service Retirement Act Amendments, 1957
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 12 (released December 1957)
by Jacob A. Lazerson
Civil Service Retirement Act Amendments, 1958
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 12 (released December 1958)
by John P. Jones
Civil Service Retirement Act Amendments, 1960
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 3 (released March 1961)
by John P. Jones
Civil Service Retirement System Annuitants and Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 2 (released February 1983)
by Robert Dalrymple, Susan Grad, and Duke Wilson
The Civilian War Benefits Program: SSA's First Disability Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 60 No. 2 (released April 1997)
by Larry DeWitt
Civil-Service Refunds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 11 (released November 1949)
Civil-Service Refunds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 9 (released September 1948)
Civil-Service Retirement Program, 1959
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 7 (released July 1959)
by John P. Jones
Civil-Service Retirement Program, October 20, 1969
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 2 (released February 1970)
by Marice C. Hart
Claimants and Job Openings in Three Cities
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 11 (released November 1945)
by Marvin S. Bloom and F. Bernard Miller
Claimants Awaiting Recall—Their Special Problems of Availability and Suitability of Work
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 10 (released October 1946)
by Olga S. Halsey
Coefficients of Between-Group Inequality: A Review
ORES Working Paper No. 8 (released May 1979)
by Bertram Kestenbaum

The quest for suitable indices to summarize the inequality between two groups has lagged behind the effort to obtain summary coefficients of within-group inequality. Numerous measures of within-group inequality were proposed, and their merits and shortcomings debated. Yet, apparently, at the same time, there was little exploration of alternative indices to the ratio-of-medians and ratio-of-means for measuring differences between groups.

Cohort Changes in the Retirement Resources of Older Women
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68 No. 4 (released March 2009)
by Howard M. Iams, John W. R. Phillips, Kristen Robinson, Lionel P. Deang, and Irena Dushi

This article uses different sources of United States data to focus on the retirement resources of women aged 55–64 in 2004, 1994, and 1984. Notable changes have occurred with women's pathways into retirement resulting from increased education and lifetime work experience. There appear marked cohort differences in potential retirement outcomes.

Cohort Differences in Wealth and Pension Participation of Near-Retirees
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68 No. 3 (released December 2008)
by Irena Dushi and Howard M. Iams

This article examines pension participation and nonpension net worth of two cohorts of near retirees. Particularly, the authors look at people born in 1933 through 1939 who were ages 55–61 in 1994, and the more recent cohort consisting of people of the same age in 2004 who were born in 1943 through 1949. Data are from the Health and Retirement Study, a longitudinal, nationally representative survey of older Americans.

Cohort-Specific Effects of Social Security Policy
ORES Working Paper No. 20 (released December 1980)
by Dean R. Leimer and Peter A. Petri

Social Security has sizable obligations to workers who contributed and made savings decisions in the anticipation of future benefits, and the assessment of future options must explicitly account for impacts on these as well as future participants. To this end, our paper develops cohort-specific, general-equilibrium comparisons of concrete policy alternatives.

Cohort-Specific Measures of Lifetime Net Social Security Transfers
ORES Working Paper No. 59 (released February 1994)
by Dean R. Leimer

This paper develops estimates of lifetime net transfers across cohorts under the Social Security Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) program. Estimates are developed both from the perspective of individual cohorts, indicating the extent to which each cohort has received or can expect to receive its money's worth from the program, and from the perspective of the OASI program, indicating the extent of redistribution across cohorts. This paper also contrasts intercohort redistribution under the present OASI program with the redistribution that would have occurred under two counterfactual pay-as-you-go programs that incorporate different implicit standards of fairness. The data sources and techniques employed in this analysis provide a more accurate and extensive description of the treatment of different cohorts under the OASI program than has been available to date. Estimates based on past or projected data are presented for all cohorts participating in the OASI program since its inception through the cohort born in 2050.

Cohort-Specific Measures of Lifetime Social Security Taxes and Benefits
ORES Working Paper No. 110 (released December 2007)
by Dean R. Leimer
Coinsurance and the Demand for Physician Services: Four Years Later
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 5 (released May 1977)
by Anne A. Scitovsky and Nelda McCall
Collecting Information on Disability in the 2000 Census: An Example of Interagency Cooperation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 4 (released April 2000)
by Michele C. Adler, Robert F. Clark, Theresa J. DeMaio, Louisa F. Miller, and Arlene F. Saluter

This article reports research and analysis undertaken by a very successful collaborative, federal interagency work group on disability, convened by the Office of Management and Budget and charged with the development of a short set of disability questions for Census 2000. The process that culminated in the final disability questions on Census 2000 is described, along with a discussion of the complexities of defining and measuring disability.

Commentary: Actuarial Research and Analysis
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 11 (released November 1988)
by Robert J. Myers
Commentary: Continuous Work History Sample
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 4 (released April 1988)
by Warren Buckler
Commentary: Disability Research
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 5 (released May 1988)
by Barry V. Bye
Commentary: Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits: An International Comparison
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 8 (released August 1988)
by Max Horlick
Commentary: Economic Status of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 12 (released December 1988)
by Ida C. Merriam
Commentary: Interagency Data Matching Projects for Research Purposes
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 7 (released July 1988)
by Daniel B. Radner
Commentary: Measuring Expenditures for Social Welfare Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 6 (released June 1988)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Commentary: SSI and the Low-Income Population
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 9 (released September 1988)
by Jack Schmulowitz
Commentary: Survey Research in Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 3 (released March 1988)
by Sally R. Sherman
Commentary: The Poverty Measure
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 10 (released October 1988)
by Mollie Orshansky
Commercial Nursing and Boarding Homes in Philadelphia
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 6 (released June 1946)
by Margaret K. Bishop
Commission Studies Rising Health Costs in Austria
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 8 (released August 1972)
by Elizabeth Kreitler Kirkpatrick
Commitment to Work and the Self-Perception of Disability
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 6 (released June 1981)
by Evan S. Schechter
Community Hospital Expenses and Revenues: Pre-Medicare Inflation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 10 (released October 1972)
by Karen Davis
Community Prerogative and the Legal Rights and Freedom of the Individual
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 8 (released August 1946)
by A. Delafield Smith
The Comparability of Public Assistance Payments and Social Insurance Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 12 (released December 1944)
by Jacob Fisher
Comparing Beneficiaries of the Medicare Savings Programs with Eligible Nonparticipants
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 3 (released January 2003)
by James Sears

This note focuses on participation in two entitlement programs that help reduce out-of-pocket expenses for low-income Medicare beneficiaries: the Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB) program and the Specified Low-Income Medicare Beneficiary (SLMB) program. As of 1999, about 2.75 million eligible, noninstitutionalized individuals were not enrolled in these Medicare savings programs. The eligible nonparticipants differed substantially from the QMB and SLMB participants in that they were less likely to be Supplemental Security Income beneficiaries and more likely to be elderly, nonblack, and in relatively good health. These findings, which could help target future outreach efforts, are based on Survey of Income and Program Participation data matched with administrative records from the Social Security Administration.

Comparing Earnings Estimates from the 2006 Earnings Public-Use File and the Annual Statistical Supplement
Research and Statistics Note No. 2012-01 (released January 2012)
by Michael Compson

The Social Security Administration recently released the 2006 Earnings Public-Use File (EPUF). The EPUF contains earnings information for individuals drawn from a systematic random 1-percent sample of all Social Security numbers issued before January 2007. This note presents the process of evaluating the earnings data in EPUF. It also identifies and explains four key differences between the data in EPUF and the estimates published in the Annual Statistical Supplement to the Social Security Bulletin. The note specifically compares EPUF data with Annual Statistical Supplement estimates of earnings, number of workers with earnings, median earnings by sex and age group, and percentage of workers with earnings below the taxable maximum by sex. After accounting for the expected differences, the remaining discrepancies between EPUF and Annual Statistical Supplement estimates are relatively small.

Comparing Replacement Rates Under Private and Federal Retirement Systems
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 1 (released May 2004)
by Patricia P. Martin

This article presents a comparison of replacement rates for employees of medium and large private establishments to replacement rates for federal employees under the Civil Service Retirement System and the Federal Employees Retirement System. This analysis shows the possibility of replacement rates exceeding 100 percent for FERS employees who contribute 6 percent of earnings to the Thrift Savings Plan over a full working career. Private-sector replacement rates were quite similar for workers with both a defined benefit and a defined contribution pension plan.

Comparing the Financial Position of the Aged in Britain and the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 7 (released July 1968)
by Dorothy Wedderburn
Comparison of Actual Experience With Estimates in the Trustees' Reports
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 5 (released May 1948)
by Robert J. Myers
Comparison of Aged OASDI and SSI Recipients, 1974
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 1 (released January 1979)
by Sally R. Sherman
Comparison of Benefit Schedules, Unemployment Compensation and Workmen's Compensation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 3 (released March 1944)
by Helen Ward Tippy
Comparison of Individual Characteristics and Death Rates of Disabled-Worker Beneficiaries Entitled in 1972 and 1985
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 3 (released July 1992)
by John C. Hennessey and Janice M. Dykacz
A Comparison of Social Security Taxes and Federal Income Taxes
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 7 (released July 1981)
by Bruce D. Schobel
A Comparison of Social Security Taxes and Federal Income Taxes, 1980–90
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 12 (released December 1981)
by Bruce D. Schobel
A Comparison of the Recovery Termination Rates of Disabled-Worker Beneficiaries Entitled in 1972 and 1985
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 2 (released April 1993)
by John C. Hennessey and Janice M. Dykacz
Compensating Workers for Permanent Partial Disabilities
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 4 (released May 2005)
by Peter S. Barth

There is substantial variability in how state workers' compensation laws provide benefits to workers who have a permanent partial disability. The basic approaches used by the states can be classified into four groupings, although important differences exist within each group. Depending on the approach used, workers with similar injuries can receive substantially different amounts of benefits. Because compensating permanent partial disabilities frequently involves contention, the matters in dispute will depend on the approach used to determine benefits. The continuation of such differences in approach suggests that the states have not found a single "best practice" for determining what such benefits should be.

A Comprehensive Social Security Program: Recommendations from the Annual Report
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 2 (released February 1949)
Compulsory Health Insurance in Hawaii
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 12 (released December 1975)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Compulsory Retirement Among Newly Entitled Workers: Survey of New Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 3 (released March 1972)
by Virginia P. Reno
Concurrent Receipt of OAA Payments and OASI Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 1 (released January 1970)
by Philip Frohlich
Concurrent Receipt of OASDI and Workmen's Compensation, December 1960
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 11 (released November 1963)
by David H. Clark
Concurrent Receipt of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Public Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 7 (released July 1953)
by Ruth White
Concurrent Receipt of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Public Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 8 (released August 1952)
Concurrent Receipt of Public Assistance and Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 9 (released September 1958)
by Sue Ossman
Concurrent Receipt of Public Assistance and Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 11 (released November 1957)
by Sue Ossman
Concurrent Receipt of Public Assistance and Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 9 (released September 1955)
by Sue Ossman
Concurrent Receipt of Public Assistance and Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 8 (released August 1954)
by Ruth White
Concurrent Receipt of Public Assistance and Old-Age Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 10 (released October 1956)
by Sue Ossman
Concurrent Receipt of Public Assistance and Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 12 (released December 1960)
by Robert H. Mugge
Concurrent Receipt of Public Assistance and Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 11 (released November 1959)
by Sue Ossman
Concurrent Receipt of Public Assistance and Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance, Early 1962
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 3 (released March 1963)
by Gertrude B. Morton
Concurrent Supplemental Security Income Payments and OASDI Cash Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 12 (released December 1974)
by Lenna D. Kennedy
The Conference on Aging
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 10 (released October 1950)
by Clark Tibbitts
Conference Recommendations on Juvenile Delinquency
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 8 (released August 1954)
Considerations for Potential Proposals to Change the Earliest Eligibility Age for Retirement
Policy Brief No. 2007-01 (released October 2007)
by Pat Vinkenes, Alice H. Wade, Mark A. Sarney, and Tim Kelley

The earliest eligibility age (EEA) interacts with many other Social Security program rules, including the benefit formula and insured status requirements. Proposals to increase the EEA could affect some or all of these other rules depending on how policymakers design the proposal. By using a hypothetical proposal that increases the EEA, this policy brief illustrates how these interactions work and discusses the options that policymakers would need to consider.

Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 8 (released August 1986)
by Mary Ross and Carol Hayes
Constant-Attendance Allowances for Non-Work-Related Disability
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 11 (released November 1974)
by Martin B. Tracy
Constitutional Background to the Social Security Act of 1935
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 1 (released January 1987)
by Eduard A. Lopez
Consumer Price Indexes for the Elderly: British Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 1 (released January 1982)
by Lois S. Copeland
The Continuous Work History Sample Under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 2 (released February 1944)
by Jacob Perlman and Benjamin Mandel
The Continuous Work-History Sample: The First 12 Years
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 4 (released April 1951)
by Jacob Perlman
Contrasts in HMO and Fee-for-Service Performance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 5 (released May 1976)
by Clifton R. Gaus, Barbara S. Cooper, and Constance G. Hirschman
Contribution and Benefit Increases in Switzerland
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 3 (released March 1969)
by Max Horlick
Contribution Dynamics in Defined Contribution Pension Plans During the Great Recession of 2007–2009
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 73 No. 2 (released May 2013)
by Irena Dushi, Howard M. Iams, and Christopher R. Tamborini

The authors investigate the extent of changes in workers' participation and contributions to defined contribution (DC) plans during the Great Recession of 2007–2009. Using longitudinal information from Social Security W-2 tax records matched to a nationally representative sample of respondents from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, they find that the recent economic downturn had a considerable impact on workers' participation and contributions to DC plans. A sizable segment of 2007 participants (39 percent) decreased their contributions to DC plans by more than 10 percent during the Great Recession. The findings also highlight the interrelationship between the dynamics in DC contributions and earnings changes.

Conversions to Supplemental Security Income From State Assistance: A Program Records Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 6 (released June 1975)
by Lenna D. Kennedy, Dorothea Thomas, and Jack Schmulowitz
Cooperative Research and Demonstration Grant Program of the Social Security Administration
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 9 (released September 1961)
by Ida C. Merriam
Coordination Between the Railroad Retirement and Social Security Systems
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 9 (released September 1968)
by Abraham M. Niessen
Coping with the Demographic Challenge: Fewer Children and Living Longer
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 4 (released April 2007)
by Gayle L. Reznik, Dave Shoffner, and David A. Weaver

This article examines the demographic challenge of an aging population on the U.S. Social Security system and the well-being of the elderly. It describes policy implications and some potential policy solutions to this challenge.

Cost Estimates for National Health Insurance, 1948
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 8 (released August 1949)
by I. S. Falk
Cost Factors in Old-Age Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 7 (released July 1938)
by W. R. Williamson
Cost of the British Social Services, 1938–52
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 2 (released February 1954)
Cost-Neutral Policies to Increase Social Security Benefits for Widows: A Simulation for 1992
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 61 No. 1 (released January 1998)
by Howard M. Iams and Steven H. Sandell

Among older women, widows are more likely to live in poverty than married women. Thus, increasing Social Security benefits to widows seems desirable. Shifting some Social Security benefits from the period when women live as part of a couple to the period when they are widows could reduce poverty. This article uses the 1991 Survey of Income and Program Participation exactly matched to the Social Security Administration's record of benefits to evaluate the effect on poverty rates of four cost-neutral proposals that transfer Social Security benefits from married couples to surviving widows. The policies would moderately decrease poverty rates among older women by reducing the rate for widows more than the slight increase in the rate for couples. The evaluated proposals include a proposal supported by the majority of the 1994-96 Advisory Council on Social Security that would calculate the survivor's benefit as 75 percent of the couple's benefit, reduce the spouse's benefit from 50 to 33 percent of the husband's benefit, and reduce benefits by 1.5 percent.

Cost-of-Living Increases for Railroad Retirement Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 7 (released July 1976)
Cost-of-Living Increases in Military Retired Pay
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 2 (released February 1964)
by Marice C. Hart
Costs and Benefits Under Prepayment Medical-Service Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 3 (released March 1940)
by Louis S. Reed
Costs of Medical Care of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Beneficiaries in St. Louis and 12 Ohio Cities
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 1 (released January 1946)
by Lelia M. Easson
Countercyclical U.S. Fertility and its Implications
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 8 (released August 1979)
by William P. Butz and Michael P. Ward
Counting the Disabled: Using Survey Self-Reports to Estimate Medical Eligibility for Social Security's Disability Programs
ORES Working Paper No. 90 (released January 2001)
by Debra Dwyer, Jianting Hu, Denton R. Vaughan, and Bernard Wixon

This paper develops an approach for tracking medical eligibility for the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) disability programs on the basis of self-reports from an ongoing survey. Using a structural model of the disability determination process estimated on a sample of applicants, we make out-of-sample predictions of eligibility for nonbeneficiaries in the general population. This work is based on the 1990 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation. We use alternative methods of estimating the number of people who would be found eligible if they applied, considering the effects of sample selection adjustments, sample restrictions, and several methods of estimating eligibility/ineligibility from a set of continuous probabilities. The estimates cover a wide range, suggesting the importance of addressing methodological issues. In terms of classification rates for applicants, our preferred measure outperforms the conventional single variable model based on the "prevented" measure.

Under our preferred estimate, 4.4 million people—2.9 percent of the nonbeneficiary population aged 18–64—would meet SSA's medical criteria for disability. Of that group, about one-third have average earnings above the substantial gainful activity limit. Those we classify as medically eligible are similar to allowed applicants in terms of standard measures of activity limitations.

Counting the Poor: Another Look at the Poverty Profile
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 10 (released October 1988)
by Mollie Orshansky
Counting the Poor: Another Look at the Poverty Profile
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 1 (released January 1965)
by Mollie Orshansky
Counting the Recipients of Public Assistance and the Dollars they Receive
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 5 (released May 1938)
by Helen R. Jeter
Covariance Estimates for Regression Parameters from Complex Sample Designs: Application of the Weighted Maximum Likelihood Estimator to Linear and Logistic Regression Analysis in Which Observations Might Not be Independent
ORES Working Paper No. 62 (released September 1994)
by Barry V. Bye, Janice M. Dykacz, and Salvatore J. Gallicchio

Statistical methods of variance estimation are presented in this paper for the analysis of survey data involving complex sample designs. With certain complex sample design, estimation of the covariance matrices in linear and logistic regression is not straightforward. The design may be complex because of disproportionate sampling of strata, necessitating the use of weights, or because the observations are not independent, or possibly both. Examples are given from projects at the Social Security Administration, and computer programs written in SAS (Statistical Analysis System) are provided.

Coverage and Vesting of Full-Time Employees Under Private Retirement Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 11 (released November 1973)
by Walter W. Kolodrubetz and Donald M. Landay
Coverage Extension Under Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 6 (released June 1961)
by Saul Waldman
Coverage of Agricultural Workers Under Unemployment Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 4 (released April 1949)
Coverage of Ministers Under Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 4 (released April 1961)
by Saul Waldman
Coverage of State and Local Government Employees Under OASDI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 1 (released January 1960)
Coverage of the Self-Employed Under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance: Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 8 (released August 1949)
by Wilbur J. Cohen
Coverage Patterns of Full-Time Employees Under Private Retirement Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 7 (released July 1981)
by Daniel J. Beller
Covered Employment and the Age Men Claim Retirement Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 4 (released April 1974)
by Julian Abbott
Credit Unions Under State Charters, 1953
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 11 (released November 1954)
The Cuban Refugee Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 3 (released March 1962)
by William L. Mitchell
The Culture of Poverty in Puerto Rico and New York
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 9 (released September 1967)
by Dena K. Motley
Curbing Juvenile Delinquency
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 6 (released June 1954)
by Bertram M. Beck
Current Developments in Social Security Financing
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 9 (released September 1980)
by Dwight K. Bartlett III
Current Medicare Survey: Hospital Insurance Sample
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 11 (released November 1969)
by Sara Jane Peterson
Current Medicare Survey: The Medical Insurance Sample
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 4 (released April 1967)
by Jack Scharff
Cut-Backs and Unemployment Compensation, September 1943-April 1944
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 7 (released July 1944)
by Marvin S. Bloom and Arnold Steinbach

D

Deaths Represented in Social Insurance Survivor Benefit Awards
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 8 (released August 1956)
by Robert J. Myers
Deciding Claims to Unemployment Benefits; an Outline of the British System
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 7 (released July 1938)
by Ralph S. Hardiman
The Decision to Exclude Agricultural and Domestic Workers from the 1935 Social Security Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70 No. 4 (released November 2010)
by Larry DeWitt

The Social Security Act of 1935 excluded from coverage about half the workers in the American economy. Among the excluded groups were agricultural and domestic workers. Some scholars have attributed this exclusion to racial bias against African Americans. In this article, the author examines the evidence of the origins of the coverage exclusions in 1935 and concludes that this particular provision had nothing to do with race.

The Decline in Establishment Reporting: Impact on CWHS Industrial and Geographic Data
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 54 No. 1 (released January 1991)
by Linda M. Dill, Adah D. Enis, and Cheryl I. Williams
Deeming Rules and the Increase in the Number of Children With Disabilities Receiving SSI: Evaluating the Effects of a Regulatory Change
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 59 No. 1 (released January 1996)
by Greg P. Hannsgen and Steven H. Sandell

This article examines a source of the growth in the SSI children's program: a relatively minor and little-noticed change in the financial eligibility rules. The way parental earnings were counted as income, or "deemed" to children (to use SSA language) was changed. The new, more generous financial eligibility rules added a small but significant number of recipients to the rolls after 1992 and also increased the benefit amounts for many of those already receiving SSI. Using SSA administrative data and a simulation technique, this article estimates how much the deeming policy change contributed to the expansion of the rolls and the cost of the program. We estimate that program costs of the deeming rule change were approximately $63 million annually in 1993 dollars. The change led to a 2-percent increase in the number of children on the rolls.

Defense Trainees and Availability for Work
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 7 (released July 1943)
by Ralph Altman
Deficit Reduction Act of 1983: Provisions Related to the AFDC Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 12 (released December 1984)
Deficit Reduction Act of 1984: Provisions Related to Medicare and Medicaid Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 11 (released November 1984)
Deficit Reduction Act of 1984: Provisions Related to the OASDI and SSI Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 11 (released November 1984)
Defined Contribution Pension Participation and Contributions by Earnings Levels Using Administrative Data
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 2 (released May 2011)
by Irena Dushi, Howard M. Iams, and Christopher R. Tamborini

This article examines the relationship between earnings levels and participation and contribution rates in defined contribution (DC) retirement plans. Specifically, the article estimates DC plan participation and contribution rates in 2006 both by the worker's current earnings and by the annual average of real earnings over the 10-year period 1997–2006. Using these two different measures of earnings allows us to assess whether employing a longer period of earnings, such as a decade, provides a better representation of pension outcomes than the short-term measure of current earnings.

Defined Contribution Pension Plans and the Supplemental Security Income Program
Policy Brief No. 2006-01 (released March 2006)
by Rene Parent

This policy brief analyzes changes in the employer-sponsored pension system and the relationship of these changes to the Supplemental Security Income program's treatment of retirement plans. SSI does not treat assets in defined benefit and defined contribution retirement plans in the same manner. The primary difference is that a potential SSI recipient has access to the funds in a defined contribution plan, but a participant in the defined benefit plan has no access to the pension until attaining a specific age. The increasing prevalence of the defined contribution retirement plan and the decreasing prevalence of the defined benefit plan is one significant change—a trend that has gained momentum since the mid-1980s. The importance of these issues relates to the extent of pension plan holdings among SSI applicants and recipients, which is in turn directly related to their involvement in the labor force. The policy brief discusses three alternate approaches to SSI treatment of defined contribution retirement plans, one of which is to retain the current policy.

Definition of Disability in Private Pension Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 5 (released May 1964)
by Joseph Krislov
Delayed Filing for Disability Benefits Under the Social Security Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 10 (released October 1964)
by Barbara Levenson and Aaron Krute
The Demand for Older Workers: The Neglected Side of a Labor Market
ORES Working Paper No. 52 (released September 1991)
by John W. Straka

Despite extensive study of the work and retirement decisions of older individuals, the nature of employers' demand for older workers remains relatively unexplored. This paper investigates the plausibility, pervasiveness, and causes of limited employment opportunities for older workers by examining age discrimination, long-term employment relationships, and partial-retirement work options. The central theme is that much of the differential treatment of older workers that persists over time is likely to be part of a privately efficient, economic equilibrium. Provisional implications for Social Security and age-work policy choices are drawn.

Demographic and Economic Characteristics of Children in Families Receiving Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 2 (released August 2004)
by Chad Newcomb

Each month, over 3 million children receive benefits from Social Security, accounting for one of every seven Social Security beneficiaries. This article examines the demographic characteristics and economic status of these children using Social Security administrative records matched to the 1996 Survey of Income and Program Participation. Most child beneficiaries receive benefits based on the earnings of a deceased or disabled parent, and nearly two-thirds live in female-headed families. The families of child beneficiaries rely about equally on earnings and income from Social Security for economic support. On average, the family income of child beneficiaries was 25 percent lower than that of all children, but there was no statistically significant difference in the poverty rates of the two groups.

Demographic and Economic Characteristics of Nonbeneficiary Widows: An Overview
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 11 (released November 1979)
by Tim Sass
Demographic and Economic Differences in Survivor Experiences of Nonwhite and White Families
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 2 (released February 1980)
by Gordon F. Sutton
Demographic Characteristics of Disability Applicants: Relationship to Allowances
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 5 (released May 1976)
by Mordechai E. Lando
Demographic Factors in the Disability Determination Process: A Logistic Approach
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 3 (released March 1980)
by Jesse M. Levy
Denial of SSI Applications Because of Excess Resources
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 2 (released April 1992)
by Satya Kochhar
Dental Insurance in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 12 (released December 1973)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Dependents' Allowances in Social Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 4 (released April 1947)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
Dependents' Allowances in Unemployment Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 10 (released October 1949)
Dependents' Allowances Under State Unemployment Insurance Laws
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 2 (released February 1951)
by Olga S. Halsey
Dependents in Social Security Systems of Great Britain, New Zealand, Australia, and Canada
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 9 (released September 1948)
by Elva Marquard
Dependents of Unemployment Compensation Claimants in Delaware
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 11 (released November 1943)
by Marvin S. Bloom
The Dependents of Workers: Selected Data on Numbers and Types
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 1 (released January 1949)
by Marvin S. Bloom
Design and Implementation Issues in Swedish Individual Pension Accounts
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 4 (released May 2005)
by R. Kent Weaver

Sweden's new multipillar pension system includes a system of mandatory fully funded individual accounts. The Swedish system offers contributors more than 600 fund options from a variety of private-sector fund managers. However, in the most recent rounds of fund choice, more than 90 percent of new labor market entrants have not made an active choice of funds and thus have ended up in a government-sponsored default fund.

The Swedish system offers a number of lessons about implementing a mandatory individual account tier. Centralized administration keeps administrative costs down but requires considerable lead time. A very large number of fund options are likely to be offered unless strong entry barriers are in place. Engaging new labor market entrants in fund choice is likely to be difficult. A significant percentage of those making an active fund choice may choose funds that are very specialized and risky. Finally, special care must be devoted to designing a default fund and continual consumer communication.

Design of the Project NetWork Return-to-Work Experiment for Persons with Disabilities
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 2 (released April 1994)
by Kalman Rupp, Stephen H. Bell, and Leo A. McManus
Desirability of Expanding the Social Insurance Program Now
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 11 (released November 1942)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
The Desirability of Extending Social Security to Employees of Nonprofit Institutions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 8 (released August 1944)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
Determinants of Divorce
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 2 (released February 1990)
by Lee A. Lillard and Linda J. Waite
Determinants of Interstate Migration of the Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 9 (released September 1973)
by Steve L. Barsby and Dennis R. Cos
Determinants of the Growth in the Social Security Administration's Disability Programs—An Overview
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 4 (released October 1995)
by Kalman Rupp and David C. Stapleton

This article examines factors affecting the growth in the Social Security Administration's disability programs. We synthesize recent empirical evidence on factors affecting trends in applications and awards for Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits and duration on the rolls. Econometric analyses of pooled time-series, cross-sectional data for States provide strong evidence of business cycle effects on applications and, to a lesser extent, on awards. Substantial effects of cutbacks in State general assistance programs are also found, especially for SSI. Estimated effects of the aging of the baby boomers, growth in the share of women who are disability insured, the AIDS epidemic, and changes in family structure are also presented. Indirect evidence suggests the importance of programmatic factors, especially for awards, and especially in the mental and musculoskeletal impairment categories. The decline in the average age of new awardees has substantially increased duration, particularly for SSI. As a result, caseload growth would be expected to continue even in the absence of future award growth.

Determination of Suitable Work During Reconversion
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 2 (released February 1946)
Developing Work Units in a Child-Placing Agency
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 3 (released March 1955)
by Edward E. Schwartz
Development and Evaluation of a Survey-Based Type of Benefit Classification for the Social Security Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 1 (released January 1989)
by Denton R. Vaughan
The Development and History of the Poverty Thresholds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 4 (released October 1992)
by Gordon M. Fisher
The Development and Use of Industry Data by the Social Security Administration
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 4 (released October 1992)
by Linda M. Dill
The Development of a New Geographic Coding System for the Continuous Work History Sample
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 4 (released October 1994)
by Linda M. Dill, Barry V. Bye, and Cheryl I. Williams

This article describes the statistical development of the geographic coding system used to identify worker location for the Continuous Work History Sample. The new system—which is planned for implementation for data year 1993—will provide more accurate geographic distributions of workers within a residence concept than the old system could provide within an employer location concept. The article also presents the results of a pilot study that tested the operational aspects of the new system. The results provide some preliminary estimates of the effect of the revised codes on the geographic distribution of workers.

Development of Diagnostic Data in the 10-Percent Sample of Disabled SSI Recipients
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 54 No. 7 (released July 1991)
by Satya Kochhar
Development of Federal Grant Allocations
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 9 (released September 1947)
by Cecile Goldberg
The Development of Organized Recreation in the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 5 (released May 1957)
by Thomas Karter
The Development of Social Security in America
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70 No. 3 (released August 2010)
by Larry DeWitt

This article examines the origins and legislative development of the U.S. Social Security program over its 75-year history. It traces the major amendments adopted over the decades and provides a summary assessment of the impact and importance of Social Security as a central pillar of the U.S. social welfare system.

Development of the Continuous Work-History Sample in Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 3 (released March 1957)
by Benjamin Mandel
The Development of the Project NetWork Administrative Records Database for Policy Evaluation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 2 (released September 1999)
by Kalman Rupp, Dianne Driessen, Robert Kornfeld, and Michelle L. Wood

This article describes the development of SSA's administrative records database for the Project NetWork return-to-work experiment targeting persons with disabilities. The article is part of a series of papers on the evaluation of the Project NetWork demonstration. In addition to 8,248 Project NetWork participants randomly assigned to receive case management services and a control group, the simulation identified 138,613 eligible nonparticipants in the demonstration areas. The output data files contain detailed monthly information on Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Disability Insurance (DI) benefits, annual earnings, and a set of demographic and diagnostic variables. The data allow for the measurement of net outcomes and the analysis of factors affecting participation. The results suggest that it is feasible to simulate complex eligibility rules using administrative records, and create a clean and edited data file for a comprehensive and credible evaluation. The study shows that it is feasible to use administrative records data for selecting control or comparison groups in future demonstration evaluations.

Developments and Trends in Social Security, 1990–1992: Overview of Principal Trends
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 4 (released October 1992)
by Dalmer D. Hoskins
Developments in Foreign Social Security Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 5 (released May 1963)
Developments in Foreign Social Security Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 11 (released November 1962)
Developments in Other Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 8 (released August 1945)
Developments in the Equalization of Treatment of Men and Women Under Social Security in the Federal Republic of Germany
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 2 (released February 1987)
by Peter Puidak
Diagnoses in Disability Freeze Allowances, July 1955–December 1956
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 4 (released April 1958)
Diagnostic Trends of Disabled Social Security Beneficiaries, 1986–93
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 3 (released July 1995)
by Donald T. Ferron

Growth in the number of applications and subsequent awards for Social Security disabled-worker benefits marked the period from 1986 through 1993. These increases resulted in the 37 percent rise in the number of disabled-worker beneficiaries, 6 out of 10 of whom had disabilities within three diagnostic groups: circulatory disorders; mental disorders (other than mental retardation); and musculoskeletal diseases. The percentage of disabled workers with a circulatory condition decreased from 21 to 14 percent, while the percentage with a mental disorder increased from 20 to 25 percent, and the percentage with musculoskeletal conditions increased from 18 to 21 percent. Musculoskeletal conditions (22 percent) were the leading diagnosis among disabled widows and widowers in 1993, while the disabled adult child population was dominated by the mental retardation diagnostic group (63 percent). Variations in diagnostic conditions of disabled workers by sex, age, and region were often substantial.

Differences in Sources and Size of Income: Findings of the 1963 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 5 (released May 1965)
by Erdman Palmore
Disability and Medical Care Insurance: An Excerpt From the Board's Ninth Annual Report
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 1 (released January 1945)
Disability and Old-Age Benefits, by State, December 31, 1962
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 6 (released June 1963)
Disability and Old-Age Benefits, by State, December 31, 1963
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 6 (released June 1964)
Disability and Old-Age Benefits, by State, December 31, 1964
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 6 (released June 1965)
Disability Beneficiaries Eligible for Medicare
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 7 (released July 1974)
by Martin Ruther
Disability Beneficiaries Who Work and Their Experience Under Program Work Incentives
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 2 (released April 1992)
by L. Scott Muller
Disability Beneficiary Recovery
ORES Working Paper No. 2 (released February 1979)
by Ralph Treitel

In recent years, the number of workers awarded disability insurance benefits has rapidly increased, while there has been no corresponding increase in the numbers leaving the rolls for recovery. Concern has been expressed that cash benefit payments may be leading to disincentives to beneficiaries to return to work after medical improvement

To examine this question, a comparative analysis was made of the demographic, disability, and benefit characteristics of a sample of disabled workers who left the benefit rolls for recovery in contrast to the characteristics of those who remained on the rolls after award of disability benefits in 1972. Characteristics related to greater recovery included younger age, higher education, disability due to traumatic injury, residence in western states.

Disability Benefit Applications and the Economy
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 10 (released October 1979)
by Mordechai E. Lando, Malcolm B. Coate, and Ruth Kraus
Disability Benefit Awards Affected by the Offset Provision, July–October 1957
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 3 (released March 1958)
Disability Benefit Coverage and Program Interactions in the Working-Age Population
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68 No. 1 (released August 2008)
by Kalman Rupp, Paul S. Davies, and Alexander Strand

It is widely known that about three-fourths of the working-age population is insured for Disability Insurance (DI), but the substantial role played by the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program in providing disability benefit coverage is not well understood. Using data from the 1996 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) we find that over one-third (36 percent) of the working-age population is covered by SSI in the event of a severe disability. Three important implications follow: (1) SSI increases the overall coverage of the working-age population; (2) SSI enhances the bundle of cash benefits available to disabled individuals; and (3) interactions with other public programs—most notably the SSI path to Medicaid coverage—also enhance the safety net. Ignoring these implications could lead to inaccurate inferences in analytic studies.

Disability Benefits Suspended or Terminated Because of Work
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 3 (released August 2011)
by Jody Schimmel and David C. Stapleton

The authors use longitudinal Social Security administrative data to produce statistics on the number of Disability Insurance (DI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI)-only beneficiaries whose cash benefits were first suspended or terminated because of work and on the number of months thereafter that those beneficiaries remained in nonpayment status before their return to the program rolls, attainment of the full retirement age, or death—for each year from 2002 through 2006. We also explore differences by program title (DI versus SSI-only) and by participation in the Ticket to Work program. Finally, we examine outcome payments made on behalf of Ticket to Work participants in months of nonpayment status following suspension or termination because of work.

Disability Claimants Who Contest Denials and Win Reversals Through Hearings
ORES Working Paper No. 3 (released February 1979)
by Ralph Treitel

This paper presents the social and demographic characteristics of those disability claimants whose cases go to hearing. Particular attention is given to how these characteristics may be related to (1) the individual decision to contest a denial or accept it; (2) the general increase in disability claims and contested applications in recent years; and (3) the high proportion of reversals in hearings.

Disability Filing Rates and Denial Rates
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 7 (released July 1962)
by Edward E. Glik and Aaron Krute
Disability Insurance and Aid to the Blind
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 8 (released August 1967)
by Philip Frohlich
Disability Insurance and Public Assistance: A Study of APTD Recipients
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 8 (released August 1966)
by Philip Frohlich and Lawrence D. Haber
Disability Insurance Benefits in Current-Payment Status, by State, December 31, 1959
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 9 (released September 1960)
by Hammett Buchanan
Disability Insurance Benefits In Current-Payment Status, By State, December 31, 1960
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 9 (released September 1961)
by Hammett Buchanan
Disability Insurance Benefits in Current-Payment Status, by State, December 31, 1961
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 9 (released September 1962)
Disability Insurance Benefits in Current-Payments Status, by State, February 28, 1959
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 1 (released January 1960)
Disability Insurance for Railroad Workers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 5 (released May 1943)
by Jack M. Elkin
Disability Insurance Trust Fund, January–June 1957
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 9 (released September 1957)
by Sophie R. Dales
Disability Insurance: Program Issues and Research
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 10 (released October 1976)
by Mordechai E. Lando and Aaron Krute
Disability Patterns Among SSI Recipients
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 1 (released January 1995)
by Satya Kochhar and Charles G. Scott

In December 1993, about 3.8 million persons under age 65 received Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments because of a disability. More than half of these recipients had some form of mental disorder. In recent years, the number of disabled SSI recipients has climbed sharply. At the same time, there has been a change in the disability patterns among these recipients. The proportion of recipients with mental disorders, particularly those with psychiatric illness, is increasing steadily. Many of these recipients enter the SSI program in their youth and may stay in the program for many years. Similar increases and disability patterns in the Social Security Administration's Disability Insurance (DI) program imply program related causes, including recent changes to the disability requirements and outreach efforts. These changing disability patterns have implications for the size and shape of future SSI caseloads.

Disability Process Redesign: The Proposal from the SSA Disability Process Reengineering Team
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 2 (released April 1994)
Disability Protection Under Public Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 6 (released June 1948)
by Dorothy McCamman
Disability Shocks Near Retirement Age and Financial Well-Being
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 73 No. 3 (released August 2013)
by Irena Dushi and Kalman Rupp

Using Health and Retirement Study data, the authors examine three groups of adults aged 51–56 in 1992 with different disability experiences over the following 8 years. Our analysis reveals three major findings. First, people who started and stayed nondisabled experienced stable financial security, with substantial improvement in household wealth despite substantial labor force withdrawal. Second, people who started as nondisabled but suffered a disability shock experienced a substantial increase in poverty rates and a sharp decline in median incomes. Average earnings loss was the greatest for that group, with public and private benefits replacing less than half of the loss, whereas the reduction in private health insurance coverage was more than alleviated by the increase in public health insurance coverage. Third, people who started and stayed disabled were behind at the baseline and have fallen further behind on most measures. An important exception is substantial improvement in health insurance coverage because of public safety nets.

Disability Trends in the United States: A National and Regional Perspective
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 3 (released July 1994)
by William J. Nelson, Jr.
Disability, Welfare Reform, and Supplemental Security Income
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 3 (released January 2005)
by Mark Nadel, Steve Wamhoff, and Michael Wiseman

The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program serves as both a safety net and a way station for families with disabilities. According to most studies, at least a third of all households receiving these benefits include an adult or child with a disability. Surveys have found that persons with disabilities receiving these benefits were less likely to be working. Sanctioning rates of these families exceed those for families without disabilities, and continuing poverty is more common among cases that close. There is overlap between this welfare program and Supplemental Security Income; more than one out of every six of these families included a recipient of Supplemental Security Income in 2002.

Disability, Work, and Income Maintenance: Prevalence of Disability, 1966
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 5 (released May 1968)
by Lawrence D. Haber
Disabled Beneficiary Population, 1957–66
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 7 (released July 1971)
by Phoebe H. Goff
Disabled Old-Age Insurance Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 6 (released June 1951)
by Edna C. Wentworth
The Disabled on Public Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 10 (released October 1970)
by Henry P. Brehm
Disabled SSI Recipients Who Work
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 1 (released January 1992)
by Charles G. Scott
The Disabled Widow
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 1 (released January 1975)
by Paula A. Franklin
The Disabled Worker Under OASDI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 11 (released November 1964)
Disabled Workers and Rehabilitation Services
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 6 (released June 1963)
by Donald S. Frank
Disabled Workers and the Indexing of Social Security Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 4 (released May 2008)
by Alexander Strand and Kalman Rupp

This article presents the distributional effects of changing the Social Security indexing scheme, with an emphasis on the effects upon disabled-worker beneficiaries. Although a class of reform proposals that would slow the rate of growth of initial benefit levels over time—including price indexing and longevity indexing—initially appear to affect all beneficiaries proportionally, there can be different impacts on different groups of beneficiaries. The impacts between and within groups are mitigated by (1) the offsetting effect of changes in Supplemental Security Income benefits at the lower tail of the income distribution, and (2) the dampening effect of other family income at the upper tail of the income distribution. The authors present estimates of the size of these effects.

Disabled-Worker Beneficiaries and Disabled SSI Recipients: A Profile of Demographic and Program Characteristics
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 5 (released May 1989)
by John L. McCoy and Kerry Weems
Disabled-Worker Beneficiaries Under OASDHI: Regional and State Patterns
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 9 (released September 1973)
by Phoebe H. Goff
Disabled-Worker Beneficiaries Under OASDI: Comparison With Severely Disabled PA Recipients
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 8 (released August 1977)
by Michael Hooker and Aaron Krute
The Disappearing Defined Benefit Pension and Its Potential Impact on the Retirement Incomes of Baby Boomers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 69 No. 3 (released October 2009)
by Barbara A. Butrica, Howard M. Iams, Karen E. Smith, and Eric J. Toder

A large share of traditional defined benefit pension plans have frozen within the past decade and evidence suggests that this trend will continue in the future. This article uses the Model of Income in the Near Term (MINT) microsimulation model to project the impact on boomers' retirement incomes of freezing traditional pension plans and replacing them with 401(k)-type plans. The projections suggest that the largest impact will be for the most recent boomers born between 1961 and 1965.

The Distribution of Annual and Long-Run US Earnings, 1981–2004
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 1 (released February 2011)
by Michael V. Leonesio and Linda Del Bene

During 1981–2004, long-run earnings inequality among men increased by about the same magnitude as the well-documented increase in annual earnings inequality. Although the growth in annual earnings inequality was greater for women during these years, there was very little increase in their long-run earnings inequality. This article explores the conditions that produce the divergent trends in long-run earnings.

Distribution of Family Income: Improved Estimates
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 7 (released July 1982)
by Daniel B. Radner
Distribution of Income Sources of Recent Retirees: Findings From the New Beneficiary Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 1 (released January 1985)
by Linda Drazga Maxfield and Virginia P. Reno
Distribution of Increased Benefits Under Alternative Earnings Tests
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 9 (released September 1980)
by Louis Esposito, Lucy B. Mallan, and David Podoff
The Distribution of OASDI Taxes and Benefits by Income Decile
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 2 (released April 1995)
by David Pattison

On average, persons receiving Social Security benefits tend to have lower current incomes than do persons paying Social Security taxes. This article documents OASDI's income distributional patterns by dividing the 1992 Current Population Survey population into 10 income deciles and tabulating benefits received and taxes paid by each decile. The benefits and taxes, when compared with non-Social Security income, are progressive: as income rises from decile to decile, the ratio of benefits to income falls, and, except at the highest deciles, the ratio of taxes to income rises.

A large component of the current income distributional pattern is associated with age: the young on average receive more income and pay more taxes; the old on average receive more benefits. However, when benefits and taxes are tabulated for income deciles within specific age groups, a general progressivity is still observable, although it is weaker than that for the population as a whole.

Distribution of Public-Assistance Funds Within States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 12 (released December 1939)
by Joel Gordon and Olivia J. Israeli
Distribution of Zero-Earnings Years by Gender, Birth Cohort, and Level of Lifetime Earnings
Research and Statistics Note No. 2000-02 (released November 2000)
by Chad Newcomb

This note uses data from the Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) project to estimate the distribution of zero-earnings years by gender, birth cohort, and level of lifetime earnings from 1951 to 1996. The analysis is focused mainly on zero-earnings years that fall within a worker's highest 35 years of earnings, because only these years are used in the calculation of benefits.

Distribution Patterns in Old-Age Assistance Payments Approved in 1938-39
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 1 (released January 1941)
The Distributional Consequences of a "No-Action" Scenario
Policy Brief No. 2004-01 (released February 2004)
by Andrew G. Biggs

The 2001 report of the Social Security trustees projected that the combined trust funds for the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Disability Insurance programs will be exhausted in 2038. This analysis explains the effects of insolvency on future retirement benefits and poverty rates of beneficiaries if no action is taken to strengthen Social Security.

The Distributional Consequences of a "No-Action" Scenario: Updated Results
Policy Brief No. 2005-01 (released July 2005)

Under the Social Security program, benefits are paid to retired workers, survivors, and disabled persons out of two trust funds—the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and the Disability Insurance (OASDI) Trust Funds. In their 2005 report, the Social Security Trustees projected that the combined OASDI trust funds would be exhausted in 2041. Because the trust funds are used to pay benefits, retirement benefits would have to be reduced somewhat in 2041 and more drastically in 2042.

If no action were taken to strengthen Social Security, the benefit reductions necessitated by the exhaustion of the trust funds would double the poverty rate of Social Security beneficiaries aged 64–78 in 2042, from 1.5 percent to 3.3 percent. However, this increased poverty rate would still be lower than the current poverty rate for beneficiaries aged 62–76, which is 4.6 percent. In addition, the trust funds' exhaustion could lead to lower returns on payroll taxes using traditional "money's-worth" measures.

Distributional Effects of Accelerating and Extending the Increase in the Full Retirement Age
Policy Brief No. 2011-01 (released January 2011)
by Glenn R. Springstead

This policy brief compares two options set forth by the Social Security Advisory Board to increase the full retirement age (FRA), the age at which claimants may receive unreduced Social Security old-age benefits. One option would raise the FRA from the current target of 67 years to 68 years; the other would raise the FRA to 70 years. The brief examines the effects of both options on the level of benefits of Social Security beneficiaries aged 62 or older in 2070 using Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) projections, and on Trust Fund solvency using estimates from the Social Security Administration's Office of the Chief Actuary. The brief finds that both options would reduce benefits, improve solvency, and slightly increase the poverty rate. Within each option, effects on benefits are relatively uniform across beneficiary characteristics, although some surviving spouse and disabled beneficiaries would be shielded from benefit reductions.

The Distributional Effects of Changing the Averaging Period and Minimum Benefit Provisions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 2 (released September 1999)
by Steven H. Sandell, Howard M. Iams, and Daniel Fanaras

This study evaluates the effects of changing the averaging period used to calculate Social Security benefits from 35 years to 38 or 40 years and the introduction of a minimum benefit provision for future retirees born during the early part of the baby boom generation. Proposals to change the averaging period have been recommended by a majority of the 1994–96 Advisory Council on Social Security. Based on the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) matched to Social Security Administration earnings records, the study projects retirement benefits for different subgroups of the population under existing and proposed benefit rules. The magnitudes of the retirees' benefit changes vary by demographic group. The minimum benefit provision substantially mitigates the effects of the change to a 40-year averaging period for some groups of women.

Distributional Effects of Increasing the Benefit Computation Period
Policy Brief No. 2008-02 (released August 2008)
by Mark A. Sarney

The computation period is the number of highest earning years, currently 35, that are used to compute the career average earnings on which Social Security benefits are based. The brief uses MINT model projections to compare the distributional effects of two policy options discussed by the Social Security Advisory Board.

Distributional Effects of Price Indexing Social Security Benefits
Policy Brief No. 2010-03 (released November 2010)
by Mark A. Sarney

This policy brief compares five options (four progressive price indexing and one full price indexing option) set forth by the Social Security Advisory Board to index initial benefits to price growth. It examines the distribution of benefits of Social Security beneficiaries aged 62 or older in 2030, 2050, and 2070 using Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) model projections. The brief finds that the full price indexing option Shield 0% would more than achieve long-term solvency by reducing benefits by about 35 percent in 2070 and would increase the aged poverty rate compared with scheduled levels. The four progressive price indexing options (Shields 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%) would produce smaller benefit reductions by exempting varying proportions of lower earners from price indexing. Those options would not increase poverty above scheduled levels, but would reduce benefits for some low earners because their auxiliary benefits come from the reduced benefits of a higher-earning spouse. The progressive price indexing options would make Social Security more progressive compared with scheduled and payable benefits, both when looking at household benefit reductions by household income in a given year and when examining the distribution of lifetime taxes and benefits.

Distributional Effects of Raising the Social Security Payroll Tax
Policy Brief No. 2010-01 (released April 2010)
by Dave Shoffner

This policy brief analyzes the lifetime tax effects of two options for addressing the Social Security system's long-range solvency by raising the Social Security payroll tax rate. The first, an immediate increase, would have raised the payroll tax rate from its current 12.4 percent to 14.4 percent in 2006; the second, a phased increase, would raise the payroll tax rate to 14.5 percent in 2020, and then to 16.6 percent in 2050. The brief also analyzes a comparative scenario in which the current tax rate is maintained through 2041 and then raised each year as needed to pay scheduled benefits. The lifetime taxes of people born 1936–2015 are analyzed using Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) projections. Results show that the longer a tax rate increase is delayed, the fewer workers are affected, but also the higher the increase in lifetime taxes for later generations. The results also show that both options reduce the cross-cohort variability in the ratio of benefits received to taxes paid.

Distributional Effects of Raising the Social Security Taxable Maximum
Policy Brief No. 2009-01 (released July 2009)
by Kevin Whitman

As of 2009, Social Security's Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance program limits the amount of annual earnings subject to taxation at $106,800, and this value generally increases annually based on changes in the national average wage index. This brief uses Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) projections to compare the distributional effects of four options for raising the maximum taxable earnings amount beyond its scheduled levels. Two of the options would raise this value so that it covers 90 percent of all covered earnings and two would remove the maximum completely. Within each set of options, the proposals are differentiated by whether the new taxable amounts are used in computing benefits. Most workers would not be affected by these proposals, but some higher earners would experience a substantial increase in taxes. Correspondingly, benefit increases are largely isolated to higher earners, although the return in benefits for taxes paid would also decline. Because the proposals are targeted toward high earners, Social Security's progressivity would increase.

Distributional Effects of Reducing the Cost-of-Living Adjustments
Policy Brief No. 2008-03 (released November 2008)
by Anya Olsen

Each year, Social Security benefits increase automatically with the cost-of-living adjustment (COLA), which is based on the rise in the consumer price index for urban wage earners and clerical workers (CPI-W). The analysis uses Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) projections to compare the distributional effects of three policy options discussed by the Social Security Advisory Board to improve system solvency.

Distributional Effects of Reducing the Social Security Benefit Formula
Policy Brief No. 2010-02 (released November 2010)
by Glenn R. Springstead

A person's Social Security benefit, or primary insurance amount (PIA), is 90 percent of the lowest portion of lifetime earnings, plus 32 percent of the middle portion of lifetime earnings, plus 15 percent of the highest portion of lifetime earnings. This policy brief analyzes the distributional effects of three options (the three-point, five-point and upper) discussed by the Social Security Advisory Board to reduce the PIA. The first option would reduce the PIA by 3 percentage points; the second would reduce it by 5 percentage points; and the third would reduce the 32 and 15 percentages of the PIA to 21 and 10 percent, respectively. The third option would exempt about one quarter of the lowest earning beneficiaries, while reducing benefits by a median average of 19 percent in 2070. None would eliminate Social Security's long-term fiscal imbalance, although the third option would eliminate more (76 percent) of the deficit than the three-point (18 percent) and five-point (31 percent) options.

Divorced Women at Retirement: Projections of Economic Well-Being in the Near Future
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 3 (released July 2001)
by Barbara A. Butrica and Howard M. Iams

This article describes the economic resources and economic well-being of future divorced women at retirement using data from the Social Security Administration's project on Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT). The MINT model projects that in the near term, there will be more divorced women of retirement age. Because fewer of those women are projected to meet the 10-year marriage requirement, the proportion of economically vulnerable aged women is expected to increase when the baby boom retires.

Do Early Retirees Die Early? Evidence from Three Independent Data Sets
ORES Working Paper No. 97 (released July 2002)
by Hilary Waldron

In a 2001 working paper, Links Between Early Retirement and Mortality (ORES Working Paper No. 93), the author used cross-sectional Current Population Survey (CPS) matched to longitudinal Social Security administration data and found that men who retire early die sooner than men who retire at age 65 or older. Estimates of relative mortality risk control for current age, year of birth, education, marital status in 1973, and race, and the sample is restricted to men who have lived to at least age 65.

This paper uses the 1982 New Beneficiary Survey and a 1 percent extract of the Social Security Administration's year 2000 Master Beneficiary Records to test whether the mortality differentials reported in the author's earlier work can be replicated in other independent data sets.

Does Retirement Education Teach People to Save Pension Distributions?
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 4 (released June 2003)
by Leslie A. Muller

Education about retirement affects how employees use distributions from their defined contribution pension plans. Retirement education substantially increases the probability that participants age 40 and under will save a distribution but decreases the probability that college graduates and women will save one. These important differentials are concealed by estimates of the effect of retirement education on participants generally.

Domestic and Foreign Prescription Drug Prices
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 5 (released May 1971)
by Edmond M. Jacoby, Jr. and Dennis L. Hefner
Domestic Workers Covered Under OASDHI, 1976
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 1 (released January 1980)
by Bertram Kestenbaum
Domestic Workers in Private Homes
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 3 (released March 1939)
by Rae L. Needleman
Dual Receipt of Disabled-Worker Benefits Under OASDHI and Workers' Compensation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 11 (released November 1977)
by Daniel N. Price
Duration of Employment and Mobility of Workers: Industry Variations, 1947
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 1 (released January 1951)
by Harper R. Fortune
Duration of Unemployment Benefit Payments in 27 States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 3 (released March 1942)
Duration of Unemployment Benefit Payments, Benefit Years Ended in 1941
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 8 (released August 1943)
Duration of Unemployment Benefits, Benefit Years Ended in 1942
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 4 (released April 1944)
Duration of Unemployment Benefits, Benefit Years Ended in 1943
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 6 (released June 1945)

E

Early Effects of Medicare on the Health Care of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 4 (released April 1971)
by Regina Loewenstein
Early Experience Under the Supplemental Security Income Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 6 (released June 1974)
by James C. Callison
Early Labor-Force Withdrawal of Men: Participants and Nonparticipants Aged 58–63
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 8 (released August 1974)
by Karen Schwab
Early Retirees Under Social Security: Health Status and Economic Resources
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 4 (released September 2001)
by Michael V. Leonesio, Denton R. Vaughan, and Bernard Wixon

Policies that would reduce or eliminate Social Security benefits for early retirees could have adverse consequences for older workers in poor health. This article documents the health and financial circumstances of beneficiaries aged 62–64. It examines the extent to which poor health limits work among early retirees and assesses the extent to which curtailment of early retirement benefits might lead to increases in the Disability Insurance program rolls.

Early Retirees Under Social Security: Health Status and Economic Resources
ORES Working Paper No. 86 (released August 2000)
by Michael V. Leonesio, Denton R. Vaughan, and Bernard Wixon

Some proposals to change the Social Security program to ensure long-run solvency would reduce or eliminate benefits to some early retirees. To what extent might those benefit reductions cause hardship for individuals with precarious financial circumstances and whose health appears to limit their ability to offset reductions in Social Security income through increased earnings? Our research is intended to identify the size and characteristics of the population that might be at risk as a consequence of such changes.

The central finding is that over 20 percent of early Social Security retirees have health problems that substantially impair their ability to work. In fact, among those aged 62–64 who are severely impaired, there are as many Old-Age and Survivors Insurance beneficiaries as there are beneficiaries under SSA's two disability programs. The retirement program functions as a substantial, albeit unofficial, disability program for this age group. Moreover, the majority of the most severely impaired early retirees would not qualify for Disability Insurance benefits.

Early Retirement and Work-Life Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 3 (released March 1966)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Earmarking Tax Funds for Welfare Purposes
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 1 (released January 1940)
by Ewan Clague and Joel Gordon
Earners and Dependents in Urban Families in Relation to Family Income
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 4 (released April 1947)
by Jacob Fisher
Earners and Their Dependents in the Population in April 1948
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 9 (released September 1949)
by Jacob Fisher
Earnings and Disability Program Participation of Youth Transition Demonstration Participants after 24 Months
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 74 No. 1 (released February 2014)
by Jeffrey Hemmeter

This article presents earnings and Social Security Administration (SSA) disability program payment outcomes for youths participating in SSA's Youth Transition Demonstration project. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups at each of six project sites. The author provides overviews of the project sites and compares treatment- and control-group youths' earnings 1 year and 2 years after random assignment, and disability program payment receipt 24 months after random assignment.

Earnings Histories of SSI Beneficiaries Working in December 1997
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 3 (released July 2001)
by Lenna D. Kennedy

This article looks at the history of earnings in covered employment for the 300,000 disabled SSI beneficiaries who were working in December 1997. It provides background information on beneficiaries essential to SSA's efforts to help them return to work.

Earnings Index and Old-Age Benefits in West Germany
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 3 (released March 1977)
by Max Horlick
Earnings of Black and Nonblack Workers Who Died or Became Disabled in 1996 and 1997
Research and Statistics Note No. 2000-01 (released November 2000)
by Greg Diez

Social Security solvency proposals may affect blacks as a group differently than those of other races because of differences in earnings, mortality, and rates of disability. To provide some background for understanding this issue, this note examines the earnings of workers by age and race, comparing those who recently died or became entitled to Social Security disability benefits with those still alive. It does not analyze any specific proposal for changing benefits.

Earnings of Couples: A Cohort Analysis
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 3 (released July 1993)
by Howard M. Iams
Earnings of Disabled-Worker Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 6 (released June 1974)
by Paula A. Franklin
The Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits in 12 Countries, 1969–80
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 11 (released November 1982)
by Jonathan Aldrich
The Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits: An International Comparison
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 8 (released August 1988)
by Max Horlick
The Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits: An International Comparison
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 3 (released March 1970)
by Max Horlick
Earnings Replacement Rate of Old-Age Pensions for Workers Retiring at End of 1972
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 12 (released December 1974)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen and Max Horlick
Earnings Replacement Rates and Total Income: Findings From the Retirement History Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 10 (released October 1982)
by Alan Fox
Earnings Replacement Rates of New Retired Workers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 10 (released October 1990)
by Susan Grad
Earnings Replacement Rates of Retired Couples: Findings From the Retirement History Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 1 (released January 1979)
by Alan Fox
Earnings Sharing in Social Security: Projected Impacts of Alternative Proposals Using the MINT Model
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 69 No. 1 (released May 2009)
by Howard M. Iams, Gayle L. Reznik, and Christopher R. Tamborini

Earnings sharing is an alternate method of calculating Social Security retirement benefits whereby earnings are assumed to be shared by married couples. This article presents a microsimulation analysis to estimate the impact of three earnings sharing proposals on the aged population of married, divorced, and widowed men and women in 2030. The impact of earnings sharing differs by marital status and sex, as measured by the percentage change in benefits and by the percentage of beneficiaries with increased and reduced benefits.

The Earnings Test and the Short-Run Work Response to Its Elimination
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 9 (released September 1990)
by Michael D. Packard
Earnings Test Under Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance: Basis, Background, and Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 5 (released May 1964)
by Robert J. Myers
Earnings-Replacement Rate of Old-Age Benefits, 1965–75, Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 1 (released January 1978)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Econometric Models and the Study of the Economic Effects of Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 10 (released October 1984)
by John C. Hambor
Economic and Social Status of Beneficiaries of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 7 (released July 1943)
by Edna C. Wentworth
The Economic Consequences of a Husband's Death: Evidence from the HRS and AHEAD
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 3 (released January 2005)
by Purvi Sevak, David R. Weir, and Robert J. Willis

Despite increased labor force participation rates among women and reforms under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act, widowhood remains an important risk factor for transition into poverty, although somewhat less so than 20 years ago. Women widowed at younger ages are at greatest risk for economic hardship after widowhood, and their situation declines with the duration of widowhood. We also find that women in households that are least prepared financially for widowhood are at greatest risk of a husband's death, because of the strong relationship between mortality and wealth.

The Economic Cost of Illness Revisited
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 2 (released February 1976)
by Barbara S. Cooper and Dorothy P. Rice
Economic Effects of Internal Migration
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 5 (released May 1968)
by Betty G. Fishman
Economic Factors in Long-Range Cost Estimates of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 4 (released April 1944)
by Michael T. Wermel
Economic Forecasting: Effect of Errors on OASDI Fund Ratios
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 1 (released January 1982)
by Dwight K. Bartlett III and Joseph A. Applebaum
Economic Policy, Intergenerational Equity, and the Social Security Trust Fund Buildup
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 10 (released October 1987)
by John C. Hambor
Economic Resources of Persons Aged 65 and Over
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 6 (released June 1955)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Economic Retirement Studies: An Annotated Bibliography
ORES Working Paper No. 45 (released July 1990)
by Michael V. Leonesio

This bibliography is a by-product of preparing a review of the economic literature on the effect of Social Security's retirement program on the labor supply of older workers. In the course of organizing a set of scribbled notes, the outline of the current document began to take shape. Several colleagues found earlier, incomplete drafts of these notes to be of some value in their own work, and encouraged me to offer them to a wider audience.

These notes are intended to provide a helpful overview of the models, data sources, and statistical procedures used by economists in recent years to investigate the work-retirement decision.

Economic Security of Farm Operators
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 5 (released May 1952)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Economic Security, 1935–85
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 12 (released December 1985)
by Virginia P. Reno and Susan Grad
Economic Situation of Aged Insurance Beneficiaries: An Evaluation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 4 (released April 1954)
by Edna C. Wentworth
Economic Status of Aged Persons and Dependent Children
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 12 (released December 1950)
Economic Status of Aged Persons and Dependent Survivors
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 6 (released June 1951)
Economic Status of Aged Persons and Dependent Survivors, December 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 6 (released June 1952)
Economic Status of Aged Persons and Dependent Survivors, December 1952
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 6 (released June 1953)
Economic Status of Aged Persons and Dependent Survivors, December 1953
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 6 (released June 1954)
Economic Status of Aged Persons and Dependent Survivors, June 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 12 (released December 1951)
Economic Status of Aged Persons and Dependent Survivors, June 1952
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 12 (released December 1952)
Economic Status of Aged Persons and Dependent Survivors, June 1953
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 12 (released December 1953)
Economic Status of Aged Persons, June 1954
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 12 (released December 1954)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Economic Status of Black Persons: Findings from Survey of Newly Entitled Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 9 (released September 1974)
by Leonard Rubin
The Economic Status of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 3 (released July 1992)
by Daniel B. Radner
Economic Status of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 1–3 (released March 1938)
by Marjorie Shearon
Economic Status of the Aged and Dependent Survivors
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 6 (released June 1950)
Economic Status of the Aged in Urban Households
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 10 (released October 1940)
by Barkev S. Sanders
The Economic Status of Urban Families and Children
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 5 (released May 1939)
by I. S. Falk and Barkev S. Sanders
Economic Status of Widows and Paternal Orphans, June 1954
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 12 (released December 1954)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Economic Status, Unemployment, and Family Growth
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 5 (released May 1966)
The Economic Well-Being of Social Security Beneficiaries, with an Emphasis on Divorced Beneficiaries
ORES Working Paper No. 73 (released December 1997)
by David A. Weaver

There are numerous types of benefits paid under the Social Security programs of the United States, with each type of benefit having its own set of eligibility rules and benefit formula. It is likely that there is an association between the type of benefit a person receives and the economic circumstances of the beneficiary. This paper explores that association using records from the Current Population Survey exactly matched to administrative records from the Social Security Administration. Divorced beneficiaries are a particular focus of this paper.

Type of benefit is found to be a strong predictor of economic well-being. Two large groups of beneficiaries, retired-worker and aged married-spouse beneficiaries, are fairly well off. Other types of beneficiaries tend to resemble the overall U.S. population or are decidedly worse off. Divorced-spouse beneficiaries have an unusually high incidence of poverty and of serious health problems. A proposal to increase benefits for these beneficiaries is evaluated. Results indicate that much of the additional government expenditures would be received by those with low income.

The Economic Well-Being of Social Security Beneficiaries, with an Emphasis on Divorced Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 60 No. 4 (released October 1997)
by David A. Weaver

There are numerous types of benefits paid under the Social Security programs of the United States, with each type of benefit having its own set of eligibility rules and benefit formula. It is likely that there is an association between the type of benefit a person receives and the economic circumstances of the beneficiary. This article explores that association using records from the Current Population Survey exactly matched to administrative records from the Social Security Administration. Divorced beneficiaries are a particular focus of this article.

Type of benefit is found to be a strong predictor of economic well-being. Two large groups of beneficiaries, retired-worker and aged married spouse beneficiaries, are fairly well-off. Other types of beneficiaries tend to resemble the overall U.S. population or are decidedly worse off. Divorced spouse beneficiaries have an unusually high incidence of poverty and an unusually high incidence of serious health problems. A proposal to increase benefits for these beneficiaries is evaluated. Results of the analyses indicate that much of the additional Government expenditures would be received by those with low income.

The Economic Well-Being of the Old Old: Family Unit Income and Household Wealth
ORES Working Paper No. 58 (released February 1993)
by Daniel B. Radner

This paper examines the family income and the household wealth and income of old old persons. Subgroups of the old old are compared, and the old old are compared with the young old. When the old old group is separated into three subgroups—widows living alone, other females, and males—the economic status of widows living alone is substantially below that of the other two subgroups. This difference is found when income, wealth, and combined income-wealth measures are used. When the old old group is compared with the young old group, the economic status of the old old is substantially lower for all measures examined. When the three subgroups within both the old old and young old groups are compared, the economic status of each subgroup is lower for the old old for most measures. Income data from the March 1991 Current Population Survey and wealth and income data from the 1984 Survey of Income and Program Participation are used.

Economic Well-Being of the Old Old: Family Unit Income and Household Wealth
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 1 (released January 1993)
by Daniel B. Radner
Economically Dependent Persons Without Pension Coverage in Old Age
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 10 (released October 1975)
by Susan Grad
The Economics of Retirement: A Nontechnical Guide
ORES Working Paper No. 66 (released April 1995)
by Michael V. Leonesio

This paper provides a nontechnical explanation of the basic ideas that underpin economists' thinking about work and retirement decisions and discusses and elaborates on the basic economic model of retirement. The paper begins with a simple economic model of an individual's work decision, to explain the construction and logic of this model, and to show how the model can be used to make basic predictions about factors that might plausibly affect the timing of retirement. From this starting point—which essentially describes the economic retirement models before the late 1970s—the paper then explains how the model has been extended during the past 2 decades. The increasing sophistication and complexity of the models reflect scientific progress in which new retirement research incorporates the findings of previous efforts, the desire to incorporate more realism into the models, and the availability of improved data. The progress in economic modeling is emphasized as the contributions of various influential studies are reviewed.

The Economics of Retirement: A Nontechnical Guide
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 59 No. 4 (released October 1996)
by Michael V. Leonesio

Concern about the economic consequences of the aging of the United States population has prompted considerable research activity during the past two decades. Economists have carefully examined retirement patterns and trends, and sought to identify and measure the determinants of the timing of retirement by older workers. Much of the published retirement research is fairly technical by nature and is somewhat inaccessible to nonspecialist audiences. This article provides a nontechnical overview of this research. In contrast to other reviews of the retirement literature, this exposition emphasizes the basic ideas and reasoning that economists use in their research. In the course of recounting how economists' views about retirement have evolved in recent years, the article highlights landmark pieces of research, points out the specific advances made by the various researchers, and assesses what has been learned along the way.

Educational and Economic Characteristics of Student Beneficiaries: Black-White Differences
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 9 (released September 1979)
by Diane Huntley
Effect of 1954 OASI Eligibility Provision on Public Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 9 (released September 1956)
by Sue Ossman
The Effect of a Shortened Waiting Period on Unemployment Benefit Costs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 1 (released January 1939)
by Harry J. Winslow
Effect of Changing Technology on Hospital Costs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 5 (released May 1972)
by Saul Waldman
Effect of Coinsurance on Use of Physician Services
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 6 (released June 1972)
by Anne A. Scitovsky and Nelda A. Snyder
Effect of Coinsurance: A Multivariate Analysis
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 6 (released June 1972)
by Charles E. Phelps and Joseph P. Newhouse
Effect of Financing Disabled Beneficiary Rehabilitation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 11 (released November 1975)
by Ralph Treitel
The Effect of Health on Retirement
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 2 (released February 1987)
by Frank J. Sammartino
Effect of Hospital Management Practices on Hospital Performance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 8 (released August 1977)
by Selwyn W. Becker, Stephen M. Shortell, and Duncan Neuhauser
Effect of Increased Federal Participation in Payments for Old-Age Assistance in 1940
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 6 (released June 1941)
Effect of Increased Federal Participation in Payments for Old-Age Assistance, 1940-41, and Aid to Dependent Children, 1940-42
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 4 (released April 1943)
by Ellen J. Newman and Saul Kaplan
Effect of Increased OASI Benefits on Public Assistance, September–December 1954
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 7 (released July 1955)
by Sue Ossman
The Effect of Liquidation of the WPA on Need for Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 6 (released June 1943)
by Ruth White
Effect of Medical Staff Characteristics on Hospital Cost
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 12 (released December 1977)
by Mark V. Pauly
Effect of OASDI Benefit Increase, June 1975
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 11 (released November 1975)
by Barbara A. Lingg
Effect of OASDI Benefit Increases
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 6 (released June 1970)
Effect of OASDI Benefit Increases, 1974
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 10 (released October 1974)
by Barbara A. Lingg
Effect of Recession on Financing of German Pension Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 2 (released February 1977)
by Lois S. Copeland
Effect of Rehabilitation on Employment and Earnings of the Disabled: Sociodemographic Factors
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 8 (released August 1979)
by Joseph Greenblum
The Effect of Removing 70- and 71-Year-Olds from Coverage Under the Social Security Earnings Test
ORES Working Paper No. 44 (released July 1990)
by Michael D. Packard

This study attempts to determine how persons aged 65–69 would respond to eliminating the earnings test by looking at the changes in labor market behavior of 70- and 71-year-olds whose earnings test coverage was eliminated beginning in 1983. In particular, it tries to determine whether 70- and 71-year-olds increased their labor force participation and earnings once the earnings test was removed. This issue is important because proposals to eliminate the earnings test for persons aged 65–69 generally assume that a portion of the additional benefit expenses would be recovered by income and payroll taxes generated by increased work effort among this age group.

Effect of Social Security on Personal Saving
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 11 (released November 1974)
by Alicia H. Munnell
Effect of Social Security on Saving: Review of Studies Using U.S. Time-Series Data
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 5 (released May 1978)
by Louis Esposito
Effect of SSI on Medicaid Caseloads and Expenditures
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 2 (released February 1979)
by Sue C. Hawkins and Donald E. Rigby
Effect of Substantial Gainful Activity Level on Disabled Beneficiary Work Patterns
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 3 (released March 1979)
by Paula A. Franklin and John C. Hennessey
The Effect of the SSI Program on Labor Supply: Improved Evidence from Social Security Administrative Files
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 3 (released January 2005)
by David Neumark and Elizabeth T. Powers

We use public-use microdata linked to Social Security Administration records to reexamine the impact of the Supplemental Security Income program on work disincentives among older individuals nearing the age of eligibility for Supplemental Security Income for the aged and likely to use the program. The administrative records provide significant advantages relative to past research and yield strong evidence that the Supplemental Security Income program induces some individuals nearing the age of eligibility to reduce their labor supply.

Effect of the War Economy on Financing Public Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 10 (released October 1942)
The Effect of Unemployment Benefits on 2,500 Relief Cases in Philadelphia
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 1–3 (released March 1938)
by Saya Schwartz
The Effect of Vocational Rehabilitation and Work Incentives on Helping the Disabled-Worker Beneficiary Back to Work
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 1 (released January 1995)
by John C. Hennessey and L. Scott Muller

This article is the second in a series of articles that use data from the New Beneficiary Followup survey to analyze the work effects of the Social Security Administration's Disability Insurance beneficiaries. Survival analysis techniques are used to determine the effect of vocational rehabilitation efforts and work incentive program provisions on actual work outcomes. The findings indicate that the demographic variables of age, gender, race, education, and marital status affect the tendency to return to work in the expected way. The results suggest a possible disincentive effect may be built into certain work incentive provisions of the program. The encouraging news is that the vocational rehabilitation efforts seem to have a positive effect on the tendency to return to work. Physical therapy, vocational training, general education, and job placement efforts all seem to increase the tendency to go back to work.

Effect of Vocational Rehabilitation on Employment and Earnings of the Disabled: State Variations
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 12 (released December 1977)
by Joseph Greenblum
The Effect of War Displacements on the Detroit General Assistance Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 11 (released November 1942)
Effect of War-Risk Tax Provisions, 1943 and 1944
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 9 (released September 1946)
by Thomas C. Fichandler and Martin L. Marimont
The Effect of Welfare Reform on SSA's Disability Programs: Design of Policy Evaluation and Early Evidence
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 1 (released July 2000)
by Paul S. Davies, Howard M. Iams, and Kalman Rupp

Recent legislation has affected the populations served by the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) disability programs. The Contract with America Advancement Act of 1996 mandated that persons whose disability determination was based on drug addiction or alcoholism be removed from the Supplemental Security Income and Social Security Disability Insurance rolls. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (later amended by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997) tightened the SSI eligibility criteria for children and converted the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program into a block grant, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. This article describes the design of three related studies evaluating the direct and indirect effects of these policy changes on SSA's disability populations. It describes the methodological challenges of the studies and the strategies used to overcome them. It also presents early evidence from the three studies and discusses future directions.

Effect on Benefits of Earnings at Ages 65 or Older, 1995
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 1 (released June 1999)
by Bertram Kestenbaum, Michael Shackleford, and Chris Chaplain

A major policy issue for the Social Security program is the treatment of earnings of persons who have attained retirement age. This article discusses the retirement test and recomputation of benefit provisions, and provides statistical data for 1995.

In 1995, about 806,000 persons aged 65–70 had significant earnings resulting in the withholding of benefits by the retirement test. About 1,659,000 persons aged 65 or older realized an increase in their benefit amount because of their earnings.

The Effect on Needy Families of Suspension of the Food Stamp Plan
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 11 (released November 1943)
by Ruth White
Effective Retirement Savings Programs: Design Features and Financial Education
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 3 (released April 2008)
by Anya Olsen and Kevin Whitman

This article provides an overview of the literature on best practices for retirement savings plan design and financial education in the workplace. Without a successful plan design, financial education will not be effective and even a well-structured plan can fail to achieve retirement savings goals without financial education. The main components of a retirement savings program that employers must consider include options for enrollment, investment choices, employer matching of contributions, and distributions over the working career and at retirement. In addition, employers control the core aspects of financial education, such as the topics covered, the delivery methods used, the frequency with which it is offered, and its general availability.

The Effects of Changing Social Security Administration's Early Entitlement Age and the Normal Retirement Age
Contractor Report (released June 2002)
by Constantijn Panis, Michael Hurd, David Loughran, Julie Zissimopoulos, Steven Haider, and Patricia StClair
Effects of Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance Costs on Social Security Taxable Wages
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 73 No. 1 (released February 2013)
by Gary Burtless and Sveta Milusheva

The rising cost of employer contributions for employee health insurance reduces the percentage of compensation subject to Social Security payroll taxes. This article uses the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to analyze trends in the cost of employer health insurance contributions relative to money wages and total compensation. The analysis shows how increasing employer health insurance premium costs from 1996 to 2008 reduced the percentage of compensation subject to payroll taxes, and it predicts the effects of health insurance reform on taxable compensation.

Effects of Migration on Unemployment Benefit Rights
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 9 (released September 1941)
by Ida C. Merriam and Elizabeth T. Bliss
Effects of OASDI Benefit Increase, December 1983
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 3 (released March 1984)
by Joseph Bondar
Effects of OASDI Benefit Increase, December 1984
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 7 (released July 1985)
by Joseph Bondar
Effects of OASDI Benefit Increase, June 1976
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 12 (released December 1976)
Effects of OASDI Benefit Increase, June 1977
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 12 (released December 1977)
by Barbara A. Lingg
Effects of OASDI Benefit Increase, June 1978
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 10 (released October 1978)
by Barbara A. Lingg
Effects of OASDI Benefit Increase, June 1979
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 12 (released December 1979)
by Barbara A. Lingg
Effects of OASDI Benefit Increase, June 1980
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 11 (released November 1980)
by Barbara A. Lingg
Effects of OASDI Benefit Increase, June 1981
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 2 (released February 1982)
by Joseph Bondar
Effects of OASDI Benefit Increase, June 1982
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 11 (released November 1982)
by Joseph Bondar
The Effects of Relating Weekly Benefit Amounts to Annual Earnings
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 4 (released April 1940)
by Thomas C. Fichandler
Effects of Social Security Benefit Increase, December 1989
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 4 (released April 1990)
by Joseph Bondar
Effects of the OASDI Benefit Increase, December 1985
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 3 (released March 1986)
by Joseph Bondar
Effects of the Social Security Benefit Increase, December 1988
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 6 (released June 1989)
by Joseph Bondar
The Effects of the Social Security Earnings Test on the Labor-Market Activity of Older Americans: A Review of the Evidence
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 5 (released May 1990)
by Michael V. Leonesio
The Effects of Wage Indexing on Social Security Disability Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68 No. 3 (released December 2008)
by L. Scott Muller

Researchers David Autor and Mark Duggan have hypothesized that the Social Security benefit formula using the average wage index, coupled with a widening distribution of income, has created an implicit rise in replacement rates for low-earner disability beneficiaries. This research attempts to confirm and quantify the replacement rate creep identified by Autor and Duggan using actual earnings histories of disability-insured workers over the period 1979–2004. The research finds that disability replacement rates are rising for many insured workers, although the effect may be somewhat smaller than that suggested by Autor and Duggan.

Efforts Since 2000 to Simplify the SSI Program: Legislative and Regulatory Changes
Policy Brief No. 2008-01 (released April 2008)
by Rene Parent and Richard Balkus

Supplemental Security Income SSI is a federally administered, means-tested program that provides monthly payments to blind, disabled, or aged persons. This policy brief summarizes efforts since 2000 to simplify the SSI program through policy changes affecting the reporting of income and resources. The Social Security Protection Act (SSPA) of 2004 has provisions that simplify the treatment of infrequent and irregular income, interest and dividend income, income earned by a student, one-time income in an initial month of eligibility, military pay, and exclusion of certain income from countable resources. Final regulations published in 2005 contain simplifications in the definition of income to exclude clothing, household goods and personal effects, and automobiles from countable resources. This brief explains those changes and describes other options that have been considered.

Egyptian Social Security Law
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 10 (released October 1950)
The Elderly Aid The Elderly: The Senior Friends Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 11 (released November 1972)
by Naomi Breslau and Marie R. Haug
Elderly Poverty and Supplemental Security Income
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 69 No. 1 (released May 2009)
by Joyce Nicholas and Michael Wiseman

Provided here are the absolute and relative poverty status of 2002 elderly Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients. Official poverty estimates are generated from the Current Population Survey's Annual Social and Economic Supplement (CPS/ASEC). The poverty study presented here differs from previous studies in that it is based on CPS/ASEC income and weight records conditionally adjusted by matching Social Security administrative data. This effort improves the coverage of SSI receipt and the accuracy of SSI estimates. The adjusted CPS/administrative matched data reveal lower 2002 poverty rates among elderly persons (with and without SSI payments) than those generated from the unadjusted CPS/ASEC data.

Elderly Poverty and Supplemental Security Income, 2002–2005
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70 No. 2 (released May 2010)
by Joyce Nicholas and Michael Wiseman

This article is an extension of work reported in an earlier article entitled, "Elderly Poverty and Supplemental Security Income" (Social Security Bulletin 69(1): 45–73). Like the original work, the present study looks at the consequences of obtaining estimates of the prevalence of poverty among persons aged 65 or older by using administrative data to adjust incomes reported in the Current Population Survey. The original article looked at incomes in 2002; the present one covers measures of absolute and relative poverty status of the elderly during the 2003–2005 period. Again, we find that inclusion of administrative data presents challenges, but under the methodology we adopt, such adjustments lower estimated official poverty overall and increase estimated poverty rates for elderly SSI recipients by correcting for the misreporting of SSI, OASDI, and earnings receipt by CPS respondents.

Elective Coverage Under Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 5 (released May 1957)
by Irwin Wolkstein
Eleven-Million Sample of Applications for Employee Account Numbers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 4 (released April 1938)
Eligibility for the Medicare Buy-in Programs, Based on a Survey of Income and Program Participation Simulation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 3 (released July 2001)
by Kalman Rupp and James Sears

Fewer people appear eligible for Medicare buy-in programs than most earlier research indicated, implying that participation rates may be higher than previously believed. The authors estimate a 63 percent rate of participation among those eligible for the combined Qualified Medicare Beneficiary and Specified Low-Income Medicare Beneficiary programs in 1999. The estimates are based on Survey of Income and Program Participation data matched to the Social Security Administration's administrative records. The matched data provide information of better quality than the data used in previous studies.

Eliminating the Medicare Waiting Period for Social Security Disabled-Worker Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 5 (released May 1989)
by Barry V. Bye and Gerald F. Riley
Emergency Unemployment Compensation Act of 1971
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 3 (released March 1972)
An Empirical Study of the Effects of Social Security Reforms on Benefit Claiming Behavior and Receipt Using Public-Use Administrative Microdata
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 69 No. 3 (released October 2009)
by Hugo Benítez-Silva and Na Yin

In the past few years, the Social Security Old-Age and Survivors Insurance benefit system in the United States has undergone some of the most significant changes since its inception. Using the public-use microdata extract from the Master Beneficiary Record, we are able to uncover a number of interesting trends in benefit claiming behavior and level of benefit receipt, which can help us understand how the changes in the system are shaping the retirement benefit claiming behavior of older Americans.

Employee-Benefit Plan Adjustments to Health Insurance for the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 7 (released July 1966)
by Kathleen Myers
Employee-Benefit Plans in 1966
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 4 (released April 1968)
by Walter W. Kolodrubetz
Employee-Benefit Plans in 1968
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 4 (released April 1970)
by Walter W. Kolodrubetz
Employee-Benefit Plans, 1950–67
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 4 (released April 1969)
by Walter W. Kolodrubetz
Employee-Benefit Plans, 1954–58
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 3 (released March 1960)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Employee-Benefit Plans, 1954–60
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 4 (released April 1962)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Employee-Benefit Plans, 1954–62
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 4 (released April 1964)
by Joseph Krislov
Employee-Benefit Plans, 1971
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 4 (released April 1973)
by Walter W. Kolodrubetz
Employee-Benefit Plans, 1972
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 5 (released May 1974)
by Walter W. Kolodrubetz
Employee-Benefit Plans, 1973
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 5 (released May 1975)
by Walter W. Kolodrubetz
Employee-Benefit Plans, 1975
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 11 (released November 1977)
by Martha Remy Yohalem
Employee-Benefit Plans: Developments 1954–63
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 4 (released April 1965)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Employees and Their Wages Under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, 1937-39
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 4 (released April 1941)
by John J. Corson
Employer Identification Numbers Assigned, 1937–50
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 4 (released April 1951)
Employers, Workers, and Earnings Under OASDI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 4 (released April 1964)
by Roslyn Arnold
Employers, Workers, and Earnings Under OASDI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 12 (released December 1962)
by Roslyn Arnold
Employers, Workers, and Earnings Under OASDI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 6 (released June 1961)
by Roslyn Arnold
Employers, Workers, and Earnings Under OASDI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 12 (released December 1958)
Employers, Workers, and Wages Under OASI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 2 (released February 1957)
Employers, Workers, and Wages Under OASI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 6 (released June 1956)
Employers, Workers, and Wages Under OASI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 10 (released October 1955)
Employers, Workers, and Wages Under OASI, April–June 1953
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 6 (released June 1954)
Employers, Workers, and Wages Under OASI, April–September 1954
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 7 (released July 1955)
Employers, Workers, and Wages Under OASI, January–March 1954
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 1 (released January 1955)
Employers, Workers, and Wages, April–June 1949
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 11 (released November 1949)
Employers, Workers, and Wages, April–June 1950
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 12 (released December 1950)
Employers, Workers, and Wages, First Quarter 1952
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 1 (released January 1953)
Employers, Workers, and Wages, First Quarter, 1949
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 8 (released August 1949)
Employers, Workers, and Wages, First Quarter, 1950
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 9 (released September 1950)
Employers, Workers, and Wages, First Quarter, 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 9 (released September 1951)
Employers, Workers, and Wages, Fourth Quarter 1949
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 6 (released June 1950)
Employers, Workers, and Wages, Fourth Quarter 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 11 (released November 1952)
Employers, Workers, and Wages, July–September 1950
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 3 (released March 1951)
Employers, Workers, and Wages, October 1952–March 1953
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 10 (released October 1953)
Employers, Workers, and Wages, October–December 1950
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 6 (released June 1951)
Employers, Workers, and Wages, Second Quarter, 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 5 (released May 1952)
Employers, Workers, and Wages, Second Quarter, 1952
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 5 (released May 1953)
Employers, Workers, and Wages, Third Quarter 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 8 (released August 1952)
Employers, Workers, and Wages, Third Quarter, 1948
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 2 (released February 1949)
Employers, Workers, and Wages, Third Quarter, 1952
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 8 (released August 1953)
The Employment Act of 1946
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 3 (released March 1946)
by Anne Scitovszky
Employment among Social Security Disability Program Beneficiaries, 1996–2007
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 3 (released August 2011)
by Arif Mamun, Paul O'Leary, David C. Wittenburg, and Jesse Gregory

Using linked administrative data from program and earnings records, we summarize the 2007 employment rates of working-age (18–64) Social Security disability program beneficiaries at the national and state levels, as well as changes in employment since 1996. Substantial variation exists within the population. Disability Insurance beneficiaries and those younger than age 40 were much more likely to work relative to other Social Security beneficiaries. There are also strong regional differences in the employment rates among disability beneficiaries of working age, and these differences are persistent over time.

Employment and Earnings as Tests of Eligibility for Unemployment Benefits in South Carolina
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 5 (released May 1941)
by Charles V. Kidd and Melford A. Wilson
Employment and Earnings Under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance During the First Year of the War
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 3 (released March 1945)
by Jacob Perlman and Howard J. Kumin
Employment and Supplemental Security Income
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 10 (released October 1982)
by Arthur L. Kahn
Employment and Wages of Workers Covered by State Unemployment Compensation Laws, 1939
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 5 (released May 1941)
Employment and Wages of Workers Covered by State Unemployment Compensation Laws, 1940
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 6 (released June 1942)
Employment and Wages Under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, 1940
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 5 (released May 1942)
by Merrill G. Murray and Mason C. Doan
Employment and Work Adjustments of the Disabled: 1972 Survey of Disabled and Nondisabled Adults
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 7 (released July 1977)
by Evan S. Schechter
Employment Characteristics of Interstate Workers in Covered Employment in 1938
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 12 (released December 1941)
by Ida C. Merriam and Elizabeth Bliss McClelland
Employment Covered by Social Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 1–2 (released February 1950)
Employment Covered by Social Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 8 (released August 1949)
Employment Covered by Social Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 12 (released December 1948)
Employment Covered by Social Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 7 (released July 1948)
Employment Covered Under the Social Security Program, 1935–84
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 4 (released April 1985)
by William J. Nelson, Jr.
Employment Covered Under the Social Security Program, 1985
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 10 (released October 1988)
by Wayne S. Long
Employment of Individuals in the Social Security Disability Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 3 (released August 2011)
by Paul O'Leary, Gina A. Livermore, and David C. Stapleton

This article introduces and highlights the key findings of the other articles presented in this special issue, which focuses on the employment of beneficiaries in the Social Security Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income programs.

Employment of Older Workers and Size of Employing Units
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 9 (released September 1965)
by Sebastia Svolos
Employment of Retired-Worker Women
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 3 (released March 1986)
by Howard M. Iams
Employment of Women in War Production
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 7 (released July 1942)
The Employment Opportunities for Disabled Americans Act: Legislative History and Summary of Provisions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 3 (released March 1987)
by Sarah G. Rocklin and David R. Mattson
Employment Problems of Older Workers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 4 (released April 1957)
by Norman Medvin
Employment Security Amendments of 1970
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 11 (released November 1970)
Employment Security and the Future
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 11 (released November 1947)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
Employment Security in Great Britain During the First 14 Months of the War
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 2 (released February 1941)
by Benjamin Haskel
The Employment Security Program in a Changing Economic Situation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 10 (released October 1949)
Employment, Workers, and Wages Under OASDI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 7 (released July 1957)
Enrollment in the Health Insurance Program for the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 3 (released March 1967)
Equality of Rights to Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 11 (released November 1947)
The Erosion of Retiree Health Benefits and Retirement Behavior: Implications for the Disability Insurance Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 4 (released September 2001)
by Paul Fronstin

The number of companies offering health benefits to early retirees is declining, although reductions in the percentage of early retirees covered by health insurance have been only slight to date. In general, workers who will be covered by health insurance are more likely than other workers to retire before the age of 65, when they become eligible for Medicare. What effect that will have on claims under the Disability Insurance program is not yet clear.

Estimated Employment and Wages of Workers Covered by State Unemployment Compensation Laws, 1940
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 7 (released July 1941)
Estimated Expenditures for Medical Care of Aged Persons, 1961
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 7 (released July 1963)
by Dorothy P. Rice
Estimated Numbers of Persons in Employments Excluded from Old-Age Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 2 (released February 1939)
by Harry J. Winslow and William K. Shaughnessy
Estimated Prevalence of Blindness in the United States, July 1952
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 7 (released July 1953)
by Ralph G. Hurlin
Estimated Prevalence of Long-Term Disability, 1954
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 6 (released June 1955)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Estimated Retirement Benefits in the Social Security Statement
Research and Statistics Note No. 2008-05 (released November 2008)
by Glenn R. Springstead, David A. Weaver, and Jason J. Fichtner
Estimated Volume of Employment Covered by State Unemployment Compensation Laws
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 1–3 (released March 1938)
by Harry J. Winslow
Estimates of Aged Population, by State, 1940–48
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 1 (released January 1949)
Estimates of Persons with 1937 Wage Credits Who Attain Age 65 in Specified Years
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 12 (released December 1939)
by Robert J. Myers
Estimates of Unreported Asset Income in the Survey of Consumer Finances and the Relative Importance of Social Security Benefits to the Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 2 (released February 2008)
by T. Lynn Fisher

Through the 1990s and the early 2000s, the Income of the Population 55 or Older has reported a decline in the proportion of the elderly receiving asset income and the corresponding rise in the proportion receiving all of their income from Social Security. This analysis uses the Survey of Consumer Finances from 1992 to 2001 to examine financial asset holdings of the elderly and to determine if those who do not report asset income in fact might hold assets that are likely to generate income. Imputing asset income from likely income-producing holdings, the article examines the impact of probable missing asset income information upon measures of elderly income.

Estimating Distributions of Workers and Taxable Wages Under OASDHI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 3 (released March 1970)
by Gilda J. Garrett
Estimating the First Instance of Substantive-Covered Earnings in the Labor Market
Research and Statistics Note No. 2008-04 (released September 2008)
by Michael Compson
Estimation of Disability Status as a Single Latent Variable in a Model with Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes
ORES Working Paper No. 26 (released April 1982)
by Barry V. Bye, Janice M. Dykacz, and Jesse M. Levy

In this paper, we are concerned with the underlying structure of self-definitions of disability. Our purpose is to identify the contribution of exertional and nonexertional impairment and the contributions of such nonmedical factors as age, sex, and education to the individuals' assessment of their own situations. On a statistical level, we seek to accomplish a substantial reduction of a large number of data items into a form that can be used conveniently in subsequent behavioral analyses.

European Attitudes Toward Retirement
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 6 (released June 1980)
by Daniel Wartonick
The European Experience in Social Health Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 7 (released July 1973)
by Jozef Van Langendonck
European Multilateral Social Security Treaties
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 2 (released February 1959)
by Daniel S. Gerig
Evaluating the Initial Impact of Eliminating the Retirement Earnings Test
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 1 (released May 2004)
by Jae G. Song

How did workers aged 65–69 respond to the removal of the retirement earnings test in 2000? Using Social Security administrative data matched with data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, the author finds that the higher earners in this group increased their earnings, while the lower earners did not. The author reports an acceleration of benefit applications by workers aged 65–69 but no clear evidence of increased employment in this age group.

Evaluating Vocational Rehabilitation Programs for the Disabled: National Long-Term Followup Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 10 (released October 1975)
by Joseph Greenblum
Evaluation of Disability Insurance Savings Due to Beneficiary Rehabilitation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 2 (released February 1981)
by Leo A. McManus
Evidence on the Effects of Payroll Tax Changes on Wage Growth and Price Inflation: A Review and Reconciliation
ORES Working Paper No. 34 (released April 1984)
by Richard F. Dye

The Social Security payroll tax rate is scheduled to increase by almost 1 percent for both employees and employers between now and 1990. One of the major elements of the recently adopted Social Security package was an acceleration of the timing of this increase. A number of economists have recommended that as an anti-inflationary policy scheduled increases be avoided or even that the current rates be rolled back.

The Evolution of Japanese Employer-Sponsored Retirement Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 3 (released April 2008)
by David Rajnes

This article examines the development of Japanese voluntary employer-sponsored retirement plans with an emphasis on recent trends. Before 2001, companies in Japan offered retirement benefits as lump-sum severance payments and/or benefits from one of two types of defined benefit (DB) pension plans. One DB plan type was based on an earlier occupational pension model used in the United States. The other DB plan type allowed companies to opt out of the earnings-related portion of social security. Landmark laws passed in 2001 introduced a new generation of occupational retirement plans to employers and employees, creating three new DB plan designs and two new defined contribution types of plans. Since that time, the mix of employer-sponsored retirement plans offered in Japan has changed significantly, and overall employee coverage has declined. On balance, employer-sponsored retirement plans have remained largely DB in design.

The Evolution of Privacy and Disclosure Policy in the Social Security Administration
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 6 (released June 1985)
by Sandy Crank
The Evolution of Social Security's Taxable Maximum
Policy Brief No. 2011-02 (released September 2011)
by Kevin Whitman and Dave Shoffner

Since its inception, Social Security has featured a taxable maximum (or "tax max"). In 1937, payroll taxes applied to the first $3,000 in earnings. In 2011, payroll taxes apply to the first $106,800 in earnings. This policy brief summarizes the changes that have occurred to the tax max and to earnings patterns over this period. From 1937 to 1975, Congress increased the tax max on an ad-hoc basis. Increases were justified by the desire to improve system financing and maintain meaningful benefits for middle and higher earners. Since 1975, the tax max has generally increased at the same rate as average wages each year. Some policymakers propose increasing the tax max beyond wage-indexed levels to help restore financial balance and to reflect growing earnings inequality, as workers earning more than the tax max have experienced higher earnings growth rates than other workers in recent decades.

Examining Social Security Benefits as a Retirement Resource for Near-Retirees, by Race and Ethnicity, Nativity, and Disability Status
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 69 No. 1 (released May 2009)
by Benjamin Bridges and Sharmila Choudhury

This article examines the distribution of Social Security benefits among recent cohorts of near-retirees, by (1) race and ethnicity, (2) nativity, and (3) disability status. Actual earnings history data help produce more accurate measures of benefits. The authors find that substantial differences in earnings levels and/or mortality levels among these subgroups interact with Social Security program provisions to produce sizable differences in values of benefit measures, such as Social Security wealth and earnings replacement rates.

An Example of the Use of Statistical Matching in the Estimation and Analysis of the Size Distribution of Income
ORES Working Paper No. 18 (released October 1980)
by Daniel B. Radner

This paper discusses the use of statistical matching in the estimation and analysis of the size distribution of family unit personal income. Statistical matching is a relatively new technique that has been used to combine, at the single observation level, data from two different samples, each of which contains some data items that are absent from the other file. In a statistical match, the information brought together from the different files ordinarily is not for the same person but for similar persons; the match is made on the basis of similar characteristics. In contrast, in an "exact" match, information for the same person from two or more files is brought together using personal identifying information.

Executive Summary from—Technical Panel on Assumptions and Methods (2003); Report to the Social Security Advisory Board
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 2 (released August 2004)

The full report is available at http://www.ssab.gov/documents/2003TechnicalPanelRept_000.pdf.

Exemption of Clergyman from Social Security Coverage
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 3 (released March 1972)
On the Existence of Pareto-Superior Reversals of Dynamically Inefficient Social Security Programs
ORES Working Paper No. 48 (released June 1991)
by Dean R. Leimer

Some proponents of the privatization of the Social Security program in the United States have suggested that, because privately available rates of return exceed the internal rate of return implicit in that program, it may be possible to find Pareto-superior privatization schemes. In a similar vein, Townley (1981) argues that, so long as the government can incur debt, a Pareto-superior scheme can always be found to convert a dynamically inefficient pay-as-you-go Social Security program to a fully funded basis. This note uses Townley's own model to demonstrate analytically that Pareto-superior schemes to reverse a dynamically inefficient pay-as-you-go social security program do not exist, either through privatization or through conversion of the program to a fully funded basis.

Expanding Access to Health Care for Social Security Disability Insurance Beneficiaries: Early Findings from the Accelerated Benefits Demonstration
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70 No. 4 (released November 2010)
by Robert R. Weathers II, Chris Silanskis, Michelle Stegman, John Jones, and Susan Kalasunas

The Accelerated Benefits (AB) demonstration project provides health benefits to Social Security Disability Insurance beneficiaries who have no health insurance during the 24-month period most beneficiaries are required to wait before Medicare benefits begin. This article describes the project and presents baseline survey results on health insurance coverage among newly entitled beneficiaries and the characteristics of those without coverage. A 6-month follow-up survey provides information on the effects of the AB health benefits package on health care utilization and on reducing unmet medical needs. The article also reports the costs of providing the health benefits package during the 24-month Medicare waiting period.

Expansion of Canada's Medicare
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 7 (released July 1969)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Expenditure Patterns of Welfare, Aged, and Disabled Households
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 8 (released August 1974)
by Teh-wei Hu, Norman L. Knaub, and Sharif Ghalib
Expenditures for Assistance Payments from State-Local Funds, 1954–55
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 5 (released May 1956)
by Frank J. Hanmer
Expenditures for Assistance Payments from State-Local Funds, 1955–56
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 6 (released June 1957)
by Frank J. Hanmer
Expenditures for Assistance Payments from State-Local Funds, 1956–57
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 6 (released June 1958)
by Frank J. Hanmer
Expenditures for Assistance Payments from State-Local Funds, 1957–58
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 6 (released June 1959)
by Frank J. Hanmer
Expenditures for Assistance Payments from State-Local Funds, 1958–59
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 7 (released July 1960)
by Frank J. Hanmer
Expenditures for Assistance Payments from State-Local Funds, 1959–60
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 8 (released August 1961)
by Frank J. Hanmer
Expenditures for Assistance Payments from State-Local Funds, 1960–61
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 5 (released May 1963)
by Frank J. Hanmer and Shirley D. Fairley
Expenditures for Civilian Social Security and Related Public Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 7 (released July 1950)
Expenditures for Hospital Care and Physicians' Services: Factors Affecting Annual Changes
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 11 (released November 1975)
by Nancy L. Worthington
Expenditures for Hospital Care, 1953–55
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 2 (released February 1957)
by Agnes W. Brewster
Expenditures for Medical Services in Public Assistance, 1946
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 8 (released August 1952)
by Ruth White
Expenditures of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 1 (released August 2007)
by Kimberly Burham

This article includes a short overview of existing research and reprints some of the charts available in the Expenditures of the Aged Chartbook. The goal of the chartbook is to improve the availability of statistics on expenditures of the aged. Data are based on the 2002 Consumer Expenditure Survey Public-Use File. Measures of standards of living, such as expenditures, help inform policymakers and researchers who are concerned about the adequacy of economic resources of the aged.

Experience in Appeals Under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 8 (released August 1977)
by Ernest R. Burton and Irving Ladimer
Experience of Federal Annuitants Under OASDHI: Age and Sex
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 7 (released July 1979)
by Daniel N. Price
Experience Rating in Indiana, 1940
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 3 (released March 1941)
Experience Rating in Wisconsin, 1940
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 2 (released February 1941)
Experience Rating Under State Unemployment Insurance Laws During 1948
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 3 (released March 1949)
by Abraham Siegel
Experience Rating: Operations in 1945 and Future Trends
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 11 (released November 1946)
Experience Under Financial Interchange, OASDI and Railroad Retirement System
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 9 (released September 1958)
Experience-Rating Operations in 1941
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 6 (released June 1942)
Experience-Rating Operations in 1941 A Preliminary Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 10 (released October 1941)
Experience-Rating Operations in 1942
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 2 (released February 1943)
Experience-Rating Operations in 1943
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 9 (released September 1944)
Experience-Rating Operations in 1944
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 5 (released May 1945)
Experience-Rating Operations in 1946
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 10 (released October 1947)
Experience-Rating Operations in 1947 and War-Risk Contributions in 1946
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 8 (released August 1948)
Experience-Rating Operations in Wisconsin, 1942
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 12 (released December 1942)
Exploring the Use of the Public's Views to Set Income Poverty Thresholds and Adjust Them Over Time
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 2 (released April 1993)
by Denton R. Vaughan
Extending the Social Security Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 3 (released March 1943)
Extension of Emergency Unemployment Compensation Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 9 (released September 1972)
Extension of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance: A Summary of the Consultants' Report
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 9 (released September 1953)
Extension of Social Security Coverage in Chile
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 9 (released September 1968)
Extension of the Scope of National Assistance Programs in Great Britain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 6 (released June 1940)
by Ida C. Merriam and Diane Bochner
Extension of Workmen's Accident Insurance in Japan
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 10 (released October 1968)
Extent of Total Disability in the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 11 (released November 1950)
by Marjorie E. Moore and Barkev S. Sanders

F

Facing Forward to Peace: Recommendations of the Social Security Board in Its Tenth Annual Report
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 12 (released December 1945)
Fact Finding in the Field Office
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 1 (released January 1944)
by Ralph Gower
Fact-Finding for the White House Conference on Children and Youth
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 11 (released November 1950)
by Melvin A. Glasser
Factors Affecting Initial Disability Allowance Rates for the Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income Programs: The Role of the Demographic and Diagnostic Composition of Applicants and Local Labor Market Conditions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 4 (released November 2012)
by Kalman Rupp

Various factors outside the control of decision makers may affect the rate at which disability applications are allowed or denied during the initial step of eligibility determination in the Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. This article, using individual-level data on applications, focuses on the role of three important factors—the demographic characteristics of applicants, the diagnostic mix of applicants, and the local unemployment rate—in affecting the probability of an initial allowance and state allowance rates. A random sample of initial determination administrative records for the 1993–2008 period is used for the analysis in a fixed-effects multiple regression framework. The empirical results show that the demographic and diagnostic characteristics of applicants and the local unemployment rate substantially affect the initial allowance rate. An increase in the local unemployment rate tends to be associated with a decrease in the initial allowance rate. This negative relationship holds for adult applicants in both the DI and SSI programs and for SSI childhood applicants.

Factors Affecting the Work Efforts of Disabled-Worker Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 60 No. 3 (released June 1997)
by John C. Hennessey

Congress is currently placing considerable emphasis on returning disabled-worker beneficiaries to work. However, going back to work is only the first step in the complex process of program termination due to work and trust fund savings. Not only must the beneficiary get a job, but also the work effort must be sustained at what is considered a substantial gainful activity (SGA) level by the disability program (so that an SGA termination will result) and a reasonable living condition must be achieved by the beneficiary(so that the person is motivated to continue working and lose benefits). This articles focuses on those factors that affect the ability of the beneficiary to sustain such a work effort. Combined with previous findings about returning to work, we begin to see the overall effect of the factors on work efforts.

Beneficiaries who have physical therapy rehabilitation have a higher tendency to start working and a lower tendency to stop. Those with vocational training or general education have a higher tendency to start working, but these factors do not help to sustain the effort. Beneficiaries who were helped with job placement have a higher tendency to start work, but they also have a higher tendency to stop. If beneficiaries knew about the trial-work period, but not about either the extended period of eligibility or Medicare continuation, then they had a higher tendency to start work and a higher tendency to stop. However, if they knew about all three work-incentive provisions, then the tendency to work was not affected.

Factors Associated With School Dropouts and Juvenile Delinquency Among Lower-Class Children
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 10 (released October 1963)
by Erdman Palmore
Factors Influencing Trends in Employment of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 8 (released August 1947)
by S. J. Mushkin and Alan Berman
Facts About Families
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 5 (released May 1959)
Family Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 7 (released July 1949)
Family Benefits in Current-Payment Status, December 31, 1952
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 9 (released September 1953)
Family Benefits in Current-Payment Status, December 31, 1953
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 9 (released September 1954)
Family Benefits in Current-Payment Status, June 30, 1949
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 1–2 (released February 1950)
Family Benefits in Current-Payment Status, June 30, 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 12 (released December 1951)
Family Benefits in Current-Payment Status, June 30, 1953
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 1 (released January 1954)
Family Benefits in Current-Payment Status, June 30, 1955
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 1 (released January 1956)
Family Benefits in Current-Payment Status, June 30, 1956
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 12 (released December 1956)
Family Benefits in Current-Payment Status, June 30, 1959
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 5–6 (released May 1960)
by Harry C. Ballantyne
Family Benefits in Current-Payment Status, June 30, 1960
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 3 (released March 1961)
Family Benefits in Current-Payment Status, June 30, 1961
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 2 (released February 1962)
by George I. Kowalczyk
Family Benefits in Current-Payment Status, June 30, 1962
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 2 (released February 1963)
by Roger Hicks
Family Benefits in Current-Payment Status, June 30, 1963
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 3 (released March 1964)
by Roger Hicks
Family Benefits Under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, 1949
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 8 (released August 1950)
Family Budgets and Fee Schedules of Voluntary Agencies
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 4 (released April 1959)
by Mollie Orshansky
Family Composition in the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 4 (released April 1939)
by Barkev S. Sanders
Family Composition of Workers Represented in Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Claims
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 12 (released December 1941)
by George E. Immerwahr
The Family Cycle and Income Development
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 2 (released February 1966)
by Alvin L. Schorr
Family Income, Age, and Size of Unit: Selected International Comparisons
ORES Working Paper No. 32 (released February 1984)
by Daniel B. Radner

This exploratory paper examines the role of age in the distribution of family income in several countries. Unlike most papers that compare the distribution of income across countries, the primary concern in this paper is not with comparisons of the overall degree of inequality. Instead we are more interested in two aspects of the cross-section relationship between age and income. First, we are interested in the relative economic well-being of income recipient units in different age (of head) groups in several developed countries. In the U.S. in recent years, in connection with modifications to the social security system, there has been considerable discussion of the "fair" level of income of the aged population. That discussion has led us to a particular interest in the relative economic well-being of the aged population in other developed countries. Where the data allow, the aged (age 65 and over) group is split into 65–69 and 70 and over age groups as at least partial recognition that economic well-being can differ markedly among subgroups of the aged population. (Other important characteristics such as labor force participation, sex, and the receipt of government retirement income could not be examined.) This paper attempts an initial look at the very complex subject of the relative economic well-being of different age groups in several countries.

The Family Labor Supply Response to Disabling Conditions
ORES Working Paper No. 10 (released August 1979)
by L. Scott Muller, Jesse M. Levy, and Malcolm B. Coate

The role of time as an input into the utility maximization process has long been recognized in the labor/leisure decision. Expanded research has dealt with this input in a family context. Assuming a joint utility maximization model, the resulting labor supply functions can be determined for both spouses.

The model presented here is an extension of previous models by its incorporation of the effects of disabling conditions of the husband on the labor supply decisions of both spouses.

Because hours worked takes on a lower limit of zero, the standard simultaneous equation techniques would yield estimates lacking the ideal properties. Instead, the model is estimated using a simplification of a simultaneous TOBIT technique, which yields consistent estimates.

Family Relationships and Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 7 (released July 1945)
by Oscar C. Pogge
Family Resources To Meet Costs of a Worker's Last Illness and Death
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 3 (released March 1944)
by Janet Leland
Family Security and National Defense
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 12 (released December 1941)
by Helen R. Jeter
Family Social Security Taxes Compared with Federal Income Taxes, 1979
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 12 (released December 1981)
by Benjamin Bridges
Family Structure in the Preretirement Years
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 10 (released October 1973)
by Janet H. Murray
Family Unit Incomes of the Elderly and Children, 1994
ORES Working Paper No. 70 (released November 1996)
by Daniel B. Radner

The economic status of the elderly and the economic status of children are analyzed using a comprehensive definition of income that takes selected types of noncash income and taxes into account. Estimates are presented for detailed age groups over the entire age range and for socioeconomic classifications within the elderly subgroup and within the subgroup of children. The paper finds that children and the elderly are less well off than the middle age groups. This result is obtained using median incomes and the percentage of the group that has low income, as defined here. When results obtained with the measures presented in this paper are compared with results obtained with more commonly used measures, there are important differences for both the elderly and for children. For both groups, the composition of the low-income population differs in important ways from the composition of the official poverty population.

Farm Labor Market Conditions, January to October 15, 1941
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 1 (released January 1942)
Farmers and Farm Laborers in Employment Covered by Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 6 (released June 1943)
by Fred Safier, John Useem, and Walter Quinn
Farmers and Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 3 (released March 1966)
by Edward I. Reinsel and John C. Ellickson
Farmers' Pensions and the Polish Economic Crisis
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 4 (released April 1983)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Fast Facts and Figures about Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 5 (released May 1987)
by Sally R. Sherman
Fast Facts and Figures about Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 6 (released June 1986)
"Fast-Track" Strategies in Long-Term Public Disability Programs Around the World
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 1 (released February 2012)
by David Rajnes

This article examines fast-track procedures in long-term public disability programs in the United States and several other countries. Such procedures share a common goal of accelerating applicants—generally for those with severe disabilities, blindness, or facing terminal illness—through the disability determination process.

Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950: Summary and Legislative History
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 4 (released April 1951)
by Wilbur J. Cohen and Evelyn F. Boyer
Federal Civil Service Adult Survivor Annuitants and Social Security, December 1975
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 8 (released August 1981)
by Daniel N. Price
Federal Civil Service and Military Retirement Programs Legislation, 94th Congress
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 5 (released May 1977)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Federal Civil-Service Annuitants and Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 7 (released July 1969)
by Elizabeth M. Heidbreder
Federal Civil-Service Annuitants and Social Security, December 1975
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 11 (released November 1977)
by Daniel N. Price and Andrea Novotny
Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 3 (released March 1970)
Federal Contributory Retirement Systems Other Than Civil Service
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 1 (released January 1942)
by Ruth Reticker
Federal Credit Union Loans, 1948
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 7 (released July 1949)
by Erdis W. Smith
The Federal Credit Union System: A Legislative History
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 5 (released May 1956)
by John T. Croteau
Federal Credit Unions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 10 (released October 1948)
by Erdis W. Smith
Federal Credit Unions, 1950
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 11 (released November 1951)
Federal Credit Unions, 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 11 (released November 1952)
Federal Credit Unions: Origin and Development
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 11 (released November 1955)
by Erdis W. Smith
Federal Credit Unions: Thirty Years of Service
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 7 (released July 1964)
by Edwin J. Swindler
Federal Credit Unions: Twenty-Five Years of Self-Help Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 6 (released June 1959)
by William E. Allen
Federal Employees Group Life Insurance Act Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 11 (released November 1955)
by Weltha Van Eenam
Federal Employees' Retirement System Act of 1986
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 11 (released November 1986)
by Wilmer L. Kerns
Federal Grants to Individuals and Institutions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 9 (released September 1962)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, 1948–49
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 6 (released June 1950)
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, 1949–50
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 6 (released June 1951)
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, 1950–51
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 6 (released June 1952)
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, 1951–52
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 6 (released June 1953)
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, 1952–53
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 6 (released June 1954)
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, 1953–54
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 7 (released July 1955)
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, 1954–55
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 6 (released June 1956)
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, 1955–56
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 6 (released June 1957)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, 1956–57
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 6 (released June 1958)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, 1957–58
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 6 (released June 1959)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, 1958–59
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 7 (released July 1960)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, 1959–60
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 6 (released June 1961)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants To State And Local Governments, 1965–66
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 7 (released July 1967)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, 1966–67
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 7 (released July 1968)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, 1967–68
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 8 (released August 1969)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, 1968–69
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 10 (released October 1970)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, 1969–70
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 9 (released September 1971)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, 1970–71
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 6 (released June 1972)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, 1971–72
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 6 (released June 1973)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, Fiscal Year 1973
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 10 (released October 1974)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, Fiscal Year 1974
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 9 (released September 1975)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, Fiscal Year 1975: A Quarter-Century Review
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 9 (released September 1976)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants to State and Local Governments, Fiscal Year 1976 and Transition Quarter
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 10 (released October 1977)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants to States, 1947–48
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 6 (released June 1949)
Federal Grants, 1961–62
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 6 (released June 1963)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants, 1962–63
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 6 (released June 1964)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants, 1963–64
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 6 (released June 1965)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants, 1964–65
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 6 (released June 1966)
by Sophie R. Dales
Federal Grants-in-Aid: A Bulwark of State Governments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 11 (released November 1950)
by George E. Bigge
Federal Income Taxes, Social Security Taxes, and the U.S. Distribution of Income, 1972
ORES Working Paper No. 7 (released April 1979)
by Daniel B. Radner

This paper reports on estimates of federal income tax and Social Security tax liabilities of family units in 1972 and summarizes the methods used to make the estimates. Distributions of income both before and after subtracting those liabilities are shown. Several microdata files were combined using both "exact" and "statistical" matching of individual observations in the process of making these estimates.

Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance: A Summary of the 1939 Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 12 (released December 1939)
Federal Participation in Vendor Payments for Medical Care
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 12 (released December 1952)
by Vivian B. Norman
Federal Responsibility for Payment of State Unemployment Insurance Administrative Expenses
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 6 (released June 1948)
by Gladys R. Friedman and Roy O. Kinsinger
Federal Social Security and Related Legislation, 1953
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 12 (released December 1953)
by Wilbur J. Cohen
Federal Unemployment Insurance Legislation, 1954
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 11 (released November 1954)
The Federal-State Conference on Aging
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 8 (released August 1956)
by Dorothy McCamman
Female Social Security Beneficiaries Aged 62 or Older, 1960–82
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 9 (released September 1983)
by Barbara A. Lingg
Fifteenth Trustees Report on OASI Trust Fund
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 5 (released May 1955)
Fifty Years of Credit Union Operations
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 12 (released December 1959)
by Ronald M. Gardner
Fifty Years of Operations in the Social Security Administration
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 6 (released June 1985)
by Michael A. Cronin
Fifty Years of Service to Children and Their Families
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 10 (released October 1985)
by Jo Anne B. Ross
Fifty Years of Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 8 (released August 1985)
by Martha A. McSteen
Filial Responsibility and the Aging, or Beyond Pluck and Luck
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 5 (released May 1962)
by Alvin L. Schorr
The Final Participation of the Federal Government in State Welfare Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 1 (released January 1940)
by Daniel S. Gerig, Jr.
Financial Aspects of Medical Care Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 12 (released December 1946)
by I. S. Falk
Financial Interchange Between Railroad Retirement Program and OASI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 5 (released May 1954)
The Financial Outlook for the Social Security Disability Insurance Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 3 (released August 2006)
by Stephen C. Goss

Social Security's Office of the Chief Actuary provides an overview on the current and projected financial condition of the Disability Insurance program.

Financial Policy in Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, 1935–50
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 6 (released June 1951)
by James S. Parker
Financial Position of Hospitals in the Early Medicare Period
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 10 (released October 1968)
by Paul J. Feldstein and Saul Waldman
The Financial Position of Private Community Hospitals, 1961–71
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 11 (released November 1973)
by Julian H. Pettengill
Financial Status of Social Security Program After the Social Security Amendments of 1977
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 3 (released March 1978)
by A. Haeworth Robertson
Financial Status of the Social Security Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 3 (released March 1983)
by Robert J. Myers
Financing Basis of Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance and Health Insurance Under the 1967 Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 2 (released February 1968)
by Robert J. Myers and Francisco Bayo
Financing of Disability Beneficiary Rehabilitation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 4 (released April 1969)
by Ralph Treitel
Financing Old-Age Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 4 (released April 1939)
by Eleanor L. Dulles
Financing Public Child Welfare Services
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 7 (released July 1958)
by Seth Low
Financing Public Welfare Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 2 (released February 1956)
by Wilbur J. Cohen
Financing Social Security 1939-1949: A Reexamination of the Financing Policies of this Period
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 4 (released May 2008)
by Larry DeWitt

Presented is an examination of the financing history of the U.S. Social Security system from the passage of the original law in 1935 up through the enactment of the 1950 Amendments to the Social Security Act. In particular, it focuses on the 1939 Social Security Amendments and the subsequent tax rate freezes enacted between 1939 and 1949. It examines the origins of these taxing policies and assesses the impact of the rate freezes on the long-range actuarial balance of the Social Security program during this period.

The First Decade in Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 8 (released August 1945)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
First Findings of the 1972 Survey of the Disabled: General Characteristics
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 10 (released October 1976)
by Kathryn H. Allan
The First Inter-American Conference on Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 10 (released October 1942)
by Wilbur J. Cohen
First Session of UN's Permanent Social Commission
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 2 (released February 1947)
by Dorothy Lally
The First Two Years of Social Insurance in Mexico
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 7 (released July 1946)
by Wilbur J. Cohen
First Year Impact of SSI on Economic Status of 1973 Adult Assistance Populations
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 9 (released September 1988)
by Sylvester J. Schieber
First Year Impact of SSI on Economic Status of 1973 Adult Assistance Populations
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 2 (released February 1978)
by Sylvester J. Schieber
First Year of Sickness Insurance for Railroad Workers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 2 (released February 1949)
by Daniel Carson
Five Years of Disability Insurance Benefits: A Progress Report
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 7 (released July 1962)
by Arthur E. Hess
Five Years of Medicare—A Statistical Review
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 12 (released December 1971)
by Howard West
Flexible Retirement Feature of German Pension Reform
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 7 (released July 1973)
by Gisela C. Wang
Flexible Retirement Features Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 5 (released May 1978)
by Martin B. Tracy
Follow-up of Former Drug Addict and Alcoholic Beneficiaries
Research and Statistics Note No. 2001-02 (released October 2001)
by Mikki D. Waid and Sherry L. Barber
The Food Stamp Program and Supplemental Security Income
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 4 (released May 2008)
by Brad Trenkamp and Michael Wiseman

The Food Stamp Program (FSP) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) are important parts of national public assistance policy, and there is considerable overlap in the populations that the programs serve. This article investigates FSP participation by households that include SSI recipients and assesses the importance of various provisions of the Food Stamp Program that favor SSI recipients.

Foreign Experience in Social Insurance Contributions for Agricultural and Domestic Workers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 2 (released February 1945)
by Wilbur J. Cohen
Foreign Health Programs: Changes in Population Covered
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 1 (released January 1976)
by Joseph G. Simanis and Peter Benson
Foreign Provisions for the Dependents of Mobilized Men
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 4 (released April 1941)
by Marianne Sakmann
Foreign Social Security Programs in 1958
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 11 (released November 1958)
by Daniel S. Gerig
Foreign Weighted Benefit Formulas
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 11 (released November 1978)
Foreign-Born Workers Awarded Retirement and Disability Benefits, 1978
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 7 (released July 1982)
Forfeiture of Civil-Service Retirement Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 10 (released October 1961)
by Joseph Krislov
Forging Linkages: Modifying Disability Benefit Programs to Encourage Employment
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 10 (released October 1990)
by L. Scott Muller
Former Welfare Families Independence and Recurring Dependency
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 4 (released April 1977)
Formulas for Variable Federal Grants-in-Aid
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 6 (released June 1940)
by Daniel S. Gerig, Jr.
Forty-Fifth Anniversary of Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 8 (released August 1980)
by William J. Driver
The Fraction of Disability Caused at Work
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 4 (released May 2005)
by Robert T. Reville and Robert F. Schoeni

Disability has high societal and personal costs. Various disparate federal and state programs attempt to address the economic and social needs of people with disabilities. Presumably workplace injuries and accidents are an important source of disability. Yet separate public policies and research literatures have evolved for these two social problems—disability and workplace injuries—despite their relatedness. This article seeks to document the overlap between these two phenomena in estimating the proportion of the disabled population whose disability was caused by workplace injury, accident, or illness using the Health and Retirement Study of 1992. The results point toward the need for initiatives to reduce disability that focus on work-related causes, which are a common pathway to disability, and that may result in substantial savings in federal programs.

France Gradually Lowers Retirement Age
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 12 (released December 1976)
by Lois S. Copeland
From 1938 to 1988
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 3 (released March 1988)
by Dorcas R. Hardy
Funding Under Private Pension Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 10 (released October 1969)
by Nancy Crisman
Further Social Security Amendments in France
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 1 (released January 1969)
by Robert W. Weise, Jr.
Future Citizens All: A Report on Aid to Dependent Children
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 1 (released January 1953)
by Gordon W. Blackwell and Raymond F. Gould
The Future Financial Status of the Social Security Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70 No. 3 (released August 2010)
by Stephen C. Goss

This article describes four concepts—solvency, sustainability, shortfalls, and solutions—as they apply to the financial status of the Social Security program as well as how Social Security financing fits in the general federal budget. The little-understood basis for future projected shortfalls is explained and detailed in relation to the possible solutions.

The Future of Medicine in Great Britain: A Review fo the Medical Planning Research Report
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 3 (released March 1943)
The Future of Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 8 (released August 1987)
by Dorcas R. Hardy

G

The G.I. Bill of Rights: An Analysis of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 7 (released July 1944)
Gainful Workers and Income in Urban Single-Family Households
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 12 (released December 1939)
by Barkev S. Sanders
Gainfully Employed Women in Chicago
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 4 (released April 1943)
by Erna Magnus
The Galveston Plan and Social Security: A Comparative Analysis of Two Systems
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 1 (released June 1999)
by Theresa M. Wilson

This report presents a comparison of benefits under the Galveston Plan versus Social Security, based on different earner and family scenarios. These scenarios include single and married workers at the low, middle, high, and very high earnings levels.

General Characteristics of the Disabled Population
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 8 (released August 1972)
by Kathryn H. Allan and Mildred E. Cinsky
A General Model of Labor-Market Behavior of Older Persons
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 4 (released April 1980)
by Marjorie Honig and Giora Hanoch
General Revenue Sharing Program: A Closer Look
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 10 (released October 1974)
by Sophie R. Dales
Geographic Labor Mobility in the United States: Recent Findings
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 3 (released March 1967)
by Robert E. Marsh
Geographic Patterns of Disability in the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 1 (released January 1994)
by John L. McCoy, Miles Davis, and Russell E. Hudson
German Provisions for Deferred Retirement
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 6 (released June 1979)
by Max Horlick and Ingrid Wooten
Gifts to the Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 2 (released February 1982)
Goldfarb and Mathews: Legal Challenges to the Dependency Test for Spouse's Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 12 (released December 1984)
by Edmund T. Donovan
Greater Equity in Public Assistance Financing
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 6 (released June 1945)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
Group Annuities Supplementing Retirement Benefits Under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 6 (released June 1948)
by Weltha Van Eenam
Group Health Insurance Coverage of Full-Time Employees, 1972
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 4 (released April 1974)
by Walter W. Kolodrubetz
Group Life Insurance for Federal Employees
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 10 (released October 1954)
by Weltha Van Eenam
Group-Practice Prepayment Plans: 1954 Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 6 (released June 1956)
by Agnes W. Brewster
The Growth in Applications for Social Security Disability Insurance: A Spillover Effect from Workers' Compensation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 3 (released August 2012)
by Xuguang (Steve) Guo and John F. Burton, Jr.

Applications for Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) increased during the 1990s compared with the 1980s. Over that period, workers' compensation benefits for workers with permanent disabilities declined and compensability rules became more stringent. This article examines whether changes in the workers' compensation program caused part of the increase in the DI application rate during the 1990s.

Growth in Employee-Benefit Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 3 (released March 1958)
by Alfred M. Skolnik and Joseph Zisman
Growth in Employee-Benefit Plans, 1950–65
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 4 (released April 1967)
by Walter W. Kolodrubetz
Growth in Employee-Benefit Plans, 1954–57
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 3 (released March 1959)
by Alfred M. Skolnik and Joseph Zisman
Growth in New Disabled-Worker Entitlements, 1970–2008
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 73 No. 4 (released November 2013)
by David Pattison and Hilary Waldron

We find that three factors—(1) population growth, (2) the growth in the proportion of women insured for disability, and (3) the movement of the large baby boom generation into disability-prone ages—explain 90 percent of the growth in new disabled-worker entitlements over the 36-year subperiod (1972–2008). The remaining 10 percent is the part attributable to the disability “incidence rate.” Looking at the two subperiods (1972–1990 and 1990–2008), unadjusted measures appear to show faster growth in the incidence rate in the later period than in the earlier one. This apparent speedup disappears once we account for the changing demographic structure of the insured population. Although the adjusted growth in the incidence rate accounts for 17 percent of the growth in disability entitlements in the earlier subperiod, it accounts for only 6 percent of the growth in the more recent half. Demographic factors explain the remaining 94 percent of growth over the 1990–2008 period.

The Growth in Protection Against Income Loss from Short-Term Sickness: 1948–54
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 1 (released January 1956)
The Growth in Protection Against Income Loss From Short-Term Sickness: 1948–55
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 1 (released January 1957)
Growth in Protection Against Income Loss From Short-Term Sickness: 1948–56
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 1 (released January 1958)
The Growth in Social Security Benefits Among the Retirement-Age Population from Increases in the Cap on Covered Earnings
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 2 (released May 2012)
by Alan L. Gustman, Thomas L. Steinmeier, and Nahid Tabatabai

This article investigates how raising the maximum level of earnings subject to the Social Security payroll tax leads to the "leakage" of portions of the additional revenue into higher benefit payments. Using data from the Health and Retirement Study, the authors simulate the effects of changes in maximum taxable earnings for cohorts approaching retirement age over a 24-year period. They find, roughly, that almost half of the additional tax revenue from having raised the maximum earnings subject to the payroll tax has leaked into higher benefits.

Growth of Employee-Benefit Plans, 1954–61
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 4 (released April 1963)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Growth of Pensions in Rumania
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 2 (released February 1970)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Growth of the Supplemental Security Income Program in 1974
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 5 (released May 1975)
The Growth of Voluntary Health Insurance: 1948–54
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 12 (released December 1955)
Guaranteed Children's Allowances in Belgium
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 11 (released November 1972)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Guaranteed Income for the Aged in Belgium
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 9 (released September 1969)
by Doris Lewis
Guaranteed Income In Belgium
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 5 (released May 1975)
by Frankie P. Taylor
Guardianship of Children
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 1–2 (released February 1950)
by Alice Scott Hyatt
A Guide to Social Security Money's Worth Issues
ORES Working Paper No. 67 (released April 1995)
by Dean R. Leimer

This paper discusses some of the major issues associated with the question of whether workers receive their money's worth from the Social Security program. An effort is made to keep the discussion as nontechnical as possible, with explanations provided for many of the technical terms and concepts found in the money's worth literature. Major assumptions, key analytical methods, and money's worth measures used in the literature are also discussed. Finally, the key findings of money's worth studies are summarized, with some cautions concerning the limitations and appropriate usage of money's worth analyses.

A Guide to Social Security Money's Worth Issues
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 2 (released April 1995)
by Dean R. Leimer

This article discusses some of the major issues associated with the question of whether workers receive their money's worth from the Social Security program. An effort is made to keep the discussion as nontechnical as possible, with explanations provided for many of the technical terms and concepts found in the money's worth literature. Major assumptions, key analytical methods, and money's worth measures used in the literature are also discussed. Finally, the key findings of money's worth studies are summarized, with some cautions concerning the limitations and appropriate usage of money's worth analyses.

H

Have People Delayed Claiming Retirement Benefits? Responses to Changes in Social Security Rules
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 2 (released February 2008)
by Jae G. Song and Joyce Manchester

Using a 1 percent sample of Social Security Administration data, this article documents and analyzes responses in the entitlement age for old-age benefits following the recent changes in Social Security rules. Both rules, the removal of the retirement earnings test (RET) for persons who are at the full retirement age (FRA) through age 69 in 2000 or later and a gradual increase in the FRA for those who reach age 62 in 2000 or later, are expected to affect the age at which people claim Social Security retirement benefits (or entitlement age) and the work behavior of older Americans.

The Hazard of Mortality Among Aging Retired- and Disabled-Worker Men: A Comparative Sociodemographic and Health Status Analysis
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 3 (released July 1994)
by John L. McCoy, Howard M. Iams, and Timothy Armstrong
Health Benefits for Laidoff Workers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 2 (released February 1976)
by Daniel N. Price
Health Care Coverage of Survivor Families With Children: Determinants and Consequences
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 2 (released February 1984)
by Philip B. Springer
Health Care Expenditures in Nine Industrialized Countries, 1960–76
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 1 (released January 1980)
by Joseph G. Simanis and John R. Coleman
Health Care Expenditures: International Comparisons, 1970–80
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 10 (released October 1987)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Health in the Years Before Retirement
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 12 (released December 1972)
by Dena K. Motley
Health Insurance Coverage Among Recently Entitled Disability Insurance Beneficiaries: Findings From the New Beneficiary Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 11 (released November 1989)
by L. Scott Muller
Health Insurance Coverage Complementary to Medicare
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 8 (released August 1967)
by Louis S. Reed and Kathleen Myers
Health Insurance Coverage of the Aged and Their Hospital Utilization in 1962: Findings of the 1963 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 7 (released July 1964)
by Dorothy P. Rice
Health Insurance for People Aged 65 and Over: First Steps in Administration
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 2 (released February 1966)
by Robert M. Ball
Health Insurance for the Aged: Amounts Reimbursed
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 6 (released June 1970)
by Louise B. Russell
Health Insurance for the Aged: Claims Reimbursed for Hospital and Medical Services
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 5 (released May 1967)
Health Insurance for the Aged: Participating Extended-Care Facilities
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 6 (released June 1967)
by David Allen
Health Insurance For The Aged: Participating Health Facilities, July 1968
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 9 (released September 1969)
by James Hatten
Health Insurance for the Aged: Participating Home Health Agencies
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 9 (released September 1967)
by David Allen
Health Insurance for the Aged: Participating Independent Laboratories
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 9 (released September 1968)
by Wayne Callahan and David Allen
Health Insurance for the Aged: Persons Insured, Mid-1966 to Mid-1970
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 9 (released September 1972)
by Martin Ruther
Health Insurance for the Aged: The Statistical Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 1 (released January 1967)
by Howard West
Health Insurance for the Unemployed Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 9 (released September 1975)
by Frankie P. Taylor and Leif Haanes-Olsen
Health Insurance Legislation in West Germany
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 6 (released June 1971)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Health Insurance Protection and Medical Care Expenditures: Findings from Three Family Surveys
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 11 (released November 1956)
by Agnes W. Brewster and Simon Dinitz
Health Insurance Reform Legislation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 60 No. 4 (released October 1997)
by Rita L. DiSimone

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), enacted on August 21, 1996 (Public Law 104-19), provides for improved access and renewability with respect to employment-related group health plans, to health insurance coverage sold in connection with group plans, and to the individual market (by amending the Public Health Service Act). The Act's provisions include improvements in portability and continuity of health insurance coverage; combating waste, fraud, and abuse in health insurance and health care delivery; promoting the use of medical savings accounts; improving access to long-term care services and insurance coverage; administrative simplification; and addressing duplication and coordination of Medicare benefits.

Health Maintenance Organization Act of 1973
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 3 (released March 1974)
by Marjorie Smith Mueller
Health Maintenance Organization Amendments of 1976
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 4 (released April 1977)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
The Health of Very Early Retirees
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 9 (released September 1982)
by Eric R. Kingson
A Health Service Plan for South Africa
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 5 (released May 1944)
Health Services for America's Indians
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 2 (released February 1957)
by James R. Shaw
Health Status Among Low-Income Elderly Persons: Rural-Urban Differences
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 6 (released June 1978)
by John L. McCoy and David L. Brown
Health Status of New Retired-Worker Beneficiaries: Findings From the New Beneficiary Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 2 (released February 1985)
by Michael D. Packard
Hearing and Review of Claims and Wage-Record Cases Under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 7 (released July 1940)
by Irving Ladimer
Hearings in Public Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 7 (released July 1948)
by Bernard W. Scholz
Hearings in Public Assistance, January 1945–December 1947
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 9 (released September 1948)
Heterogeneity in Health and Mortality Risk Among Early Retiree Men
ORES Working Paper No. 105 (released May 2004)
by Hilary Waldron

Conventional wisdom holds that the majority of early retirees are in good health and that only a minority are in poor health. This wisdom is based on examinations of levels of health among the early retiree population. In contrast, this paper looks at both the health and mortality risk of early retirees relative to the health and mortality risk of age 65 retirees. This paper finds substantial heterogeneity among early retirees in health and mortality risk related to the age at which they are entitled to Social Security benefits. Early retirees consist of a group in extremely poor health, a group with health equal to age 65 retirees, and a group with health in between. The majority of early retirees are in poorer health and have higher mortality risk than age 65 retirees, and only a minority have health and mortality risk as good as that of age 65 retirees.

Higher Education Institutions and the Social Security Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 12 (released December 1940)
by Merrill G. Murray and Ilse M. Smith
Higher Educational Institutions and Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 1 (released January 1948)
by Dorothy McCamman
Higher Family Allowances in France
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 10 (released October 1969)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Higher Old-Age Pensions in France
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 5 (released May 1972)
by Robert W. Weise, Jr.
Highlights From Canadian Government Green Paper: Better Pensions for Canadians
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 8 (released August 1983)
HIP Incentive Reimbursement Experiment: Utilization and Costs of Medical Care, 1969 and 1970
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 12 (released December 1974)
by Ellen W. Jones, Paul M. Densen, Isidore Altman, Sam Shapiro, and Howard West
Hispanics, Social Security, and Supplemental Security Income
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 2 (released February 2008)
by Patricia P. Martin

This article uses a relatively new data source—the American Community Survey (ACS) to document the economic and demographic characteristics of the Hispanic population in the United States. Although the article focuses on Social Security beneficiaries and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients, other segments of the population are also examined. The ACS data show that the Hispanic population is significantly different from the overall population, particularly with regard to age distribution, education, and economic well-being.

Historical Redistribution Under the Social Security Disability Insurance Program
ORES Working Paper No. 77 (released July 1998)
by Dean R. Leimer

This study uses Social Security administrative data on historical taxes and benefits by year, age, gender, and race for an ex post analysis of redistribution under the Disability Insurance program. The relationship between the taxes paid and benefits received to date under the program is described for successive cohorts as a whole and for specific race and gender groups both within cohorts and across time.

Historical Redistribution Under the Social Security Disability Insurance Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 61 No. 3 (released July 1998)
by Dean R. Leimer

This study uses Social Security administrative data on historical taxes and benefits by year, age, gender, and race for an ex post analysis of redistribution under the Disability Insurance (DI) program. The relationship between the taxes paid and benefits received to date under the program is described for successive cohorts as a whole and for specific race and gender groups both within cohorts and across time.

Historical Redistribution Under the Social Security Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Disability Insurance Programs
ORES Working Paper No. 102 (released February 2004)
by Dean R. Leimer

This study is the third in a series of studies that use comprehensive Social Security administrative data on past earnings and benefits by year, age, gender, and race to analyze historical redistribution across those characteristics under the Social Security program. It examines historical lifetime redistribution to date across and within cohorts born through 1927, combining and extending the results of the previous two studies, for which less historical data were available. Redistributional estimates incorporating the additional data confirm the results of the earlier studies relative lifetime redistributional outcomes to data under the DI program have generally been much more favorable for "Other Races" than for "Whites;" have generally been more favorable for females than for males in most, but not all, of the cohorts considered; and accumulated benefits have generally exceeded accumulated taxes by substantial margins for all but the earliest birth cohort groups. In contrast to outcomes under the OASI program, accumulated net transfers to date for very early birth cohorts have generally been negative under the DI program taken by itself, although the size of these negative net transfers is relatively small.

Historical Redistribution Under the Social Security Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Program
ORES Working Paper No. 101 (released April 2003)
by Dean R. Leimer

This study uses Social Security administrative data on past earnings and benefits by year, age, sex, and race to analyze historical redistribution under the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance program across and within cohorts born through the year 1922. The results generally support the findings of closely related previous research, confirming that early cohorts have received large accumulated net transfers to date, that females, as a group, have experienced substantially higher accumulated benefit/tax ratios and internal rates of return than their male counterparts in these cohorts, and that the "Other Races" group fared better by these measures than the "White" race group in most of the cohorts considered. Differences by race in the accumulated benefit/tax ratios estimated in this analysis are sensitive to the choice of the interest rate series and cohort grouping, however, and differ sharply between males and females under some of the interest rate assumptions.

Home Equity Conversion Plans as a Source of Retirement Income
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 9 (released September 1985)
by Philip B. Springer
Home Visitation Effectiveness Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 8 (released August 1983)
Homeless People Whose Self-Reported SSI/DI Status Is Inconsistent with Social Security Administration Records
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 1 (released August 2007)
by Marc I. Rosen, Thomas J. McMahon, and Robert A. Rosenheck

Clinicians routinely ask indigent new clients whether they receive Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments or Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) benefits, and this information is incorporated into treatment planning. Using questionnaire responses by 7,220 homeless people with mental illness, we first determined what demographic and clinical factors were associated with reporting receipt of SSI or DI benefits and not being in the SSA database and, second, what factors were associated with reporting not receiving benefits but have SSA records indicating otherwise. The low agreement between client reports and administrative records suggests that clinicians should verify the information provided by clients, especially those who are psychotic or medically ill, because that information is often inaccurate.

Homeownership and Financial Assets: Findings from the 1968 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 8 (released August 1972)
by Janet H. Murray
Hospital Costs and the Medicare Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 8 (released August 1973)
by Karen Davis
Hospital Insurance, Supplementary Medical Insurance, and Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance: Financing Basis Under the 1965 Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 10 (released October 1965)
by Robert J. Myers and Francisco Bayo
Hospital Organization Effectiveness of Patient Care
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 4 (released April 1976)
by Gerald Gordon
The Hospital Survey and Construction Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 10 (released October 1946)
by V. M. Hoge
Hospitalization Insurance and Hospital Utilization Among Aged Persons: March 1952 Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 11 (released November 1952)
by I. S. Falk and Agnes W. Brewster
Household Employment Under OASDHI, 1951–66
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 6 (released June 1970)
by Herbert R. Tacker
Housewives and Pensions Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 9 (released September 1976)
by Robert W. Weise, Jr.
How Can We Assure Adequate Health Service for All the People?
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 12 (released December 1945)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
How Common is "Parking" among Social Security Disability Insurance Beneficiaries? Evidence from the 1999 Change in the Earnings Level of Substantial Gainful Activity
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 4 (released November 2011)
by Jody Schimmel, David C. Stapleton, and Jae G. Song

The authors explore the extent to which Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) beneficiaries restrain their earnings below the substantial gainful activity (SGA) level in order to maintain their cash benefits. The extent of "parking" is measured by exploiting the 1999 change in the nonblind SGA earnings level from $500 to $700 and assessing its effect on cohorts of DI beneficiaries who completed their trial work period, one of which was affected by the SGA change, and one that was not.

How Did the Recession of 2007–2009 Affect the Wealth and Retirement of the Near Retirement Age Population in the Health and Retirement Study?
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 4 (released November 2012)
by Alan L. Gustman, Thomas L. Steinmeier, and Nahid Tabatabai

This article uses household wealth and labor market data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to investigate how the recent "Great Recession" has affected the wealth and retirement of the Early Boomer cohort, those in the population who were just approaching retirement age at the beginning of the recession. The retirement wealth of people aged 53–58 before the onset of the recession in 2006 declined by a relatively modest 2.8 percent by 2010. For members of older cohorts, wealth had increased by about 5 percent over a comparable age span. The wealth holdings of poorer households were least affected by the recession. Relative losses were greatest for those who initially had the highest wealth when the recession began. The retirement behavior of the Early Boomer cohort looks similar, at least to date, to the behavior observed for members of older cohorts at comparable ages.

How Do Trends in Women's Labor Force Activity and Marriage Patterns Affect Social Security Replacement Rates?
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 73 No. 4 (released November 2013)
by April Yanyuan Wu, Nadia S. Karamcheva, Alicia H. Munnell, and Patrick J. Purcell

Changes in the role of women in the economy and in the family have affected both the amount and the type of Social Security benefits they receive in retirement. Women's labor force participation rate increased from less than 40 percent in 1950 to more than 70 percent in 2011. Over much of the same period, marriage rates fell and divorce rates rose. This article examines how women's higher earnings and lower marriage rates have affected Social Security replacement rates over time for individuals and for households.

How Federal Credit Unions Operate During Work Stoppages
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 4 (released April 1953)
How Have People Responded to Changes in the Retirement Earnings Test in 2000?
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 1 (released August 2007)
by Jae G. Song and Joyce Manchester

This article explores how individuals affected by the removal of the earnings test have changed their participation in the workforce and the amount that they earn. It also looks at changes in benefit claiming among those who have reached the full retirement age. Results are based on longitudinal data from the Social Security Administration that cover the 4 years before and after the change.

How Many SSI Recipients Live with Other Recipients?
Policy Brief No. 2004-03 (released June 2004)
by Susan Wilschke

The Office of Policy recently completed an analysis of the prevalence of multirecipient households in the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. The study was based on Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data for December 1998 matched to administrative records from the Social Security Administration (SSA).

How Policy Variables Influence the Timing of Applications for Social Security Disability Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 1 (released April 2002)
by Richard V. Burkhauser, J. S. Butler, and Robert R. Weathers II

The onset of a work-limiting health condition may lead workers to reevaluate their lifetime work path. This article analyzes the impact of policy variables—employer accommodations, state Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) acceptance rates, and DI benefits—on the timing of DI applications for such workers.

How Post Secondary Education Improves Adult Outcomes for Supplemental Security Income Children with Severe Hearing Impairments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 2 (released February 2008)
by Robert R. Weathers II, Gerard Walter, Sara Schley, John C. Hennessey, Jeffrey Hemmeter, and Richard V. Burkhauser

This article uses a unique longitudinal dataset based on administrative data from the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) linked to Social Security Administration (SSA) microdata to conduct a case study of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) children who applied for postsecondary education at NTID. The authors estimate the likelihood that SSI children who apply to NTID will eventually graduate relative to other hearing impaired applicants, as well as the influence of graduation from NTID on participation in the SSI program as adults and later success in the labor market. Findings indicate that SSI children are substantially less likely to graduate from NTID than their fellow deaf students who did not participate in the SSI program as children, but that those who do graduate spend less time in the SSI adult program and have higher age-earnings profiles than those who do not graduate.

How Raising the Age of Eligibility for Social Security and Medicare Might Affect the Disability Insurance and Medicare Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 4 (released September 2001)
by David C. Wittenburg, David C. Stapleton, and Scott B. Scrivner

This article considers two hypothetical scenarios—one in which the Medicare eligibility age is raised to 67 along with the scheduled increase in the normal retirement age, and one in which eligibility for both programs is raised to age 70. It then projects the effects that each of those changes would have on Social Security Disability Insurance participation, Medicare participation, and Medicare expenditures.

Human Aspects of the Transition From War to Peace
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 4 (released April 1945)
by Ewan Clague

I

Identifying SSA's Sequential Disability Determination Steps Using Administrative Data
Research and Statistics Note No. 2013-01 (released June 2013)
by Bernard Wixon and Alexander Strand

The authors document the steps used by the Social Security Administration (SSA) and state Disability Determination Service (DDS) agencies to make initial determinations about eligibility for Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income. For both adults and children, SSA/DDSs record the basis for initial disability determinations using codes that correspond to the steps of the process. The resulting data element, the Regulation Basis Code, permits researchers to distinguish allowances based on the Listings from those based on medical/vocational factors for adults (or functional factors for children). It can also be used to identify denials based on severity, residual functional capacity, or other reasons.

Identifying the Disabled: Concepts and Methods in the Measurement of Disability
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 5 (released May 1988)
by Lawrence D. Haber
Identifying The Disabled: Concepts and Methods in the Measurement of Disability
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 12 (released December 1967)
by Lawrence D. Haber
Identifying the Race or Ethnicity of SSI Recipients
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 4 (released April 2000)
by Charles G. Scott

Despite many decades of data collection, SSA has problems presenting data on the race and ethnicity of program beneficiaries. By using several statistical techniques, however, it is possible to make better use of the data at hand.

Immediate Effects of Benefit Increases in 1967 Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 7 (released July 1968)
Immediate Problems of Unemployment Compensation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 9 (released September 1938)
by George E. Bigge
Immigrants and Retirement Resources
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 74 No. 1 (released February 2014)
by Purvi Sevak and Lucie Schmidt

In this article, the authors use the Health and Retirement Study to compare retirement resources of the foreign born with those of the native born. They find that immigrants have significantly lower Social Security benefit levels than natives; however, after controlling for demographic characteristics immigrants have higher levels of net worth. The immigrant/native differential in retirement resources varies systematically by number of years in the United States.

Impact of 1967 Amendments on Benefit Awards
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 11 (released November 1968)
by Harry Shulman
Impact of Black Lung Benefits on Public Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 11 (released November 1972)
by Frederick L. Cone and Jack Schmulowitz
The Impact of Changes in Couples' Earnings on Married Women's Social Security Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 1 (released February 2012)
by Barbara A. Butrica and Karen E. Smith

This article uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (version 6) to examine how changes in married women's labor force participation and earnings will impact the Social Security benefits of current and future beneficiary wives. Over the next 30 years, a larger share of wives will be eligible for Social Security benefits based solely on their own earnings, and wives' average Social Security benefits are expected to increase by 50 percent. Despite rising female lifetime earnings, wives' earnings typically remain below those of their husbands, so many wives who are retired-worker-only beneficiaries while their husbands are alive will receive auxiliary benefits when their husbands die.

Impact of Cost-Sharing on Use of Ambulatory Services Under Medicare, 1969
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 10 (released October 1973)
by Evelyn Peel and Jack Scharff
Impact of Disability on the Family Structure
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 5 (released May 1977)
by Paula A. Franklin
Impact of Inflation on Private Pensions of Retirees, 1970–74: Findings From the Retirement History Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 11 (released November 1978)
by Gayle B. Thompson
The Impact of Local Labor Market Characteristics on the Disability Process
ORES Working Paper No. 27 (released April 1982)
by L. Scott Muller

This report examines the impact of local labor market characteristics on three steps in the disability process: The perception of oneself as disabled; the decision to apply for benefits under the social security disability insurance program (SSDI); and the determination of disability status under SSDI. The research attempts to determine whether the elements of an individual's local economic environment play a role in the various steps of the disability process specifically above and beyond his or her own demographic characteristics and economic motivations. Among the key variables used to measure the local economic environment are the unemployment rate, the percent of families below the low income (poverty) level, rural location, occupational diversity and the percent of the unemployed exhausting their unemployment benefits. With the exception of the last variable, which is measured on a statewide basis, all variables pertain to the county of residence.

The results contradict earlier findings which were based on aggregated data. No significant effect on any of the three elements in the disability process was found for either variable measuring the dimensions of the unemployment problem. With few exceptions, results from the other labor market variables were sketchy at best. One surprising result is noted with respect to the benefit replacement ratio, the variable intended to measure the relative attractiveness of SSDI benefits.

Impact of Recession on Financing of French Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 7 (released July 1976)
by Lois S. Copeland
Impact of Recession on Swiss Pension Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 4 (released April 1978)
by Frank B. McArdle
The Impact of Repealing the Retirement Earnings Test on Rates of Poverty
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 2 (released December 2000)
by Michael A. Anzick and David A. Weaver

This article summarizes an analysis of the poverty implications of repealing the retirement earnings test (RET). Repealing the RET at the normal retirement age or older is unlikely to generate large poverty effects. Removing the test at age 62 or older, however, could lead to large increases in poverty.

The Impact of Response Error on Participation Rates and Contributions to Defined Contribution Pension Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70 No. 1 (released February 2010)
by Irena Dushi and Howard M. Iams

The accuracy of information about coverage and contributions to defined contribution (DC) pension plans is important in understanding the economic well-being of future retirees because these plans are an increasingly important part of retirement income security. Using data from the 1996 and 2004 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) merged with information from W-2 tax records, we examine the extent to which estimated participation rates and contribution amounts to DC plans derived from SIPP reports differ from estimates obtained from tax-deferred contributions in the W-2 tax records.

The Impact of Retirement Account Distributions on Measures of Family Income
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 73 No. 2 (released May 2013)
by Howard M. Iams and Patrick J. Purcell

The income of the aged is composed largely of Social Security benefits, asset income, and pension income. Over the past three decades, the primary form of employer-sponsored pension has shifted from the traditional defined benefit plan to defined contribution plans, such as the 401(k). That trend creates problems for measuring the income of the aged because most household surveys of income either do not collect information about distributions from defined contribution retirement accounts or do not include those distributions in their summary measures of income. This article examines the impact of including distributions from retirement accounts on the estimated income of families headed by persons aged 65 or older.

Impact of Substantial Gainful Activity Level on Disabled Beneficiary Work Patterns
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 8 (released August 1976)
by Paula A. Franklin
The Impact of Survey Choice on Measuring the Relative Importance of Social Security Benefits to the Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 2 (released February 2008)
by T. Lynn Fisher

This article provides insight into how measures of elderly economic well-being are sensitive to the survey data source. In Social Security Administration's publication Income of the Population 55 or Older, data are based on the national Current Population Survey (CPS). The preciseness of the survey statistics depends upon the willingness and ability of CPS respondents to answer questions accurately. This article contrasts income statistics calculated using the CPS and the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Administrative data for Social Security benefits and SSI are also used to evaluate the accuracy of the income estimates.

The Impact of the Unit of Observation on the Measurement of the Relative Importance of Social Security Benefits to the Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 2 (released February 2008)
by T. Lynn Fisher

Other publications using the same data source as Income of the Population 55 or Older, 2004 have produced different statistics for income and the relative importance of Social Security that appear contradictory. Depending on the unit of observation and whose income is considered, the estimates of the percentage of the elderly receiving all of their income from Social Security in 2004 varies from 13 percent to 22 percent. This article explains how the choice of the unit of observation impacts measures of the relative importance of Social Security benefits for the elderly.

Impact on Widows of Proposed Changes in OASI Mother's Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 2 (released February 1981)
by Susan Grad
Impersonality and Administration
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 9 (released September 1965)
by Jack S. Futterman
The Implications of Marital History Change on Women's Eligibility for Social Security Wife and Widow Benefits, 1990–2009
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 2 (released May 2012)
by Howard M. Iams and Christopher R. Tamborini

Social Security retirement-age benefits in the United States reflect marital histories and lifetime earnings of current and former married couples. We examine women's marital history patterns and spouse and widow benefit eligibility over the past two decades, 1990 and 2009. Our analysis reveals substantial changes in women's marital patterns among the baby boom and generation X cohorts. We find a substantial decline in qualifying marital histories for Social Security spouse and widow benefits. The results reveal considerable variation by race and Hispanic origin.

Improvements in Belgian Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 12 (released December 1968)
by Robert Lucas
Improving Child Support Enforcement for Children Receiving SSI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 1 (released April 2002)
by Susan Wilschke

This article examines child support provisions in the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program and other means-tested programs. It also discusses policy options for improving receipt of child support for children receiving SSI and ways that SSA could gain better access to child support data.

Improving Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 3 (released March 1946)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
Improving Return-to-Work Strategies in the United States Disability Programs, with Analysis of Program Practices in Germany and Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 3 (released January 2000)
by Joann Sim

This article examines suggestions by the General Accounting Office (GAO) to improve the rate of rehabilitation of workers on the disability rolls. It examines GAO's suggestions within the context of research by experts on return-to-work practices in Germany, Sweden, and the United States. It also discusses lessons learned from the European experiences and current and past return-to-work initiatives used in the Social Security Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income programs.

Improving State Assistance Payment Procedures
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 10 (released October 1951)
Improving the Status of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 12 (released December 1966)
by Wilbur J. Cohen
Incapacity and Hospital Care of Aged Beneficiaries of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 7 (released July 1955)
by Dorothy McCamman and Agnes W. Brewster
The Incidence of Aid to the Blind in Four New England States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 9 (released September 1938)
by Ruth S. Brush
Income and Assets of Social Security Beneficiaries by Type of Benefit
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 1 (released January 1989)
by Susan Grad
Income and Living Arrangements Among Poor Aged Singles
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 4 (released April 1981)
by Thomas Tissue and John L. McCoy
The Income and Resources of the Elderly in 1978
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 12 (released December 1981)
by Robert E. Marsh
Income Change at Retirement
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 1 (released January 1990)
by Susan Grad
Income Changes At and After Social Security Benefit Receipt: Evidence From the Retirement History Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 9 (released September 1984)
by Alan Fox
Income Cycle in the Life of Families and Individuals
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 6 (released June 1943)
by W. S. Woytinsky
Income Growth and Future Poverty Rates of the Aged
ORES Working Paper No. 94 (released September 2001)
by Seyda G. Wentworth and David Pattison

This paper estimates effects on elderly poverty rates of a steady growth in incomes for 50 years. It assumes that the poverty threshold continues to be adjusted for inflation but not for increases in real incomes. Simulations with the March 1998 Current Population Survey indicate that if Social Security and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefit rules are not changed and if earnings and other incomes grow by 1 percent per year (the growth rate in earnings assumed in the Social Security Trustees' Report intermediate scenario) in an otherwise unchanging population, poverty among the elderly will decrease from 10.5 percent to about 7.7 percent in 2020 and to 4.8 percent in 2047. Those projected poverty rates are quite sensitive to the earnings growth rate assumption and to the assumption that benefits are not further reduced to maintain solvency. The paper quantifies the sensitivity to these assumptions and discusses several other aspects that might affect future poverty rates—changes in other income components like SSI, earnings, and pensions; changes in longevity and marital patterns; and changes in the distribution of earnings.

Income Growth and Future Poverty Rates of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 3 (released January 2003)
by Seyda G. Wentworth and David Pattison

This article estimates effects of future growth in income on the poverty rates of the elderly. If real earnings and other income were to increase steadily at 1 percent per year, poverty among the elderly, 10.5 percent in 1997, would decrease to about 7.2 percent in 2020 and to 4.1 percent in 2047, assuming no Social Security benefit reductions to maintain solvency. The article discusses several other aspects that might affect future poverty rates, including changes in other income components like Supplemental Security Income, earnings, and pensions; changes in longevity and marital patterns; and changes in the distribution of earnings.

Income Maintenance and the Birth Rate
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 12 (released December 1965)
by Alvin L. Schorr
Income of Aged Persons, 1948
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 7 (released July 1951)
by Jacob Fisher
Income of New Disabled-Worker Beneficiaries and Their Families: Findings From the New Beneficiary Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 3 (released March 1987)
by Michael D. Packard
Income of New Retired Workers by Age at First Benefit Receipt: Findings From the New Beneficiary Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 7 (released July 1985)
by Linda Drazga Maxfield
Income of New Retired Workers by Social Security Benefit Levels: Findings From the New Beneficiary Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 5 (released May 1985)
by Christine Irick
Income of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Beneficiaries, 1941 and 1949
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 5 (released May 1950)
by Edna C. Wentworth
Income of People Aged 65 and Older: Overview From 1968 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 4 (released April 1970)
by Lenore E. Bixby
Income of Retirement-Aged Persons in the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 7 (released July 1987)
by Martynas A. Yčas and Susan Grad
Income of SSI Recipients, December 1975
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 6 (released June 1977)
by Lenna D. Kennedy
Income of the Aged in 1962: First Findings of the 1963 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 3 (released March 1988)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Income of the Aged in 1962: First Findings of the 1963 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 3 (released March 1964)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Income of the Disabled: Its Sources and Size
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 8 (released August 1971)
by Idella G. Swisher
Income of the Newly Disabled: Survey of Recently Disabled Adults
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 9 (released September 1975)
by Philip Frohlich
Income of the Population Aged 55 and Older, 1976
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 7 (released July 1979)
by Susan Grad and Karen Foster
Income of Urban Families and Individuals in Single-Family Households
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 9 (released September 1939)
by Barkev S. Sanders and Anne G. Kantor
Income of Young Survivors, December 1958
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 9 (released September 1959)
by Mollie Orshansky
Income Protection for the Aged in the 21st Century: A Framework to Help Inform the Debate
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 59 No. 2 (released April 1996)
by Peter M. Wheeler and John R. Kearney

It is becoming increasing difficult worldwide for the aged to sustain a minimum level of income protection into retirement. Rapidly aging populations and lower fertility rates are creating serious fiscal strains on current social insurance systems. A report issued by the World Bank maintains that countries whose primary mechanism for providing old-age income protection is a publicly managed social insurance system will experience significant difficulties unless they make structural changes in their programs. Actuarial estimates indicate that benefit payments in the United States could in fact exceed income to the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) Trust Fund by 2029 and a variety of proposals to address this problem are being advanced. We suggest a framework to evaluate such proposals based on a set of core values (fairness, adequacy, and efficiency) and analyze some of the proposed changes both in relation to how they have been employed in other countries and within the context of the framework. The purpose of this article is to inform and help structure a most important debate.

Income Replacement During Sickness, 1948–68
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 1 (released January 1970)
by Daniel N. Price
Income Replacement During Sickness, 1948–78
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 5 (released May 1981)
by Daniel N. Price
Income Replacement Ratios in the Health and Retirement Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 3 (released August 2012)
by Patrick J. Purcell

Income typically falls in retirement, and the timing and extent of that decline concerns policymakers. If income from Social Security, pensions, and savings do not allow retirees to maintain their desired standard of living, they will face difficult and perhaps unexpected choices about reducing or eliminating certain kinds of expenditures. The income replacement ratio—retirement income expressed as a percentage of preretirement income—has become a familiar metric for assessing the adequacy of retirement income. This article presents the income replacement ratios experienced by members of the original sample cohort of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), who were born between 1931 and 1941. Median replacement ratios among this sample fall as the retirement period grows longer.

Income Security in Transition for the Aged and Children in the Soviet Union and in the Russian Federation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 1 (released January 1993)
by Lillian Liu
The Income Survey Development Program: Design Features and Initial Findings
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 11 (released November 1981)
by Martynas A. Yčas and Charles A. Lininger
Income, Assets, and Health Insurance: Economic Resources for Meeting Acute Health Care Needs of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 1 (released January 1992)
by Linda Del Bene and Denton R. Vaughan
Income, Children, and Gainful Workers in Urban Multi-Family Households
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 4 (released April 1940)
by Barkev S. Sanders, Anne G. Kantor, and Doris Carlton
Income, Children, and Gainful Workers in Urban Single-Family Households
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 2 (released February 1940)
by Barkev S. Sanders and Anne G. Kantor
Income-Loss Protection Against Illness
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 1 (released January 1967)
by Saul Waldman
Income-Loss Protection Against Illness, 1948–66
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 1 (released January 1968)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Income-Loss Protection Against Illness, 1948–67
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 1 (released January 1969)
by Daniel N. Price
Income-Loss Protection Against Short-Term Sickness, 1948–59
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 1 (released January 1961)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Income-Loss Protection Against Short-Term Sickness, 1948–60
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 1 (released January 1962)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Income-Loss Protection Against Short-Term Sickness, 1948–61
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 1 (released January 1963)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Income-Loss Protection Against Short-Term Sickness, 1948–62
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 1 (released January 1964)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Income-Loss Protection Against Short-Term Sickness, 1948–63
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 1 (released January 1965)
by Alfred M. Skolnik and John W. Mitchell
Income-Loss Protection Against Short-Term Sickness, 1948–64
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 1 (released January 1966)
by Saul Waldman
Income-Loss Protection Against Short-Term Sickness: 1948–57
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 1 (released January 1959)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Income-Loss Protection Against Short-Term Sickness: 1948–58
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 1 (released January 1960)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Income-Maintenance Programs for the Aged, United States and Great Britain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 9 (released September 1952)
Income-Net Worth Measures of Economic Welfare
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 11 (released November 1969)
by Dorothy S. Projector and Gertrude S. Weiss
Incomes of the Aged and Nonaged, 1950–82
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 6 (released June 1984)
by Susan Grad
Incomes of the Elderly and Nonelderly, 1967–92
ORES Working Paper No. 68 (released October 1995)
by Daniel B. Radner

This paper examines the money incomes of the elderly and the nonelderly. The economic status of the elderly is put in perspective by discussing changes in real incomes since 1967 and the income of the elderly relative to the incomes of other age groups. Detailed age groups within both the elderly and nonelderly groups are examined. The paper finds that the economic status of the elderly in 1992 was substantially better than in 1967 but was about the same as in 1984. The real median income of the elderly rose from 1967 to 1989 but fell from 1989 to 1992. The ratio of the income of the elderly to that of the nonelderly was higher in 1992 than in 1967, but the 1992 ratio was below the 1984 ratio. Large increases in mean Social Security benefits were important in the increase in the total income of the elderly since 1967.

Incomes of the Elderly and Nonelderly, 1967–92
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 4 (released October 1995)
by Daniel B. Radner

This article examines the money incomes of the elderly and the nonelderly. The economic status of the elderly is put in perspective by discussing changes in real incomes since 1967 and the income of the elderly relative to the incomes of other age groups. Detailed age groups within both the elderly and nonelderly groups are examined. The article finds that the economic status of the elderly in 1992 was substantially better than in 1967, but was about the same as that in 1984. The real median income of the elderly rose during the period from 1967 to 1989, but declined from 1989 to 1992. The ratio of the income of the elderly to that of the nonelderly was higher in 1992 than in 1967, but the 1992 ratio was lower than that in 1984. Large increases in mean Social Security benefits were important in the increase in the total income of the elderly since 1967.

Income-Tax Treatment of Old-Age Pensions and Contributions Here and Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 8 (released August 1966)
by Werner Hasenberg
Income-Tested Social Benefits in New York: Adequacy, Incentives, and Equity
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 5 (released May 1974)
by Blanche Bernstein, Anne N. Shkuda, and Eveline M. Burns
Incorporating Immigrant Flows into Microsimulation Models
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68 No. 1 (released August 2008)
by Harriet Orcutt Duleep and Daniel J. Dowhan

Complementing the second paper's focus on forecasting immigrant earnings and emigration in a "closed system" for a given population, the last article of the trilogy explores how to project immigrant earnings for an "open system"—a system that includes future immigrants. A simple method to project future immigrants and their earnings is presented.

Increased Living Costs and Social Security Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 1 (released January 1954)
by Carl H. Farman
The Increasing Labor Force Participation of Older Workers and its Effect on the Income of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 1 (released February 2012)
by Michael V. Leonesio, Benjamin Bridges, Robert V. Gesumaria, and Linda Del Bene

Higher labor force participation rates for people aged 62–79 are associated with a dramatic increase in the share of their total money income attributable to earnings. For persons aged 65–69, the earnings share increased from 28 percent in 1980 to 42 percent in 2009. Two decades ago, Social Security benefits and earnings were roughly equal shares of total money income (about 30 percent); the earnings share is now more than 12 percentage points larger. The marked increase in the importance of earnings as an income source is also evident throughout the 62–79 age range among Social Security beneficiaries.

Independent Health Insurance Plans, 1961 Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 2 (released February 1963)
by Donald G. Hay
Independent Health Insurance Plans, 1962
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 9 (released September 1963)
by Louis S. Reed
Independent Plans Providing Medical Care and Hospital Insurance: 1950 Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 5 (released May 1951)
by Agnes W. Brewster
Independent Plans Providing Medical Care and Hospital Insurance: 1954 Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 4 (released April 1955)
by Agnes W. Brewster
Independent Plans Providing Medical Care and Hospital Insurance: 1957 Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 4 (released April 1958)
by Agnes W. Brewster
Independent Plans Providing Medical Care and Hospital Insurance: 1959 Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 2 (released February 1961)
by Agnes W. Brewster
Individual Accounts in Other Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 1 (released September 2005)
by Barbara E. Kritzer

To date, more than 30 countries have established some form of individual accounts in their retirement systems. This article identifies those countries, categorizes how the individual accounts fit into their retirement income systems, and identifies some basic characteristics of the accounts. Because this analysis of individual accounts is intended to inform the current United States debate involving Social Security, the discussion is limited to countries in which such accounts are part or all of a mandatory retirement income program.

Industrial and Occupational Classifications of Third-Quarter Placements
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 1 (released January 1940)
Industrial Classification in Relation to Unemployment Compensation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 1–3 (released March 1938)
by Tillman M. Sogge
Industry, Occupation, and Disability Insurance Beneficiary Work Return
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 1 (released June 1999)
by Evan S. Schechter

This article uses the New Beneficiary Data System to describe the first job held after award of Disability Insurance benefits, in terms of occupation and industry. It examines work activity within sectors of employment, and looks at the issues of whether work return in certain industries and occupations varies according to the demographic characteristics of the beneficiaries. The article also presents data on sector-specific employer accommodations that can aid in sustained work return.

Postentitlement work was fairly evenly distributed across occupational and industrial sectors. Persons with higher levels of educational attainment were found to be in white-collar employment sectors. There were noticeable differences in the availability of employer accommodations across postentitlement occupations and industries.

Ineligible Spouses of SSI Beneficiaries, December 1976
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 8 (released August 1978)
by Lenna D. Kennedy
Inflation and the Accumulation of Assets in Private Pension Funds
ORES Working Paper No. 14 (released April 1980)
by John A. Turner

This paper examines the effect of inflation on private pension saving. The role that private pensions can or should play in providing income in old age in the current inflationary environment is an important policy issue. A number of studies have discussed the effect of inflation on pensions. This study extends the existing analysis and presents the first empirical estimates. Inflation is seen to have a large negative effect on this aspect of retirement saving by workers.

The Influence of Federal and State Maximums on Grants Approved for Aid to Dependent Children in 1937-38
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 8 (released August 1939)
by John M. Lynch
The Influence of OASDI and SSI Payments on the Poverty Status of Families With Children
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 3 (released July 1995)
by John R. Kearney, Herman F. Grundmann, and Salvatore J. Gallicchio

This is the second of two articles on the effects of Old-Age Disability Insurance (OASDI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments on the poverty status of children. Based primarily on a data file from the 1990 SIPP matched with Social Security Administration (SSA) administrative records, the principal findings in the article are that: (1) the families of children who were entitled to survivors benefits, and in particular those families in which the surviving parent was remarried, were much less likely to have income below the poverty threshold than other families with children who received OASDI benefits; (2) families with a child eligible for SSI payments, and headed by a single adult, received considerably less income from earnings, and had less income overall, than other families with children that received SSI payments; and (3) the primary reason that some families who received OASDI and SSI benefits remained in poverty was the absence of any employed family member.

The Influence of Social Security Benefits and SSI Payments on the Poverty Status of Children
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 2 (released April 1994)
by John R. Kearney, Herman F. Grundmann, and Salvatore J. Gallicchio
Initial Effect of 1952 Amendments on Average OASI Monthly Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 3 (released March 1953)
Initial Effect of Amendments on Average OASI Monthly Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 2 (released February 1951)
Initial Effect of the 1952 Amendments on Assistance Payments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 1 (released January 1953)
Initial Effects of the 1956 Amendments on Public Assistance Money Payments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 5 (released May 1957)
by Garnett A. Lester
Initial Effects of the 1958 PA Amendments on Assistance Payments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 9 (released September 1959)
by Maurice Ellis and Garnett A. Lester
Institutionalized SSI Recipients Covered by Medicaid, June 1977
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 12 (released December 1978)
by Macolm M. Morrison
Insurance Payments to Survivors of the Texas City Disaster
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 9 (released September 1947)
by Robert J. Myers
Insured Status Under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 11 (released November 1941)
by Michael T. Wermel and Benjamin Mandel
Intake Practices in Local Public Assistance Agencies
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 10 (released October 1941)
by Margaret Leahy
The Interaction Between Health and Education
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 12 (released December 1975)
by Mordechai E. Lando
Interaction With Social Security of 1996 Civil Service Retirement System Annuitants
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 60 No. 3 (released June 1997)
by Chris Chaplain and Bertram Kestenbaum
Interchange of Relief Information Among Departments of Public Welfare of Large Cities
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 6 (released June 1938)
by Helen R. Jeter and Margaret Claybaugh
Interfund Borrowing Under the Social Security Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 9 (released September 1983)
by Bruce D. Schobel
Interim Assistance Reimbursement Payments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 7 (released July 1986)
by Howard D. Oberheu
Interindustry Labor Mobility Among Men, 1957–60
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 9 (released September 1966)
by Lowell E. Gallaway
International Action Toward Social Security for Seamen
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 8 (released August 1946)
by Ida C. Merriam
International Children's Emergency Fund
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 4 (released April 1947)
by Katharine F. Lenroot
International Conference of Social Work: Eighth Session
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 11 (released November 1956)
by Dorothy Lally
International Conference on Homemaker Services
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 9 (released September 1959)
by Maude Morlock
International Health Expenditures
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 12 (released December 1970)
by Joseph G. Simanis
International Social Security Agreements: The U.S. Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 9 (released September 1988)
by Paul Butcher and Joseph Erdos
International Social Security Association Meeting
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 7 (released July 1958)
International Social Security Organizations: United States Participation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 9 (released September 1964)
International Trends in Disability Program Growth
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 10 (released October 1981)
by Lois S. Copeland
Interrelationships Between Economic Institutions and the Family
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 10 (released October 1960)
by Otto Pollak
Interstate Industrial Migration as Reflected in Claims for Unemployment Compensation Filed in 1939
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 9 (released September 1941)
Interviewing
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 4 (released April 1940)
by Alice J. Webber
Intrastate Equalization In Financing Public Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 6 (released June 1945)
by Byron L. Johnson
Introduction and Overview from—2004 Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the Federal OASDI Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 2 (released August 2004)

The full report is available at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/OACT/TR/TR04.

Introduction and Overview from—2005 Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the Federal OASDI Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 4 (released May 2005)

The full report is available at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/OACT/TR/TR05.

Introduction and Overview of the 2009 Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Federal Disability Insurance Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 69 No. 2 (released July 2009)

The Board of Trustees reports each year on the current and projected financial condition of the Social Security program, which is financed through two separate trust funds: the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Disability Insurance Trust Fund. The introduction, overview, and full report are available here.

Introduction and Overview of the 2010 Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Federal Disability Insurance Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70 No. 4 (released November 2010)

The Board of Trustees reports each year on the current and projected financial condition of the Social Security program, which is financed through two separate trust funds: the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Disability Insurance Trust Fund. The introduction, overview, and full report are available here.

Introduction and Overview of the 2011 Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Federal Disability Insurance Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 3 (released August 2011)

The Board of Trustees reports each year on the current and projected financial condition of the Social Security program, which is financed through two separate trust funds: the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Disability Insurance Trust Fund. The introduction, overview, and full report are available here.

Introduction and Overview of the 2012 Annual Report of the Board of Trustees of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Federal Disability Insurance Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 2 (released May 2012)

The Board of Trustees reports each year on the current and projected financial condition of the Social Security program, which is financed through two separate trust funds: the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Trust Fund and the Disability Insurance Trust Fund. The introduction, overview, and full report are available here.

Introduction of Survivor Pension Program in India
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 8 (released August 1971)
by Dalmer D. Hoskins
Investment of Social Security Reserves in Three Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 2 (released February 1990)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Investment Policies and Procedures of the Social Security Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 1 (released January 1982)
by Robert J. Myers
Is Poverty Necessary?
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 8 (released August 1965)
by Robert M. Ball
Israel's Program Revision for Families with Children
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 7 (released July 1978)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
The Issue Unresolved: Innovating and Adapting Disability Programs for the Third Era of Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 1 (released January 1995)
by Martynas A. Yčas

The history of the Social Security programs in the United States falls into several distinct eras, defined by changing social, demographic, and economic conditions. At present the retirement components of these programs is moving into a stage of program maturation, which poses certain relatively well-understood changes to policymakers. The disability programs are also moving into the same set of societal conditions, but their impact is considerably more difficult to predict. Already disability incidence rates have experienced disturbingly large and poorly understood shifts. Developing a way to predict these shifts and to deal with the challenges that they make for existing programs is therefore a major priority of Social Security's current research agenda.

Issues in Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 2 (released February 1946)
Issues in Temporary Disability Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 6 (released June 1949)
Italy's Indexing, Minimum Benefits, and Pension Reform
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 8 (released August 1978)
by Frank B. McArdle
Italy's National Health Service Plan
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 4 (released April 1979)
by Frank B. McArdle

J

Job Patterns of Disabled Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 59 No. 4 (released October 1996)
by John C. Hennessey

This article presents basic findings about the job patterns of disabled-worker beneficiaries covered under the Social Security Administration's Disability Insurance (DI) program as reported in the New Beneficiary Follow-up survey. Beneficiaries are asked retrospective questions about labor-force participation from the time of their first entitlement to disability benefits to the time of the interview.

Twelve percent of those persons who enter the DI program as nonworking beneficiaries start a job during their entitlement to benefits. The mean time to the start of the job was 3.4 years. Of those who start a job, 50 percent end the job before the end of their entitlement. Most of these persons leave the job for health-related reasons and, for most of them, the employer does not play a major role in their decision to stop working. For those who end the first job and are employed in subsequent jobs, the percentage who recover while still in the job decreases as the number of jobs increases.

Job Seekers Registered at Public Employment Offices, April 1941
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 9 (released September 1941)
Jobs of Persons Working After Receiving Retired-Worker Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 11 (released November 1987)
by Howard M. Iams
Joint and Survivor Annuities for Uniformed Services
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 11 (released November 1953)
The Joint Distribution of Wealth and Income for Age Groups, 1979
ORES Working Paper No. 33 (released March 1984)
by Daniel B. Radner and Denton R. Vaughan

This paper examines the economic well-being of age groups in the U.S. using data on both income and wealth. Although income will be discussed, we will focus on wealth in order to exploit relatively current data on wealth that have become available recently.

The Joint Retirement Decision of Husbands and Wives
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 1 (released January 1989)
by Michael Hurd
Juvenile Court Cases in 1954
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 6 (released June 1956)
by I. Richard Perlman and Robert L. Rowland

K

Kinship and Social Security in a Micronesian Society
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 10 (released October 1977)
by Keith M. Marshall and Mark Borthwich
KiwiSaver: New Zealand's New Subsidized Retirement Savings Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 4 (released May 2008)
by Barbara E. Kritzer

On July 1, 2007, New Zealand introduced KiwiSaver, a new subsidized retirement savings plan. All new entrants to the labor force and anyone starting a new job are automatically enrolled in a plan and may opt out if they wish. Anyone younger than age 65, including the self-employed and anyone not in the labor force, may choose to set up a KiwiSaver account. The government provides tax credits for both employer and account holder contributions, a one-time tax-free payment to each account, and an annual fee subsidy to defray administrative costs.

Knowledge of Social Security: Survivor Families With Young Children
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 12 (released December 1983)
by Julian Abbott

L

Labor Force Participation, Income, and the Use of Short-Term Hospitals by the Elderly
ORES Working Paper No. 64 (released November 1994)
by David A. Weaver

Between 1970 and 1983, the rate at which the elderly were hospitalized grew by over 40 percent, but the rate of hospitalization for the younger population was fairly stable. Past attempts to explain the different patterns among the young and the old have focused on technology, insurance, health status, and the supply of hospital services. These attempts have been largely unsuccessful. In this paper, I examine other possible explanations, namely, that the elderly, who experienced a decline in the rate of participation in the labor force and an increase in income over this period, used increases in available time (i.e., nonwork time) and increases in income to seek out and receive greater amounts of health care.

Using an empirical strategy that adequately controls for the health status and insurance status of the subjects under study, I analyze small area data from the state of North Carolina. This approach yields results that indicate labor force status and income are important determinants of hospital use among the elderly.

Labor Mobility of Low- and High-Wage Workers, 1959–63
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 1 (released January 1977)
by George H. Hildebrand and Richard M. Block
Labor Scarcity and Labor-Market Policy Under an Armament Program in Germany and Great Britain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 9 (released September 1942)
by Constance A. Kiehel
Labor Supply and the Defense Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 7 (released July 1940)
by Ewan Clague
Labor Supply, the Payroll Tax, and Internal Rates of Return to Social Security
ORES Working Paper No. 6 (released April 1979)
by Alan Freiden and Robert J. Mackay

There is empirical evidence that in the recent past the Old-Age Insurance portion of the Social Security program has acted as a net wage subsidy. In addition, the program had significant intragenerational redistributive effects. Our purpose is to demonstrate how these findings alter conventional views of the labor supply effects of Social Security. Our method is the analysis of a labor supply model that is extended to include empirically significant operational components of the program. We show that the analyses of others are special cases of our more general approach.

Labor-Force Participation and Earnings of SSI Disability Recipients: A Pooled Cross-Sectional Time Series Approach to the Behavior of Individuals
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 59 No. 1 (released January 1996)
by L. Scott Muller, Charles G. Scott, and Barry V. Bye

This article examines two important aspects of work behavior, labor-force participation, and earnings among persons who since 1976 have become entitled to SSI disability benefits and received payments for a full calendar year or longer during the intervening time period. A data set was developed containing the records of a random sample of all individuals who had ever received Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disability benefits and matched to earnings records maintained by the Social Security Administration (SSA). A multivariate analysis based on a pooled cross-sectional time series approach was employed using individual-level data to first estimate the probability of an SSI recipient performing work and then to estimate, among those who worked, the level of earnings. For this analysis, the SSI population was divided into three distinct groups based on their diagnosis: the nondevelopmentally disabled, the developmentally disabled (other than the mentally retarded), and the mentally retarded.

The analysis provides information about the impact that individual characteristics (such as age, education, diagnosis, and so forth) play in the decision to work and in determining the level of earnings. The analysis also addresses yearly variations in labor-force participation and earnings.

Labor-Force Participation of Older Married Women
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 8 (released August 1980)
by John C. Henretta and Angela M. O'Rand
Labor-Force Participation Patterns of Older Self-Employed Workers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 4 (released April 1980)
by Joseph F. Quinn
Labor-Force Reserves
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 7 (released July 1942)
by Barkev S. Sanders
Labor-Force Status of Nonmarried Women on the Threshold of Retirement
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 9 (released September 1974)
by Sally R. Sherman
Late Entitlement to Retirement Benefits: Findings from the Survey of New Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 7 (released July 1973)
by Leonard Rubin
The Law and Administrative Practice as Barriers to Mobility of Population
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 10 (released October 1939)
by Ruth O. Blakeslee
Legislation Affecting Veterans and Servicemen, 1965
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 3 (released March 1966)
Legislation in 1976
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 2 (released February 1977)
Legislative Changes in Public Assistance, 1941
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 11 (released November 1977)
Legislative Changes in Public Assistance, 1945
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 4 (released April 1946)
by Jules H. Berman and Haskell Jacobs
Legislative Changes in Public Assistance, 1947
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 11 (released November 1947)
by Jules H. Berman
A Legislative History of the Social Security Protection Act of 2004
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68 No. 4 (released March 2009)
by Erik Hansen

The Social Security Protection Act of 2004 (SSPA), with its administrative remedies and program protections, can be seen as another incremental step in the development of a social insurance program that best meets the evolving needs of American society. This article discusses the legislative history of the SSPA in detail. It also includes summaries of the provisions and a chronology of the modification of these proposals as they passed through the House and Senate, and ultimately to the president's desk.

Legislative History of Title VIII of the Social Security Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 1 (released April 2002)
by Adrienne Croll

This article details the congressional effort to recognize the important contributions of Filipino veterans in World War II that led to the enactment of a new title VIII of the Social Security Act, "Special Benefits for Certain World War II Veterans." It describes the evolution of a proposal to pay a reduced Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefit to Filipino and other World War II veterans who want to return to their homeland or otherwise live outside the United States. The article highlights the different options considered and the early implementation of payments by the Social Security Administration under the new program. Title VIII is the first benefit program administered by the Social Security Administration since the enactment of the legislation that created the SSI program in 1972.

Length of Stay on the Supplemental Security Income Disability Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 1 (released January 1995)
by Kalman Rupp and Charles G. Scott

This article analyzes duration on the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disability rolls prior to age 65 among children and working-age adults, based on a 10-year followup of 1974-82 cohorts of new awardees by utilizing monthly data from administrative records for 1974-92, and on statistical projections beyond the followup period. Although SSI means testing is responsible for a high proportion of early suspensions, when multiple spells are accounted for, long stays dominate. The estimated mean length of all first SSI spells is 5.5 years. It is 11.3 years for disabled children, 1.3 years for disabled adults eligible for both the Social Security Administration's Disability Insurance (DI) and SSI, and 6.4 years for adults eligible for SSI only. When multiple spells are accounted for, the projected mean total preretirement-age SSI disability stay almost doubles to 10.5 years for all awardees and increases to 26.7 years for children.

Liberalization of Veterans' Income-Maintenance Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 4 (released April 1972)
Liberalizations In Turkey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 7 (released July 1970)
by Max Horlick and Joseph G. Simanis
Liberalized Eligibility Provisions and Old-Age Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 5 (released May 1951)
Liberalized Eligibility Provisions and Old-Age Benefits, January–June 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 1 (released January 1952)
Liberalizing Unemployment Compensation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 1 (released January 1940)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
Licensed Day-Care Facilities for Children
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 2 (released February 1961)
by Seth Low
Life Expectancy and Health Status of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 10 (released October 1986)
by Steven H. Chapman, Mitchell P. LaPlante, and Gail Wilensky
Life Insurance in Force as Survivor Benefits Under OASI, 1955
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 2 (released February 1956)
Life-Cycle Aspects of Poverty Among Older Women
ORES Working Paper No. 71 (released April 1997)
by Sharmila Choudhury and Michael V. Leonesio

In this paper we focus on the relationship between a woman's economic status earlier in life and her poverty status in old age. Previous research on the determinants of poverty among aged women has documented the socioeconomic and demographic correlates of the poor and has examined the financial impact of adverse late-life events such as widowhood, deterioration of health, and loss of employment. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, we find that most women who experience these types of adverse events in their later years do not become poor and that a large majority of older NLSMW respondents who were poor in 1991–92 were poor earlier in their adult lives. Whether women are impoverished by adverse late-life events depends on their economic resources just prior to the event. But the financial resources available in old age, in turn, depend very much on their long-term economic status throughout much of their adult lives. This article underscores the fact that for most older women these adverse events do not appear to precipitate poverty spells—at least not within the first couple of years—and directs attention at longer-term circumstances that make some women more vulnerable.

Life-Cycle Aspects of Poverty Among Older Women
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 60 No. 2 (released April 1997)
by Sharmila Choudhury and Michael V. Leonesio

This article focuses on the relationship between women's economic status earlier in their lives and their poverty status in old age. Previous research on the determinants of poverty among aged women has documented the socioeconomic and demographic correlates of the poor, and has examined the financial impact of adverse later-life events such as widowhood, deterioration of health, and loss of employment. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (NLSMW), we find that most women who experience these types of adverse events in their later years do not become poor and that a large majority of older NLSMW respondents who were poor in 1991-92 were poor earlier in their adult lives. Whether women are impoverished by adverse later-life events depends on their economic resources just prior to the event. But, the financial resources available in old age, in turn, depend very much on their long-term economic status throughout much of their adult lives. This article underscores the fact that for most older women, these adverse events do not appear to precipitate poverty spells—at least not within the first couple of years—and directs attention at longer term circumstances that make some women more vulnerable to poverty.

Life-Cycle Welfare Costs of Social Security
ORES Working Paper No. 12 (released October 1979)
by Richard V. Burkhauser and John A. Turner

One-period models predict that a substantial welfare gain would result from removing the Social Security earnings test. In this paper we show that such models overestimate the size of potential gains.

If one uses instead a two-period model, which captures intertemporal effects, the net result of removing the earnings test is ambiguous. In the presence of a personal income tax, workers who reduce their labor supply in the first period create a welfare loss that must also be considered. We use a present-value model to estimate the change in lifetime welfare. We find that the net potential gain from removing the earnings test is probably small, especially when compared with the alternative of an increased personal income tax.

Life-insurance and Annuities on United States Lives, 1935-43
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 12 (released December 1944)
by Weltha Van Eenam
Lifetime Covered Earnings and Quarters of Coverage of Retired and Disabled Workers, 1972
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 10 (released October 1977)
by Barbara A. Lingg
Lifetime Distributional Effects of Social Security Retirement Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 1 (released May 2004)
by Karen E. Smith, Eric J. Toder, and Howard M. Iams

This article presents three measures of the distributional effects of Social Security benefits on actual and projected retirement income of workers born between 1931 and 1960. Microsimulations take into account marital history, the sharing of incomes and tax burdens within couples, and differences in life expectancy among subgroups of the population. More important than changes in tax rates or benefits are changes in the demographics and earnings patterns of the workforce, particularly the higher lifetime covered earnings of women. The growing share of women receiving worker benefits instead of spouse or survivor benefits, plus the increased proportion of retirees who are divorced, make Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) benefits more progressive, even in the face of declining net benefits.

Lifetime Earnings Patterns, the Distribution of Future Social Security Benefits, and the Impact of Pension Reform
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 4 (released September 2001)
by Barry Bosworth, Gary Burtless, and C. Eugene Steuerle

Policymakers have long been interested in understanding the adequacy and distribution of Social Security benefits and in predicting the effects of reform on representative workers. This article describes two new methods for estimating the career profile of earnings for representative workers. It then compares the results of those new methods with earnings profiles assumed in traditional distributional analysis of Social Security and shows the implications of the new results for evaluating Social Security reform.

Lifetime Earnings, Social Security Benefits, and the Adequacy of Retirement Wealth Accumulation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 1 (released September 2005)
by Eric M. Engen, William G. Gale, and Cori E. Uccello

Issues addressed in this article include the adequacy of household retirement saving, controlling for lifetime earnings levels and uncertainty, and the examination of the role of Social Security in bolstering financial security. The authors show that reductions in Social Security benefits could have significant deleterious effects on the adequacy of saving, especially among low-income households. They also show that, controlling for lifetime earnings, households with high current earnings tend to save far more adequately than do other households.

Lifetime Redistribution Under the Social Security Program: A Literature Synopsis
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 2 (released September 1999)
by Dean R. Leimer

This article provides a brief overview of the more important studies of lifetime redistribution under the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) and Disability Insurance (DI) programs. Studies are categorized into two types, those that focus on redistribution across successive cohorts of workers or typical members of those cohorts and those that focus on the distribution of results across characteristics of interest within particular cohorts of workers. A list of related studies is provided at the end of the article for those interested in additional reading.

Lifetime Redistribution Under the Social Security Program: A Literature Synopsis
ORES Working Paper No. 81 (released April 1999)
by Dean R. Leimer

This paper provides a brief overview of the more important studies of lifetime redistribution under the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) and Disability Insurance (DI) programs. Studies are categorized into two types: those that focus on redistribution across successive cohorts of workers or typical members of those cohorts, and those that focus on the distribution of results across characteristics of interest within particular cohorts of workers. A list of related studies is provided at the end for those interested in additional reading.

Linkages With Data From Social Security Administrative Records in the Health and Retirement Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 2 (released September 1999)
by Janice A. Olson

The Health and Retirement Study (HRS is a major longitudinal study designed for scientific and policy researchers for study of the economics, health, and demography of retirement and aging. This note describes the data from SSA records that have been released for linking to HRS data, linkage rates resulting from the consent process, and subgroup patterns in linkage rates.

Linkages with Data from Social Security Administrative Records in the Health and Retirement Study
ORES Working Paper No. 84 (released August 1999)
by Janice A. Olson

The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a major longitudinal study designed for scientific and policy researchers for study of the economics, health, and demography of retirement and aging. The primary HRS sponsor is the National Institute of Aging, and the project is being conducted by the Survey Research Center of the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. Several agencies, including the Social Security Administration, are supporting the project. This is the second paper describing SSA's data support for the HRS. It describes the data from SSA records that have been released for linking to HRS data, linkage rates resulting from the consent process, and subgroup patterns in linkage rates.

Linking Youth Transition Support Services: Results from Two Demonstration Projects
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 73 No. 1 (released February 2013)
by Christa Bucks Camacho and Jeffrey Hemmeter

This article presents an overview of two projects in the Social Security Administration's Youth Transition Demonstration: California's Bridges to Youth Self-Sufficiency and Mississippi's Model Youth Transition Innovation. We describe the projects' organization and the services they delivered. We also provide statistics on earnings and Supplemental Security Income and Social Security Disability Insurance receipt 5 years after project enrollment and provide case studies of two project participants.

Links Between Early Retirement and Mortality
ORES Working Paper No. 93 (released August 2001)
by Hilary Waldron

In this paper, the author uses the 1973 cross-sectional Current Population Survey (CPS) matched to longitudinal Social Security administrative data (through 1998) to examine the relationship between retirement age and mortality for men who have lived to at least age 65 by 1997 or earlier. Logistic regression results indicate that controlling for current age, year of birth, education, marital status in 1973, and race, men who retire early die sooner than men who retire at age 65 or older. A positive correlation between age of retirement and life expectancy may suggest that retirement age is correlated with health in the 1973 CPS; however, the 1973 CPS data do not provide the ability to test that hypothesis directly.

Literature Review of Long-Term Mortality Projections
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 1 (released September 2005)
by Hilary Waldron

The Board of Trustees of the Federal Old-Age and Survivors Insurance and Disability Insurance (OASDI) Trust Funds reports on the current and projected future financial status of the trust funds annually. The Trustees project trust fund finances 75 years into the future. Mortality is one key demographic assumption that feeds into these long-range projections. This article reviews a range of predictions about long-term mortality improvement and assesses where the Trustees' 75-year mortality projection falls within this range. In general, the predictions of future mortality declines in the 2004 Social Security Trustees Report tend to be in the mainstream of professional actuarial and international official government opinion and to be lower than the majority of the small group of demographers who produce comparable estimates.

Living Arrangements and Income of the Aged, 1959
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 9 (released September 1963)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Living Arrangements of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Beneficiaries in St. Louis
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 9 (released September 1945)
by Edna C. Wentworth
Living Arrangements of People Aged 65 and Older: Findings from 1968 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 9 (released September 1971)
by Janet H. Murray
Living Arrangements of SSI Recipients
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 60 No. 1 (released January 1997)
by Satya Kochhar and Charles G. Scott

This article updates one that appeared in the Bulletin in July 1990. It describes living arrangements of persons receiving payments under the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program from October 1994 through September 1995. The data were taken from the Quality Assurance review conducted by the Social Security Administration (SSA). This procedure is used by SSA to determine the frequency and causes of incorrect determinations of eligibility and payment amounts.

It is difficult to describe the living arrangement for the "typical" recipient. Nevertheless, some interesting patterns emerge in an analysis of the data. About 59 percent (owners and renters combined) of the 6.3 million SSI recipients lived in their own households. Approximately 32 percent of them shared a living arrangement with someone else and about 5 percent of the recipients lived in an institution.

Of those SSI recipients living in households, about 36 percent lived alone. Less then 13 percent lived with only their spouses or with only their spouses and minor children. Approximately 11 percent of those in households were child recipients living with parents. An additional 15 percent of the SSI recipients lived in households with only other related adults (other than a spouse or parents).

Living Arrangements of SSI Recipients
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 7 (released July 1990)
by Charles G. Scott
Living in Retirement: A Moderate Standard for an Elderly City Couple
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 10 (released October 1968)
by Mollie Orshansky
Longitudinal Outcomes of an Early Cohort of Ticket to Work Participants
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 3 (released August 2011)
by Gina A. Livermore and Allison Roche

Using data from the 2004–2006 National Beneficiary Surveys matched to Social Security administrative data, this study follows a cohort of disability beneficiaries participating in the Ticket to Work program for several years to assess changes in their service use, health status, employment, and income.

Longitudinal Patterns of Medicaid and Medicare Coverage Among Disability Cash Benefit Awardees
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 3 (released August 2012)
by Kalman Rupp and Gerald F. Riley

This article analyzes the effect of longitudinal interactions between the Disability Insurance (DI) and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs in providing access to Medicare and Medicaid, using a sample of administrative records spanning 84 months. Our study is the first effort to link and analyze record data on participation in all four of these major, and highly interrelated, public benefit programs in the United States. We find that SSI facilitates high levels of Medicaid coverage for SSI awardees overall and provides access to Medicaid for many DI awardees during the 24-month Medicare waiting period. Many people who exit SSI retain their Medicaid coverage, but the gap in coverage between continuing SSI participants and those who leave the program increases over time. After Medicare kicks in, public health insurance coverage is virtually complete among awardees with some DI involvement, including dual Medicaid and Medicare coverage for some.

Longitudinal Patterns of Participation in the Social Security Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income Programs for People with Disabilities
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 2 (released May 2011)
by Kalman Rupp and Gerald F. Riley

We analyze longitudinal interactions in benefit eligibility between the Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income programs and the lags arising from processing time in receiving the first payment, based on Social Security administrative records. We find that longitudinal interactions enhancing the bundle of cash benefits available for awardees over a 60-month period is much more common than apparent from cross-sectional data and identify distinct patterns of longitudinal interactions between the two programs. SSI plays an especially important role in providing benefit eligibility during the 5-month DI waiting period. Transition to nonbeneficiary status is more prevalent among SSI awardees because of exits attributable to the SSI means test. We also find that there is substantial variation in the lag in receiving the first disability payment.

Longitudinal Statistics on Work Activity and Use of Employment Supports for New Social Security Disability Insurance Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 3 (released August 2011)
by Su Liu and David C. Stapleton

Longitudinal statistics on the employment activities of Social Security Disability Insurance beneficiaries offer a different perspective than the Social Security Administration's published statistics, which are based on annual data, and have important policy implications.

Long-Range Projection of Average Benefits Under OASDI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 1 (released January 1982)
by Steven F. McKay
Long-Range Trend in Per Capita Income and Wages
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 12 (released December 1942)
by W. S. Woytinsky
Long-Range Trends in Old-Age Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 2 (released February 1953)
by Robert J. Myers
Long-Term Disability Programs in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 9 (released September 1987)
by Ilene R. Zeitzer and Laurel E. Beedon
The Long-Term Effects of Transitional Employment Services
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 4 (released October 1995)
by Paul T. Decker and Craig V. Thornton

A rigorous 6-year evaluation of transitional employment services indicates that the services can substantially increase the employment and earnings of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients who have mental retardation. The evaluation examined the Social Security Administration's Transitional Employment Training Demonstration, which operated from 1985 to 1987. Our estimates indicate the demonstration services raised the average employment and earnings levels for mentally retarded SSI recipients who were offered the services. Furthermore, the estimates show that these increases persisted relatively undiminished over the 6 years after recipients entered the demonstration. Because average SSI payments for the group fell only slightly during the 6 years, the participants' average income rose. The rise in income, together with increases in work activity and community integration, suggests that the overall well-being of the participants increased because of the services. Our evaluation also suggests that transitional employment services benefit society as a whole because the earnings gains combined with the likely cost savings from reduced use of other services exceed the costs of the transitional employment services.

A Look at the Economic Status of the Aged Then and Now
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 3 (released March 1982)
by Melinda M. Upp
A Look at Very Early Retirees
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 3 (released March 1989)
by Michael D. Packard and Virginia P. Reno
A Look at Workers' Compensation Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 10 (released October 1976)
by Daniel N. Price
Looking Ahead in Public Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 12 (released December 1944)
by George E. Bigge
Low Levels of Retirement Resources in the Near-Elderly Time Period and Future Participation in Means-Tested Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70 No. 1 (released February 2010)
by Alexander Strand

This article describes the de facto standards of low income and resources reflected in the eligibility standards of the largest means-tested programs that serve the elderly and then applies these standards to a near-elderly cohort. Through juxtaposing retirement resources in the near-elderly time period with program participation in the elderly time period, the author indirectly examines some of the changes between the two time periods that could affect program eligibility, including spend-down of resources and marital dissolution. Retirement resource levels are estimated using the Survey of Income and Program Participation, and subsequent participation in one of the means-tested programs—Supplemental Security Income (SSI)—is examined using matched administrative records.

Lower Pensionable Age in Norway
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 1 (released January 1974)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Low-Income Aged: Eligibility and Participation in SSI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 5 (released May 1982)
by Linda Drazga Maxfield, Melinda M. Upp, and Virginia P. Reno
Low-Income Energy Assistance Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 1 (released January 1983)
by Donald E. Rigby and Charles G. Scott
Low-Income Widows and Other Aged Singles
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 12 (released December 1979)
by Thomas Tissue

M

The Macroeconomic Effects of a Payroll Tax Rollback
ORES Working Paper No. 11 (released August 1979)
by John B. Hagens and John C. Hambor

In late 1977, the U.S. Congress passed Social Security legislation that included a series of increases in the payroll tax. These increases, which began in 1979 and carry on into the 1980s, substantially raise the projected levels of the Social Security trust funds. Since the amendments were passed, there has been some discussion and several proposals to roll back part of the tax. It is highly likely that additional rollback proposals will be made in the near future. The purpose of this paper is to shed some light on some of the macroeconomic effects of a payroll tax rollback.

Maintaining Value of Social Security Benefits During Inflation: Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 11 (released November 1976)
by Martin B. Tracy
Major Social Security Issues: Japan, 1972
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 3 (released March 1973)
by Paul Fisher
Major Welfare Reforms Enacted in 1996
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 59 No. 3 (released July 1996)
by Rita L. DiSimone
Management of Selected Trust Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 2 (released February 1959)
by Glenn D. Morrow and Sophie R. Dales
Managing Independence: The Governance Components of the National Railroad Retirement Investment Trust
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 2 (released May 2011)
by Kevin Whitman

This article reviews the management components of the National Railroad Retirement Investment Trust (NRRIT) and their relationship to political independence. Centralized equity investment is sometimes proposed as a method for improving Social Security program financing and, echoing the debate over the NRRIT, politicized investment decisions are seen as one potential obstacle to the policy's success. This article does not advocate for or against investing Social Security's trust fund assets in equities, but examines the NRRIT's structure and experience to provide background information for policymakers.

Mandating Private Pensions: Experience in Four European Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 3 (released March 1979)
by Max Horlick
Mandatory Employment of the Handicapped
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 2 (released February 1979)
by Lois S. Copeland
Mandatory Retirement and Labor-Force Participation of Respondents in the Retirement History Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 11 (released November 1980)
by David T. Barker and Robert L. Clark
Marital and Parental Status According to Age
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 11 (released November 1941)
by Robert J. Myers and Eugene A. Rasor
A Mathematical Demonstration of the Pareto Optimality of Pay-As-You-Go Social Security Programs in a Closed Economy
ORES Working Paper No. 49 (released July 1991)
by Dean R. Leimer

A 1989 article by Breyer concludes that it is impossible to compensate pensioners in the transition from a pay-as-you-go public pension system to a privatized or funded system without making at least one later generation worse off; Breyer reaches this conclusion in the context of a simple overlapping generations model of a closed economy under the assumption that the transition results in increased saving by workers. Although this conclusion is correct under the increased saving assumption in the relevant domain of the production function, the proof that Breyer provides is not sufficient to establish that fact. This note extends Breyer's analysis to provide a sufficient proof.

Maximum Taxable Earnings Under OASDHI, 1938–66
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 10 (released October 1968)
by Michael Resnick
Maximum Taxable Earnings Under OASDHI, 1938–69
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 8 (released August 1971)
by Michael Resnick
The Maximum Weekly Benefit Amount in Unemployment Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 10 (released October 1946)
by George Shelburne
Meaning of the Social Security Number
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 11 (released November 1982)
by Erma W. Barron and Felix Bamberger
A Measure of Functional Capacity
ORES Working Paper No. 4 (released March 1979)
by Sandy Duchnok

A long-term disability reflects the interaction between a continued physical or mental impairment that limits functioning and restrictions and requirements of the social environment. Impairments and functional limitations are, however, central to any disability, and the Social Security Administration is constructing measures to assess the impact these factors have on the development of disability.

In particular, SSA is interested in work disability or loss of or reduction in the ability to work. The functional capacity index presented in this paper was developed for that purpose. Based on a model prevalent in the literature, the index is an attempt to represent the underlying medically related aspects of disability in contrast to other factors such as the person's age, educational level, or work history.

Measurement Issues Associated with Using Survey Data Matched with Administrative Data from the Social Security Administration
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 69 No. 2 (released July 2009)
by Paul S. Davies and T. Lynn Fisher

Researchers using survey data matched with administrative data benefit from the rich demographic and economic detail available from survey data combined with detailed programmatic data from administrative records. This article focuses on survey data matched with administrative data from the Social Security Administration and addresses the strengths and weaknesses of each in four specific areas: program participation and benefits, disability and health information, earnings, and deferred compensation The article discusses the implications of these strengths and weaknesses for decisions that researchers must make regarding the appropriate data source and definition for the concepts in question.

Measures of Health and Economic Well-Being Among American Indians and Alaska Natives Aged 62 or Older in 2030
Research and Statistics Note No. 2012-02 (released February 2012)
by Amy Dunaway-Knight, Melissa A. Z. Knoll, Dave Shoffner, and Kevin Whitman

This Research and Statistics Note uses Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) projections to provide an overview of the demographic, health, and economic characteristics of the American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) population aged 62 or older in 2030. MINT projects that the AIAN population will fare worse than the overall aged population in 2030 according to measures of health status, work limitation status, disability status, lifetime earnings, per capita Social Security benefits, per capita income, per capita wealth, and poverty.

Measures of Labor Mobility and OASDHI Data
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 4 (released April 1966)
by Sebastia Svolos
Measuring Early Retirement: New Benefit Awards Series
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 10 (released October 1967)
Measuring the Effect of Defense Employment on Relief Loads
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 2 (released February 1942)
by Walter M. Perkins
Measuring the Relative Importance of Social Security Benefits to the Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 2 (released February 2008)
by T. Lynn Fisher

Provided is a discussion of the cumulative effects of the measurement alternatives described in the three previous articles: considering family income of persons rather than aged units, using administrative data in place of survey reported data, and switching the data source from CPS to SIPP. The current-methodology CPS statistic of 17.9 percent of beneficiary aged units receiving all of their income from Social Security in 1996 falls to a substantially smaller estimated 4.5 percent of elderly beneficiary persons based on family income when using the SIPP and Social Security administrative data.

Medical Advisory Committee on the Disability Freeze
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 5 (released May 1955)
by Arthur E. Hess
Medical Benefits for Old-Age Pensioners Under Foreign Social Security Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 1 (released January 1963)
by Daniel S. Gerig and Carl H. Farman
Medical Benefits For Pensioners Under Foreign Social Security Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 1 (released January 1960)
by Daniel S. Gerig and Carl H. Farman
Medical Care Agreement With French Doctors
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 7 (released July 1972)
by Robert W. Weise, Jr.
Medical Care and Health Insurance Coverage: Their Use by Disabled Adults
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 6 (released June 1969)
by Mildred E. Cinsky and Gertrude Stanley
Medical Care Costs for the Aged: First Findings of the 1963 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 7 (released July 1964)
by Elizabeth A. Langford
Medical Care Costs of Aged OASI Beneficiaries: Highlights from Preliminary Data, 1957 Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 4 (released April 1959)
Medical Care Costs of the Disabled
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 7 (released July 1970)
by Henry P. Brehm and Robert H. Cormier
Medical Care Expenditures in Seven Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 3 (released March 1973)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Medical Care Expenditures of Beneficiaries in Three Cities
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 11 (released November 1951)
Medical Care for Needy Persons in Maryland
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 11 (released November 1955)
by Ida C. Merriam and Laura F. Rosen
Medical Care for Persons in Need
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 5 (released May 1945)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
Medical Care Outlays for Aged and Nonaged Persons, 1966–68
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 9 (released September 1969)
by Dorothy P. Rice and Barbara S. Cooper
Medical Care Outlays for Aged and Nonaged Persons, 1966–69
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 7 (released July 1970)
by Barbara S. Cooper
Medical Care Outlays for Three Age Groups: Young, Intermediate, and Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 5 (released May 1971)
by Barbara S. Cooper and Mary F. McGee
Medical Care Price Changes in Medicare's First Five Years
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 3 (released March 1972)
by Loucele A. Horowitz
Medical Care Price Changes in Medicare's First Two Years
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 11 (released November 1968)
by Dorothy P. Rice and Loucele A. Horowitz
Medical Care Price Changes in Medicare's First Year
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 1 (released January 1968)
by Loucele A. Horowitz
Medical Care Price Changes Under The Economic Stabilization Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 6 (released June 1973)
by Loucele A. Horowitz
Medical Care Spending for Three Age Groups
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 5 (released May 1972)
by Barbara S. Cooper and Nancy L. Worthington
Medical Prices and Their Control
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 3 (released March 1969)
by Robert M. Ball
Medical Services in the Old-Age Assistance Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 6 (released June 1952)
by Ruth White
Medical Services Provided Under Prepayment Arrangements at Trinity Hospital, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1941
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 5 (released May 1947)
by Margaret C. Klem
Medical Services Under Health Insurance Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 12 (released December 1940)
by I. S. Falk
Medicare and Federal Employees Health Benefits Programs: Their Coordination
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 9 (released September 1968)
by Louis S. Reed
Medicare Costs Prior to Retirement for Disabled-Worker Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 54 No. 4 (released April 1991)
by Barry V. Bye, Janice M. Dykacz, John C. Hennessey, and Gerald F. Riley
Medicare Discharged Patients, July 1–December 31, 1966
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 5 (released May 1969)
by Ida L. Hellman
Medicare Gaps and Widow Poverty
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 1 (released September 2005)
by Kathleen McGarry and Robert F. Schoeni

Out-of-pocket medical costs are concentrated at the end of life. At the same time, poverty is three to four times more common among elderly widows than among similarly aged married women. When the possible relationship between these two facts are explored, out-of-pocket medical spending in the months before death is found to be large relative to income and could thus negatively affect the financial well-being of the surviving spouse. Simulations investigate the extent to which expansions in insurance coverage to include nursing home care, long hospital stays, or prescription drugs could improve the financial outcomes for widow(er)s.

Medicare Patients: Geographic Differences in Hospital Discharge Rates and Multiple Stays
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 6 (released June 1977)
by Marian Gornick
Medicare Patients: Regional Differences in Length of Hospital Stays, 1969–71
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 7 (released July 1975)
by Marian Gornick
Medicare Premium Buy-in Programs: Results of SSA Demonstration Projects
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 3 (released July 2001)
by Mark Nadel, Lisa Alecxih, Rene Parent, and James Sears

In response to a Congressional mandate, SSA tested six different techniques to increase enrollment in programs that pay some Medicare expenses, such as premiums, for low-income individuals. This article describes these outreach projects, provides estimates of the eligible population, and discusses what could be expected for future efforts based on the results of the project.

Medicare Reimbursement for Services in 1967
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 8 (released August 1971)
Medicare Utilization by Disabled-Worker Beneficiaries: A Longitudinal Analysis
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 12 (released December 1987)
by Barry V. Bye, Gerald F. Riley, and James Lubitz
Medicare, Number of Persons Insured, July 1,1973
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 6 (released June 1975)
by Martin Ruther
Medicare: Uniformed Services Program for Dependents
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 7 (released July 1957)
by Paul I. Robinson
Medicare's Early Months: A Program Round-Up
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 7 (released July 1967)
by Arthur E. Hess
Medicare's First Year
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 7 (released July 1967)
by Robert M. Ball
Meeting the SMI Deductible Under Medicare, 1966–70
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 9 (released September 1973)
Men and Women: Changing Roles and Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 5 (released May 1979)
Men Who Claim Benefits Before Age 65: Findings from the Survey of New Beneficiaries, 1968
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 11 (released November 1970)
by Patience Lauriat and William T. Rabin
Men With Low OASDHI-Covered Earnings Not Counted as Poor in the CPS
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 1 (released January 1978)
by Bertram Kestenbaum
Mental Retardation in Four Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 5 (released May 1970)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Merchant Seamen During the Reconversion
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 2 (released February 1947)
by Herman Sturm
Merit System Objectives and Realities
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 4 (released April 1950)
by Albert H. Aronson
Merit Systems in the Social Security Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 2 (released February 1945)
by Oscar M. Powell
Merit-System Standards in Social Security Administration
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 2 (released February 1939)
by Albert H. Aronson
Message from the Commissioner
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 3 (released August 2006)
Message from the Commissioner
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70 No. 3 (released August 2010)
by Michael J. Astrue
Messages Commemorating Social Security's 50th Anniversary
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 8 (released August 1985)
by Ronald Reagan, Margaret M. Heckler, Martha A. McSteen, John A. Svahn, William J. Driver, Stanford G. Ross, James Bruce Cardwell, Robert M. Ball, Charles I. Schottland, Wilbur J. Cohen, John J. Corson, Alvin M. David, Jack S. Futterman, Ida C. Merriam, Robert J. Myers, and Jo Anne B. Ross
Methods in Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT I)
ORES Working Paper No. 91 (released June 2001)
by Barbara A. Butrica, Howard M. Iams, James H. Moore, and Mikki D. Waid

This paper summarizes the work completed by SSA, with substantial assistance from the Brookings Institution, RAND, and the Urban Institute, for the Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT I) model. In most cases, several methods of estimating and projecting demographic characteristics and income were researched and tested; however, this appendix describes only those methods eventually used in the MINT I model.

The Mexican Social Insurance Law
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 3 (released March 1943)
by Gustavo-Adolfo Rohen y Galvez
Migration and National Defense
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 9 (released September 1941)
by Joyce Campbell and Catherine R. Harris
Migration of Workers to Michigan
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 5 (released May 1939)
by John N. Webb and Albert Westefeld
Milestones in the Development of the Social Security Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 8 (released August 1945)
Military Veterans and Social Security
Research and Statistics Note No. 2001-01 (released February 2001)
by Robert V. Gesumaria and David A. Weaver

Military veterans constitute an important subgroup of Social Security beneficiaries. Because veterans are a large subgroup of Social Security beneficiaries and because policymakers have shown a clear interest in their well-being, it is important to understand how veterans and their dependents are currently faring. This note looks at the characteristics and trends in growth of the veteran and Social Security populations.

Military Veterans and Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 2 (released May 2006)
by Anya Olsen

About one out of every four adult Social Security beneficiaries has served in the United States military, making military veterans and their families an important group to study. This article provides information on the demographic characteristics of military veterans, including their age, sex, marital status, education, and race and ethnicity. It also examines their economic status by looking at poverty levels and Social Security benefit payments. Information is based on data from the March 2004 Current Population Survey, a large, nationally representative survey of U.S. households.

Military Veterans and Social Security: 2010 Update
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 2 (released May 2011)
by Anya Olsen and Samantha O'Leary

More than one 1 of 5 adult Social Security beneficiaries has served in the military, and veterans and their families comprise 35 percent of the beneficiary population. Using data from the March 2010 Current Population Survey (CPS), this article presents the sociodemographic characteristics of the veteran beneficiary and the total veteran populations. The article draws comparisons with findings from the March 2000 CPS and the March 2004 CPS, and describes trends in the size and demographic makeup of the veteran population using data from the Department of Veterans Affairs' VetPop2007 projection model.

Mind the Gap: The Distributional Effects of Raising the Early Eligibility Age and Full Retirement Age
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 4 (released November 2012)
by Anya Olsen

Policymakers have proposed increases to the early eligibility age (EEA) and/or full retirement age (FRA) to address increasing life expectancy and Social Security solvency issues. This analysis uses the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) model to compare three retirement-age increases suggested by the Social Security Advisory Board: (1) increase the FRA alone, (2) increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 4-year gap between them, and (3) increase both the EEA and FRA to maintain a 5-year gap between them. This distributional analysis shows the impact these varying reforms would have on Social Security beneficiaries in the future.

Minimum Standards of Social Security: New International Convention
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 10 (released October 1952)
by Robert J. Myers
Minorities and Social Security: An Analysis of Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Current Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 2 (released September 1999)
by Alexa A. Hendley and Natasha F. Bilimoria

This report addresses how individuals from various racial and ethnic groups fare under the current Social Security system. It examines the relative importance of Social Security for these individuals and how several aspects of the system affect them.

Modeling Behavioral Responses to Eliminating the Retirement Earnings Test
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 73 No. 1 (released February 2013)
by Anya Olsen and Kathleen Romig

The retirement earnings test (RET) is an often-misunderstood aspect of the Social Security program. Policymakers have proposed reforming the RET as a way to encourage working at older ages. However, this could also cause earlier benefit claiming. We use Modeling Income in the Near Term data to analyze the complete repeal of the earnings test for beneficiaries aged 60 or older, first assuming no behavioral responses to repeal and secondly assuming changes to benefit claiming and workforce participation behaviors. Our lifetime results show that the assumed behavioral response—particularly the benefit claiming change—has a bigger effect than the RET policy change itself.

Modeling SSA's Sequential Disability Determination Process Using Matched SIPP Data
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 4 (released October 1995)
by Kajal Lahiri, Denton R. Vaughan, and Bernard Wixon

We model the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) disability determination process using household survey information exact matched to SSA administrative information on disability determinations. Survey information on health, activity limitations, demographic traits, and work are taken from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). We estimate a multistage sequential logit model, reflecting the structure of the determination procedure used by State Disability Determination Services agencies. The findings suggest that the explanatory power of particular variables can be appropriately ascertained only if they are introduced at the relevant stage of the determination process. Hence, as might be expected by those familiar with the process, medical variables and activity limitations are major factors in the early stages of the process, while past work, age, and education play roles in later stages. The highly detailed administrative information on outcomes at each stage allows clarification of the roles of particular variables. Planned future work will include policy estimates, such as the number of persons in the general population eligible for the disability programs, as well as analysis of applications behavior in a household context.

Modeling SSI Financial Eligibility and Simulating the Effect of Policy Options
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 2 (released September 2002)
by Paul S. Davies, Minh Huynh, Chad Newcomb, Paul O'Leary, Kalman Rupp, and James Sears

This article presents the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Financial Eligibility Model developed in the Division of Policy Evaluation of the Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics. Focusing on the elderly, the article simulates five potential changes to the SSI eligibility criteria and presents the effects of those simulations on SSI participation, federal benefits, and poverty among the elderly. Finally, the article discusses future directions for research and potential improvements to the model.

Money Income of Aged Persons, Mid-1960
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 1 (released January 1961)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Money Income of Aged Persons: A 10-Year Review, 1948 to 1958
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 6 (released June 1959)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Money Income Position of the Aged, 1948 to 1955
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 4 (released April 1956)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Money Income Sources for Orphans and Young Widows, December 1956
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 8 (released August 1957)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Money Income Sources for Persons Aged 65 and Over, December 1955
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 6 (released June 1956)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Money Income Sources for Persons Aged 65 and Over, June 1955
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 12 (released December 1955)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Money Income Sources for Persons Aged 65 and Over, June 1956
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 12 (released December 1956)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Money Income Sources for Young Survivors
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 8 (released August 1956)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Money Income Sources for Young Survivors, December 1957
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 8 (released August 1958)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Money Income Sources for Young Widows and Orphans, Mid-1955
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 2 (released February 1956)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Money Income Sources of Aged Persons, December 1959
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 7 (released July 1960)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Money Income Sources of the Aged, December 1956
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 6 (released June 1957)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Money Income Sources of Young Survivors, December 1959
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 9 (released September 1960)
by Mollie Orshansky
Money Income Sources of Young Survivors, December 1960
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 10 (released October 1961)
by Mollie Orshansky
Money Incomes of Aged and Nonaged Family Units, 1967–84
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 8 (released August 1987)
by Daniel B. Radner
The Monthly OASDI One-Percent Sample File
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 6 (released June 1989)
by Lewis F. Frain
More About the Poor in 1964
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 5 (released May 1966)
by Mollie Orshansky
Mortality After Retirement
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 6 (released June 1954)
by Robert J. Myers
Mortality and Early Retirement
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 12 (released December 1982)
Mortality and Income Inequality Among Economically Developed Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 2 (released April 1995)
by Harriet Orcutt Duleep

The absence of a correlation between age-adjusted death rates and the average income levels of economically developed countries has led researchers to conclude that income does not affect the mortality levels of economically developed countries. The mortality experiences of the former Soviet Union and some of the eastern European countries have further brought into question the importance of income's distribution in determining mortality among economically developed countries; prior to its breakup, the income distribution of the Soviet Union was as equal as that of Sweden, yet the life expectancy of the Soviets has been dramatically shorter than that of the Swedes. Using insights from a longitudinal microanalysis of U.S. mortality, this study presents evidence that, even for economically developed countries, the income distribution of a nation is an important determinant of its mortality. The results of this study also suggest that the relatively unequal income distribution of the United States is an important contributing factor to its low life expectancy relative to other high-income countries.

Mortality Differentials by Lifetime Earnings Decile: Implications for Evaluations of Proposed Social Security Law Changes
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 73 No. 1 (released February 2013)
by Hilary Waldron

Under current law, the link between earnings and benefit levels and the equal application of age-of-entitlement rules, regardless of earnings levels, means that a worker is never penalized for additional work or thrift. This article finds that the Social Security–insured population does not fall neatly into a low-earnings poor health group and a remaining good health group. Attempts to target a subset of badly disadvantaged workers by altering the benefit rules that apply equally to everyone could both miss the intended target and introduce work disincentives into a program currently designed to reward work.

Mortality Differentials by Race
ORES Working Paper No. 99 (released December 2002)
by Hilary Waldron

In the 2001 report of the President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security, the commission states that blacks "on average have both lower incomes and shorter life expectancies than other Americans." This paper examines the extent to which the shorter life expectancies of blacks are explained by differences between their average socioeconomic status and that of other Americans.

Estimates in this paper for men aged 25 to 64 show that about half of the difference in risk of death between blacks and all other races was explained by education level—the measure of socioeconomic status employed. At ages 65 to 90, black men were not found to have a significantly higher risk of death than men of all other races.

Mortality of Older Widows and Wives
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 10 (released October 1982)
by Bertram Kestenbaum, Greg Diez, Marvin Younger, and Howard Shiman
Mortality of Workers Insured Under OASDI, 1955
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 7 (released July 1961)
by Robert J. Myers
Mortality Reporting in SSA Linked Data: Preliminary Results
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 11 (released November 1979)
by Wendy Alvey and Faye Aziz
Movement of Workers Into and Out of Covered Employment, 1937 and 1938
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 2 (released February 1941)
by Merrill G. Murray and Michael T. Wermel

N

National Commission on Social Security: Recommendations
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 5 (released May 1981)
National Conference on Homemaker Services
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 4 (released April 1959)
National Expenditures on Social Security and Health in Selected Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 1 (released January 1990)
by Joseph G. Simanis
National Health Expenditures, 1929–68
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 1 (released January 1970)
by Dorothy P. Rice and Barbara S. Cooper
National Health Expenditures, 1929–70
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 1 (released January 1971)
by Dorothy P. Rice and Barbara S. Cooper
National Health Expenditures, 1929–71
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 1 (released January 1972)
by Dorothy P. Rice and Barbara S. Cooper
National Health Expenditures, 1929–72
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 1 (released January 1973)
by Barbara S. Cooper and Nancy L. Worthington
National Health Expenditures, 1929–73
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 2 (released February 1974)
by Barbara S. Cooper, Nancy L. Worthington, and Paula A. Piro
National Health Expenditures, 1929–74
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 2 (released February 1975)
by Nancy L. Worthington
National Health Expenditures, 1950–64
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 1 (released January 1966)
by Louis S. Reed and Ruth S. Hanft
National Health Expenditures, 1950–65
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 2 (released February 1967)
by Ruth S. Hanft
National Health Expenditures, 1950–66
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 4 (released April 1968)
by Dorothy P. Rice and Barbara S. Cooper
National Health Expenditures, 1950–67
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 1 (released January 1969)
by Dorothy P. Rice and Barbara S. Cooper
National Health Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1975
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 2 (released February 1976)
by Marjorie Smith Mueller and Robert M. Gibson
National Health Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1976
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 4 (released April 1977)
by Robert M. Gibson and Marjorie Smith Mueller
National Health Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1977
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 7 (released July 1978)
by Robert M. Gibson and Charles R. Fisher
National Health Expenditures: Object of Expenditures and Source of Funds, 1962
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 8 (released August 1964)
by Louis S. Reed and Dorothy P. Rice
A National Health Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 8 (released August 1938)
A National Health Service: Report of the Council of the British Medical Association
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 8 (released August 1944)
A National Health Service: The British White Paper
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 3 (released March 1944)
The National School Lunch Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 10 (released October 1956)
by Sophie R. Dales
National Survey of the Black Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 7 (released July 1978)
by Ethel Shanas and Gloria Heinemann
Near Term Model Development, Part II
Contractor Report (released August 1999)
by Constantijn Panis and Lee A. Lillard

This project by RAND develops a microsimulation model of marriage, divorce, disability, and mortality based on SIPP data. It forms the demographic component of the MINT microsimulation model of the Social Security Administration.

Need Determination in AFDC Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 9 (released September 1979)
by Elizabeth Chief
The Need for Social Security in the Postwar World
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 11 (released November 1946)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
Need for Trained Social Work Staff: A Ten-Year Goal
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 8 (released August 1961)
by Alvin L. Schorr
The Needs of the Aged in Relation to Need Among Other Groups
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 8 (released August 1941)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
Negro Domestic Workers in Private Homes in Baltimore
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 10 (released October 1941)
by Erna Magnus
Negro-White Differences In Geographic Mobility
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 5 (released May 1967)
by Robert E. Marsh
The Net Effects of the Project NetWork Return-to-Work Case Management Experiment on Participant Earnings, Benefit Receipt, and Other Outcomes
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 1 (released July 2000)
by Robert Kornfeld and Kalman Rupp

This article summarizes the results of a major social experiment initiated by the Social Security Administration to test case management as a tool of promoting employment among persons with moderate to severe disabilities. This comprehensive analysis shows the benefits of using an experimental design to derive realistic net outcome estimates. While the results cannot be generalized to other case management interventions, they are nevertheless instructive for planning new initiatives.

Net Worth and Financial Assets of Age Groups in 1984
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 3 (released March 1989)
by Daniel B. Radner
Net Worth of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 10 (released October 1947)
by Erna Magnus
The Never-Married in Old Age: Projections and Concerns for the Near Future
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 2 (released February 2008)
by Christopher R. Tamborini

This article focuses on a growing yet understudied subgroup of the elderly in the United States—the never-married. The first section, based on data from the Current Population Survey and a review of the academic literature, examines the current circumstances of never-married retirees, particularly their economic and health well-being. The succeeding section uses the Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) model to assess the projected (1) changes in the marital status composition of the future retirement-age population; (2) demographics of future never-married retirees, and (3) economic well-being of never-married retirees. The results highlight important links between marital trends, Social Security, and retirement outcomes and offer insight into some of the characteristics of current and future never-married retirees.

A New American Reality
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 8 (released August 1938)
by Frank Bane
New Benchmarks in Workmen's Compensation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 6 (released June 1962)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
The New Beneficiary Data System: The First Phase
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 2 (released April 1992)
by Martynas A. Yčas
New Benefits for Blue-Collar Workers in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 1 (released January 1972)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
New British Programs: Early Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 1 (released January 1973)
by Elizabeth Kreitler Kirkpatrick
The New British System of Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 2 (released February 1947)
by Carl H. Farman and Catherine Perrins
New Canadian Programs for the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 4 (released April 1952)
New Contributory Pension Program in New Zealand
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 3 (released March 1975)
by Martin B. Tracy
New Developments in Workmen's Compensation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 10 (released October 1944)
by Verne A. Zimmer
New Evidence on Earnings and Benefit Claims Following Changes in the Retirement Earnings Test in 2000
ORES Working Paper No. 107 (released June 2006)
by Jae G. Song and Joyce Manchester

In April 2000, Congress enacted the Senior Citizens Freedom to Work Act of 2000, which removed the retirement earnings test for individuals at the full retirement age and older. This paper examines the labor force activity of workers aged 65–69 relative to older and younger workers in response to the removal of the earnings test. We use the 1 percent sample of Social Security administrative data that covers the period from 4 years before to 4 years following the removal of the test. Quantile regression methods allow us to identify the earnings levels of workers who change their work effort.

New Graduated Pension System in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 11 (released November 1959)
New Graduated Retirement Benefits in Great Britain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 9 (released September 1959)
New Hawaii Temporary Disability Insurance Law: A Further Explanation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 2 (released February 1970)
New International Convention on Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 10 (released October 1951)
by Robert J. Myers
New International Instruments on Invalidity, Old-Age, and Survivors Pensions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 10 (released October 1967)
by William M. Yoffee
New International Standards for Medical Care and Sickness Benefits Under Social Security Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 10 (released October 1969)
by William M. Yoffee
New Private Pension Law in the Federal Republic of Germany
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 7 (released July 1975)
by Max Horlick
New Puerto Rico Law Provides Income-Loss Protection Against Illness
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 9 (released September 1968)
New Retirees and the Stability of the Retirement Decision
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 3 (released March 1977)
New Retirement Options in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 3 (released March 1976)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
New Retirement-Age Features in Belgium
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 7 (released July 1977)
by Lois S. Copeland
New Survivor Pensions in Finland
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 5 (released May 1969)
The New Swiss Program of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 11 (released November 1947)
by Max Bloch
New Temporary Disability Insurance Law in Hawaii
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 10 (released October 1969)
New Types of Benefits, September 1950–June 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 1 (released January 1952)
New Types of Benefits, September 1950–September 1952
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 3 (released March 1953)
New Types of OASI Benefits Awarded
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 5 (released May 1951)
The New Zealand Social Security Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 5 (released May 1939)
by Almon F. Rockwell
The New Zealand Social Security Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 9 (released September 1945)
by Jacob Fisher
Next Generation of Individual Account Pension Reforms in Latin America
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 1 (released February 2011)
by Barbara E. Kritzer, Stephen J. Kay, and Tapen Sinha

This article examines the recent reforms in individual account systems in Latin America, with a focus on the recent overhaul of the Chilean system and major reforms in Mexico, Peru, and Colombia. The authors analyze key elements of pension reform in the region relating to individual accounts: system coverage, fees, competition, investment, the impact of gender on benefits, financial education, voluntary savings, and payouts.

No-Fault Accident Compensation in New Zealand
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 9 (released September 1973)
by Elizabeth Kreitler Kirkpatrick
Noncash Income, Equivalence Scales, and the Measurement of Economic Well-Being
ORES Working Paper No. 63 (released October 1994)
by Daniel B. Radner

The economic well-being of subgroups of the population usually is measured by comparing resources and needs. The measure of resources often includes noncash income. Equivalence scales are used to adjust for differential needs. Little attention, however, has been paid to the desirability of consistency between the specifications of the resources and the equivalence scales in these comparisons. This exploratory paper suggests that a lack of consistency between the definitions used on the income and the needs sides can be important for the assessment of the economic well-being of subgroups when some types of noncash income are included in the definition of income. The measured economic status of the aged in the United States when Medicare noncash income is included in the definition of income is used as an example of this consistency problem. Some previous estimates have used equivalence scales that probably understated the relative needs of the aged by omitting needs associated with Medicare. The measured economic well-being of the aged relative to that of other age groups could be overestimated substantially as a result of this consistency problem. The basic problem is not confined to the treatment of Medicare or to the United States, but is much broader in nature.

Noncitizens and the Supplemental Security Income Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 61 No. 4 (released October 1998)
by Thomas M. Parrott, Lenna D. Kennedy, and Charles G. Scott

The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, established by the Social Security Amendments of 1972 (Public Law 92-603), was designed to provide cash assistance to needy aged, blind, and disabled citizens, and noncitizens lawfully admitted for permanent residence or permanently residing under color of law. Since then, this means-tested program has undergone many legislative changes that affect the eligibility status of noncitizens. This article, presented in three parts, discusses the legislative history of noncitizen eligibility, and details relevant laws enacted since the program's inception; provides current data on the trends and changes of the noncitizen population; and describes the larger population of foreign-born SSI recipients, of which the noncitizens are a part. Data on the number of SSI recipients born abroad but who had become citizens before applying for SSI payments were not previously available. Analytical data are from the Supplemental Security Record (SSR) matched to the Social Security Number Identification (Numident) file.

Nonrelief Income of Retired Insurance Beneficiaries in Boston
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 9 (released September 1948)
The Norris Decision
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 4 (released April 1984)
by Martha Remy Yohalem
A Note on Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Discrete Choice Models from the 1978 Survey of Disability and Work
ORES Working Paper No. 28 (released November 1982)
by Barry V. Bye and Salvatore J. Gallicchio

This paper demonstrates an alternative maximum likelihood procedure for estimating discrete choice models in retrospective samples, such as a model of SSA disability beneficiaries or application status in the 1978 Survey of Disability and Work.

A Note on Sampling Variance Estimates for Social Security Program Participants From the Survey of Income and Program Participation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 10 (released October 1988)
by Barry V. Bye and Salvatore J. Gallicchio
Notes on Adequacy of Unemployment Compensation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 1 (released January 1940)
by Daniel Creamer and Marvin S. Bloom
Nursing Homes: Public and Private Financing of Care Today
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 5 (released May 1958)
by Fred R. Brown

O

OASDHI Benefits, Prices, and Wages: Effect of 1967 Benefit Increase
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 12 (released December 1968)
by Daniel N. Price
OASDHI Contributions on Cash-Payment Basis
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 9 (released September 1966)
by Michael Resnick and Kenneth G. Sander
OASDHI Covered Employment of Foreign Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 10 (released October 1967)
OASDHI Covered Employment of Foreign Subsidiaries, January–March 1967
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 3 (released March 1969)
OASDHI Covered Employment of Foreign Subsidiaries, January-March 1968
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 9 (released September 1971)
OASDHI-Covered Earnings Indochina Refugees, 1975
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 6 (released June 1978)
by Harold A. Grossman
OASDHI-Covered Earnings of Indochina Refugees, 1976
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 3 (released March 1979)
by Harold A. Grossman
OASDI Actuarial Reduction Factor Recomputed
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 5 (released May 1979)
by George Stepanovich
OASDI and SSI Beneficiaries With a Representative Payee, 1981
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 10 (released October 1983)
OASDI Beneficiaries and SSI Recipients With Representative Payees
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 4 (released October 1995)
by Lenna D. Kennedy

Most persons under the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program or the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program receive the checks in their own name and make their own decisions as to the use of the funds. However, there has always been a portion of the beneficiary population who, for a variety of reasons, are not able to manage their benefits alone.

This note gives an overview of the representative payee program, including a program description and brief history, a "snapshot" of some characteristics of the population receiving Social Security benefits and SSI payments through a representative payee, recent trends in the number of persons with payees receiving such benefits or payments, and legislative and policy responses to these trends.

OASDI Benefit Amounts Under 1972 Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 1 (released January 1973)
by Harry Shulman
OASDI Benefits, Prices, and Wages: 1966 Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 6 (released June 1967)
by Saul Waldman
OASDI Benefits, Prices, and Wages: A Comparison
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 8 (released August 1966)
by Saul Waldman
OASDI Representative Payees, 1973
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 9 (released September 1977)
by Frederick L. Cone
OASDI: Fiscal Basis and Long-Range Cost Projections
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 1 (released January 1977)
by A. Haeworth Robertson
OASI Beneficiaries Under Old and New Benefit Levels
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 10 (released October 1951)
OASI Benefit Formulas
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 12 (released December 1952)
OASI Contributions for State and Local Government Employees
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 1 (released January 1955)
OASI Sampling Methods
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 6 (released June 1951)
Occupational Experience and Socioeconomic Variations in Mortality
ORES Working Paper No. 65 (released February 1995)
by Harriet Orcutt Duleep

This paper explores the extent to which occupational experience is responsible for the adverse effect of low income and education on mortality. Using Current Population Survey data on education and disability matched to Social Security data on earnings, disability, and mortality, this question is pursued by examining how the estimated effects of income and education are affected once occupational experience is included in the mortality model. The inclusion of various occupational experience variables, as measured in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles and the National Occupational Hazards Survey, has virtually no effect on the estimated effects of income and education on mortality. These findings suggest that the high mortality of low-income and poorly educated persons is not due to characteristics of their employment but to other aspects associated with poverty.

Occupations of SSI Recipients Who Work
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 69 No. 3 (released October 2009)
by Jeffrey Hemmeter

Although the Social Security Administration actively encourages Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients to work, relatively little is known about how the occupations of those who do work compare with occupations of the nonrecipient population. This article uses the 2007 American Community Survey to estimate dissimilarity indices, which are used to compare the predicted and actual occupational distributions of working SSI recipients with the occupational distributions of the nonrecipient populations with and without disabilities. Although the actual occupational distributions are quite different between these groups, much of the difference can be explained by demographic characteristics, human capital, and disability type.

Old Age and Retirement in Agriculture
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 5 (released May 1954)
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 8 (released August 1945)
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Administrative Expenses
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 7 (released July 1955)
by Robert J. Myers
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance After Twenty Years
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 8 (released August 1955)
by Victor Christgau
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Beneficiaries: Assets and Liabilities at End of 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 8 (released August 1953)
by Margaret L. Stecker
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Beneficiaries: Income in 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 6 (released June 1953)
by Margaret L. Stecker
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Beneficiaries: Survey of Their Continuing Eligibility
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 3 (released March 1957)
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance for Agricultural and Domestic Workers and the Self-Employed
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 1 (released January 1948)
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance for Small Businessmen
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 10 (released October 1943)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance in its Relation to Public Employees
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 5 (released May 1940)
by D. C. Bronson
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Records: Derivation of Byproduct Data
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 7 (released July 1952)
by William H. Cummins
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance: A Report on the Retirement Test
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 10 (released October 1960)
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance: Coverage Under the 1950 Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 12 (released December 1950)
by George J. Leibowitz
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance: Coverage Under the 1954 Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 1 (released January 1955)
by James E. Marquis
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance: Financing Basis and Policy Under 1956 Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 9 (released September 1956)
by Robert J. Myers
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance: History of the Benefit Formula
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 5 (released May 1955)
by Robert J. Myers
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance: Insured Workers and Their Representation in Claims
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 5 (released May 1944)
by George E. Immerwahr and Harry Mehlman
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance: Operation of the Annual Retirement Test
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 3 (released March 1956)
by Aaron Krute
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance: Retirement Test Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 11 (released November 1953)
by Robert J. Myers
Old-Age and Survivors Insurance: Retirement Test Under the 1954 Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 12 (released December 1954)
by Robert J. Myers
Old-Age Assistance and Aid to Dependent Children, 1940–50
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 11 (released November 1951)
by Ellen J. Perkins
Old-Age Assistance Recipients: Reasons for Nonentitlement to Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 7 (released July 1952)
by Charles E. Hawkins
Old-Age Assistance: Children's Contributions to Aged Parents
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 6 (released June 1957)
by Saul Kaplan
Old-Age Assistance: Determining Extent of Children's Ability to Support
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 5 (released May 1954)
by Elizabeth Epler
Old-Age Assistance: Plan Provisions on Children's Responsibility for Parents
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 4 (released April 1954)
by Elizabeth Epler
Old-Age Benefit Awards, 1950
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 7 (released July 1951)
Old-Age Benefit Awards, 1951
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 7 (released July 1952)
Old-Age Benefit Awards, 1954
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 9 (released September 1955)
Old-Age Benefit Awards, January–June 1952
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 1 (released January 1953)
Old-Age Benefits For Workers Retiring Before Age 65
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 2 (released February 1966)
by Saul Waldman
Old-Age Benefits in Current-Payment Status, by Sex of Beneficiary and State, End of 1955
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 2 (released February 1957)
Old-Age Benefits in Current-Payment Status, by State, December 31, 1957
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 7 (released July 1958)
Old-Age Benefits in Current-Payment Status, by State, December 31, 1959
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 9 (released September 1960)
by Gerald Hutchinson and Hammett Buchanan
Old-Age Benefits In Current-Payment Status, By State, December 31, 1960
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 9 (released September 1961)
by Hammett Buchanan
Old-Age Benefits in Current-Payment Status, by State, December 31, 1961
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 9 (released September 1962)
Old-Age Benefits in Current-Payment Status, by State, February 28, 1959
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 12 (released December 1959)
Old-Age Benefits in Current-Payment Status, December 31, 1952
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 6 (released June 1953)
Old-Age Benefits in Current-Payment Status, December 31, 1953
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 6 (released June 1954)
Old-Age Benefits in Current-Payment Status, December 31, 1954
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 6 (released June 1955)
Old-Age Benefits in Current-Payment Status, December 31, 1955
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 6 (released June 1956)
Old-Age Benefits in Current-Payment Status, December 31, 1956
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 8 (released August 1957)
Old-Age Benefits, January–June 1953
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 3 (released March 1954)
Old-Age Insurance Beneficiaries, January–June 1956
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 3 (released March 1957)
Old-Age Insurance Benefit Awards, January–June 1955
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 2 (released February 1956)
Old-Age Insurance Benefits, 1952
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 7 (released July 1953)
Old-Age Insurance Benefits, 1953
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 7 (released July 1954)
Old-Age Insurance Benefits, 1955
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 10 (released October 1956)
Old-Age Insurance for Agricultural Workers in Western Europe
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 6 (released June 1938)
by Thomas C. Blaisdell, Jr.
Old-Age Insurance: Covered Workers and Average and Median Taxable Wages in 1937
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 4 (released April 1939)
by Max J. Wasserman and J. R. Arnold
Old-Age Retirement: Social and Economic Implications
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 9 (released September 1950)
by Robert M. Ball
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 4 (released April 1949)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance After Twenty-Five Years
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 8 (released August 1960)
by Victor Christgau
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance Beneficiaries Newly Approved for Old-Age Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 12 (released December 1963)
by David H. Clark
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance Program: History of the Benefit Formula
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 9 (released September 1960)
by Marice C. Hart
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance Provisions: Summary of Legislation, 1935–56
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 7 (released July 1957)
by Robert J. Myers
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance Provisions: Summary of Legislation, 1935–58
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 1 (released January 1959)
by Robert J. Myers
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance: Administrative Expenses
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 7 (released July 1966)
by Robert J. Myers and Francisco Bayo
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance: Administrative Expenses
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 9 (released September 1963)
by Robert J. Myers
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance: Administrative Expenses
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 5–6 (released May 1960)
by Robert J. Myers
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance: Administrative Expenses
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 3 (released March 1958)
by Robert J. Myers
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance: Benefit Payments to Persons Living Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 7 (released July 1958)
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance: Characteristics of Beneficiaries Disabled Since Childhood, 1957–61
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 8 (released August 1963)
by Phoebe H. Goff
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance: Development of Agricultural Coverage
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 6 (released June 1958)
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance: Early Problems and Operations of the Disability Provisions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 12 (released December 1957)
by Arthur E. Hess
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance: Early-Retirement Provisions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 10 (released October 1961)
by Marice C. Hart
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance: Earnings of Older Workers and Retired-Workers Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 5 (released May 1965)
by Marie C. Trafton
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance: Financing Basis and Policy Under the 1958 Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 10 (released October 1958)
by Robert J. Myers
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance: Financing Basis and Policy Under the 1960 Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 11 (released November 1960)
by Robert J. Myers
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance: Financing Basis and Policy Under the 1961 Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 9 (released September 1961)
by Robert J. Myers
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance: Interagency Relationships in Disability Insurance and Vocational Rehabilitation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 9 (released September 1962)
by Robert C. Van Hyning
Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance: Self-Employment Earnings Reported by Farmers, 1955–58
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 5 (released May 1962)
by Roy L. Roberts
Old-Age, Survivors, Disability, and Health Insurance: Changes in the Beneficiary Population
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 4 (released April 1969)
by Janet H. Murray
Older Workers' Progression from Private Disability Benefits to Social Security Disability Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 4 (released September 2001)
by Christopher C. Wagner, Carolyn E. Danczyk-Hawley, Kathryn Mulholland, and Bruce G. Flynn

Older workers who receive short-term disability benefits to compensate them for medical conditions that limit their ability to work are three times more likely than younger workers to progress to permanent public disability benefits. This article documents the base rates of progression from short-term private to long-term private to permanent public disability benefits among older workers with various medical conditions.

Older Workers Uninsured for Retired-Worker Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 12 (released December 1978)
by Lucy B. Mallan and Donald Cox
Omnibus Reconciliation Act of 1981: Legislative History and Summary of OASDI and Medicare Provisions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 10 (released October 1981)
by John A. Svahn
One Year of Dependents' Allowances in Connecticut
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 4 (released April 1947)
by David Pinsky
Ontario's "Portable Pension" Law
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 9 (released September 1963)
Operation of Experience Rating in Nebraska, 1940
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 1 (released January 1941)
The Operation of the New England Interstate Agreement in Rhode Island
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 5 (released May 1938)
by Anne E. Geddes and Leonard H. Russell
Operations Under The Employment Security Administrative Financing Act of 1954
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 1 (released January 1961)
by Sophie R. Dales
Optimal and Majority-Voting Equilibrium Levels of Social Security
ORES Working Paper No. 13 (released January 1980)
by Sheng Cheng Hu

In the recent economic literature on social security, much attention has been focused on its welfare implications (e.g., Samuelson [1975]), and its impacts on individual retirement decisions (e.g., Boskin [1977]), Sheshinski [1978], Diamond and Mirrlees [1978]) and capital accumulation (e.g., Feldstein [1974], Munnell [1974], and Kotlikoff [1979]). In all these works, the level of social security is assumed to be exogenous although it is often determined in the real world by the desire of the majority of voters and thus is an endogenous variable of the economic system. While Browning [1975] and Hu [1978] did consider the determination of social security by a majority-voting process, they used the partial-equilibrium approaches in the sense that wages and the interest rate were assumed exogenous and independent of social security. The present paper constructs a simple three-period life-cycle model in which social security is determined by the majority-voting process, and the rate of interest by the demand for and supply of capital. In this framework, the tax rate voted by each person depends on the market rate of interest, which in turn is affected by the prevailing tax rate. It is assumed that social security is financed by a pay-as-you-go plan.

Orientation of International Trainees
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 7 (released July 1956)
by Cecile Whalen
Origin of the Term "Social Security"
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 1 (released January 1992)
Orphanhood—A Diminishing Problem
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 3 (released March 1955)
by Louis O. Shudde
Orphans in the United States, July 1, 1953
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 7 (released July 1954)
by Louis O. Shudde
Orphans in the United States: Number and Living Arrangements
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 8 (released August 1950)
by Jacob Fisher
Outcome Indicators
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 1 (released May 2004)
Outcome Variation in the Social Security Disability Insurance Program: The Role of Primary Diagnoses
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 73 No. 2 (released May 2013)
by Javier Meseguer

This article investigates the role that primary impairments play in explaining heterogeneity in disability decisions. Using claimant-level data within a hierarchical framework, the author explores variation in outcomes along three dimensions: state of origin, adjudicative stage, and primary diagnosis. The findings indicate that the impairments account for a substantial portion of claimant-level variation in initial allowances. Furthermore, the author finds that the predictions of an initial and a final allowance are highly correlated when applicants are grouped by impairment. In other words, diagnoses that are more likely to result in an initial allowance also tend to be more likely to receive a final allowance.

The Out-of-Sample Performance of Stochastic Methods in Forecasting Age-Specific Mortality Rates
ORES Working Paper No. 111 (released August 2008)
by Javier Meseguer

This paper evaluates the out-of-sample performance of two stochastic models used to forecast age-specific mortality rates: (1) the model proposed by Lee and Carter (1992); and (2) a set of univariate autoregressions linked together by a common residual covariance matrix (Denton, Feavor, and Spencer 2005).

Overlap of Benefits Under OASDI and Other Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 4 (released April 1965)
by Ida C. Merriam
An Overview of American Indians and Alaska Natives in the Context of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 4 (released November 2012)
by Nolan Smith-Kaprosy, Patricia P. Martin, and Kevin Whitman

The American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) population is understudied in a variety of policy contexts. This article compares AIAN socioeconomic characteristics with those of the total population, focusing on patterns of adult Social Security benefit and Supplemental Security Income receipt. The analysis takes advantage of the relatively large AIAN sample size provided by the 2005–2009 American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample.

An Overview of OASDI Revenue, Expenditures, and Beneficiaries, 1974–85
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 6 (released June 1986)
by Christine Irick
Overview of Public Social Welfare Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1986
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 11 (released November 1988)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Overview of Public Social Welfare Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1988
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 12 (released December 1990)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Overview of Public Social Welfare Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1989
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 54 No. 11 (released November 1991)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Overview of Public Social Welfare Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1990
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 4 (released October 1992)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
An Overview of the National Survey of SSI Children and Families and Related Products
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 2 (released May 2006)
by Paul S. Davies and Kalman Rupp

During the first three decades of the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, the number of children receiving SSI because of a disability increased from 70,000 in 1974 to about 1 million at the end of 2005. With over 8,500 interviews completed between July 2001 and June 2002, the National Survey of SSI Children and Families (NSCF) is the first nationally representative survey since 1978 of noninstitutionalized children and young adults who were receiving SSI during the survey period or had formerly received SSI. The article discusses the objectives of the survey, its methodology and implementation, content of the questionnaire, a randomized response-incentive experiment, and related products including the release of a public-use data file.

Overview of the Office of Research, Statistics, and International Policy Functions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 9 (released September 1985)
by Jane L. Ross
An Overview of the Railroad Retirement Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68 No. 2 (released October 2008)
by Kevin Whitman

The Railroad Retirement program was established in the 1930s. It provides retirement, survivor, unemployment, and sickness benefits to individuals who have spent a substantial portion of their career in railroad employment, as well as to these workers' families. This article describes the history, benefit structure, and funding of the Railroad Retirement program.

P

The Pareto Optimality of Existing Pay-as-You-Go Social Security Programs
ORES Working Paper No. 47 (released June 1991)
by Dean R. Leimer

In recent years, a number of proposals have been advanced for privatizing all or part of the Social Security program in the United States. These proposals range from the immediate abolition to the gradual phasing-out of Social Security taxes and benefits. This paper evaluates several premises that often underlie privatization proposals—that rates of return in the private sector exceed those implicit in the Social Security program, that privatization would lead to an increase in national saving, and that privatization could somehow improve the lifetime welfare of all affected generations. The paper first considers whether rates of return in the private sector actually exceed those implicit in the Social Security program and discuss the conditions required for privatization to lead to an increase in national saving. The paper then demonstrates theoretically that an existing, well-managed, pay-as-you-go social security program is Pareto optimal in an economy with exogenous factor prices, regardless of the extent to which privately available rates of return exceed those implicit in the pay-as-you-go program; i.e., no privatization scheme can be found that benefits at least one present or future generation without harming at least one other generation, and no scheme can be found that allows the winners from privatization to compensate the losers and still come out ahead. The analysis is extended to incorporate the assumption of endogenous factor prices and the possibility that pay-as-you-go social security programs reduce private saving. The theoretical conclusions are illustrated by using a long-run economic projection model to simulate the aggregate economic and intergenerational redistributive effects of two stylized privatization schemes.

Participation in Programs Designed to Improve Employment Outcomes for Persons with Psychiatric Disabilities: Evidence from the New York WORKS Demonstration Project
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 2 (released May 2006)
by S. Antonio Ruiz-Quintanilla, Robert R. Weathers II, Valerie Melburg, Kimberly Campbell, and Nawaf Madi

This article examines a multistage recruitment process used to select Supplemental Security Income recipients with a psychiatric disorder to participate in a project designed to improve their employment outcomes. It uses an empirical method recently developed in the literature abut the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) to analyze the importance of individual characteristics on enrollment in the project. The results show that characteristics of SSI recipients have a different impact on enrollment at different points in the recruitment process. Results also point to ways that program administrators may improve recruitment strategies and participation for similar projects.

Participation in Voluntary Individual Savings Accounts: An Analysis of IRAs, 401(k)s, and the TSP
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 1 (released July 2000)
by Glenn R. Springstead and Theresa M. Wilson

This article compares participation rates in three existing voluntary individual account-type plans—individual retirement accounts (IRAs), 401(k)s, and the federal Thrift Savings Plan (TSP)—in an effort to analyze who might participate in a voluntary individual account system.

Part-Time Employment of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 3 (released March 1955)
by Warren J. Baker
Past and Future Perspectives in Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 8 (released August 1960)
by William L. Mitchell
Paternal Orphans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 10 (released October 1945)
by Thomas J. Woofter, Jr.
Paying for Health Care in the Years Before Retirement
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 4 (released April 1975)
by Dena K. Motley
Payments into OASI Trust Fund from Contributions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 10 (released October 1957)
by Sophie R. Dales
Pay-Roll Report Forms of State Unemployment Compensation Agencies
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 1–3 (released March 1938)
by Myrtle Starr
Payroll Taxes Under Social Security Programs: Cross-National Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 12 (released December 1975)
by Martin B. Tracy
Pension Benefits Among the Aged: Conflicting Measures, Unequal Distributions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 59 No. 3 (released July 1996)
by John R. Woods

Estimates of total benefits paid by employer sponsored pension plans seem to vary widely between different data sources and measures. Such discrepancies have been used to support differing conclusions about the effectiveness of the pension system. This article examines several measures of aggregate pension benefits in 1990, a year particularly rich in available data. Exploratory analysis suggests that the greatest source of discrepancy lies in differing treatments of lump-sum distributions, although the study also identifies several other types of payments that are variously, and erroneously, counted as pension income. Age of recipients is an important factor in analyzing different measures of aggregate pension benefits; discrepancies are much smaller among the aged than in the population as a whole, The analysis also provides new evidence about the unequal distribution of pension benefits among the aged, confirming from two data sources that benefits are heavily concentrated among higher income groups.

Pension Coverage Among Private Wage and Salary Workers: Preliminary Findings from the 1988 Survey of Employee Benefits
ORES Working Paper No. 38 (released August 1989)
by John R. Woods

Pension coverage is declining in the United States, and most of the decline can be attributed to decreasing coverage among younger workers. In addition, it appears that the types of pension coverage are shifting, with a decline in traditional pension plans and an increase in 401(k) plans.

These are perhaps the most important findings from a 1988 survey of American workers, similar to pension surveys in 1972, 1979, and 1983. The 1988 survey collected data from a sample representing 114 million workers who were currently employed. This paper examines patterns of pension coverage among all private wage and salary workers, but focuses on those working full time.

Pension Coverage Among Private Wage and Salary Workers: Preliminary Findings From the 1988 Survey of Employee Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 10 (released October 1989)
by John R. Woods
Pension Coverage Among the Baby Boomers: Initial Findings From a 1993 Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 3 (released July 1994)
by John R. Woods
Pension Coverage and Benefits, 1972: Findings From the Retirement History Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 2 (released February 1978)
by Gayle B. Thompson
Pension Coverage and Vesting Among Private Wage and Salary Workers, 1979: Preliminary Estimates from the 1979 Survey of Pension Plan Coverage
ORES Working Paper No. 16 (released June 1980)
by Gayle Thompson Rogers

This paper examines pension coverage and vesting in 1979 among private wage and salary workers aged 14 and older in the employed labor force. Coverage and vested status are examined in relation to personal and current job characteristics in order to provide a profile of workers protected and not protected under the private retirement system. The data are derived from the 1979 Survey of Pension Plan Coverage, a supplement to the May 1979 Current Population Survey.

Three major findings emerge from the analysis. First, coverage rates among full-time workers increased slightly between 1972 and 1979, and vested rates increased substantially during the same period. Second, although coverage rates were moderate to high for certain groups of workers, many workers were not in these groups. Third, women were much less likely than men to be covered by a retirement plan and to have acquired vested rights to their benefits.

Pension Integration and Social Security Reform
ORES Working Paper No. 75 (released July 1998)
by Chuck Slusher

Many employer-provided pension plans explicitly account for Social Security in their benefit formulas—a practice known as integration. Because integrated pensions are directly linked to Social Security, both the incidence and design of explicitly integrated plans are likely to be affected by changes in the current Social Security program. While integration has been mentioned as an important issue in discussions of Social Security reform, researchers have largely ignored the concept of pension integration. This paper provides basic information about pension integration and addresses, in general terms, the relationship between Social Security reform and pension integration.

Pension Integration and Social Security Reform
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 61 No. 3 (released July 1998)
by Chuck Slusher

Many employer-provided pension plans explicitly account for Social Security in their benefit formulas—a practice known as integration. Because integrated pensions are directly linked to Social Security, both the incidence and design of explicitly integrated plans are likely to be affected by changes in the current Social Security program. While integration has been mentioned as an important issue in discussions of Social Security reform, researchers have largely ignored the concept of pension integration. This article provides basic information about pension integration and addresses, in general terms, the relationship between Social Security reform and pension integration.

Pension Plan Participation Among Married Couples
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 73 No. 3 (released August 2013)
by Irena Dushi and Howard M. Iams

This article presents descriptive statistics on pension participation and the types of plans among married couples, using data from the 1996 and 2008 Panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation and Social Security administrative records. The findings indicate that in only 20 percent of couples, neither of the spouses participated in a pension plan; in about 10 percent of couples, the wife was the only one participating in a retirement plan; and in 37 percent of couples, the husband was the only one participating. Despite the substantial changes in pension landscape over the past decade, the findings reveal only modest changes in participation rates and in the types of plans respondents participated in between 1998 and 2009.

Pension Reform Legislation of 1974
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 12 (released December 1974)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Pension Sponsorship and Participation: Trends and Policy Issues
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 2 (released September 2002)
by Patrick J. Purcell

This article summarizes recent trends in employer sponsorship of retirement plans and employee participation in those plans. It is based on data collected in surveys of employers conducted by the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics and surveys of households conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau.

Pension Status of Recently Retired Workers on Their Longest Job: Findings From the New Beneficiary Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 8 (released August 1986)
by Donald C. Snyder
Pension Vesting and Preretirement Lump Sums Among Full-Time Private Sector Employees
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 3 (released July 1994)
by John R. Woods
Pensions and Compensation to Veterans and Their Dependents
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 11 (released November 1942)
by Franklin M. Aaronson
Pensions and Rehabilitation Services for Disabled Ex-Servicemen in the U.S.S.R.
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 4 (released April 1943)
by Denis A. Cooper
Pensions in the United States: A Summary
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 3 (released March 1953)
People on the Move: Effect of Residence Requirements for Public Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 1 (released January 1946)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
Permanent and Total Disability Benefit Provisions in Industrial Pension Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 1 (released January 1951)
by Joseph Zisman
Permanent Committee of the Inter-American Conference of Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 10 (released October 1945)
Permanent Disability Social Insurance Programs in Japan
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70 No. 1 (released February 2010)
by David Rajnes

This article examines the experience of Japan's social insurance permanent disability programs and compares its key features with the Social Security Disability Insurance program operating in the United States. It analyzes the determination and appeals processes in Japan for claiming permanent social insurance disability pensions. Trends in the number of Japanese disability program beneficiaries and benefit expenditures are also discussed.

Personal Health Care Expenditures of the Aged and Nonaged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 8 (released August 1968)
by Dorothy P. Rice, Arne Anderson, and Barbara S. Cooper
Personnel in Public Child Welfare Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 12 (released December 1952)
by Mignon Sauber
Personnel in State and Local Public Assistance Agencies, June 1949
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 4 (released April 1950)
Persons Insured Under Medicare, July 1, 1967
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 3 (released March 1969)
by Harry L. Savitt
Persons Receiving OASDI, OAA, or Both, June 30, 1959
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 7 (released July 1960)
Persons Receiving Payments From Public Programs for Long-Term Disability, December 1934–59
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 9 (released September 1960)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Persons Receiving Payments From Public Programs for Long-Term Disability, December 1939–63
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 10 (released October 1964)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Perspectives on the Reconversion
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 5 (released May 1945)
by W. S. Woytinsky
Philippine Medical Care Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 9 (released September 1972)
by Paul Fisher
Physical Condition and Medical Care of 1,000,000 Recipients of Old-Age Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 3 (released March 1939)
Physical Condition and Medical Supervision of Nearly Two Million Aged Persons
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 2 (released February 1942)
by Anne E. Geddes
Physically Demanding Occupations, Health, and Work After Retirement: Findings From the New Beneficiary Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 11 (released November 1988)
by Karen C. Holden
Plan for a New Disability Claim Process
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 3 (released July 1994)
Planning Observation Programs for Foreign Welfare Personnel
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 5 (released May 1949)
by Anna W. Schneider and Mary S. Labaree
Policies for the Use of Federal Child Welfare Funds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 7 (released July 1951)
by Mildred Arnold
Policy Analysis Through Microsimulation: The STATS Model
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 12 (released December 1987)
by Bernard Wixon, Benjamin Bridges, and David Pattison
Policy Issues in Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 6 (released June 1966)
by Robert M. Ball
The Poor in City and Suburb, 1964
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 12 (released December 1966)
by Mollie Orshansky
Portfolio Theory, Life-Cycle Investing, and Retirement Income
Policy Brief No. 2007-02 (released October 2007)
by Dale Kintzel

There has been much discussion recently about life-cycle funds and their role in providing a secure retirement income for older Americans. These funds, which gradually shift account assets from broad-based stock funds to bond funds as a participant ages, are becoming an important vehicle for retirement savings. This policy brief explores the economic rationale behind the life-cycle approach and the advantages and limitations of life-cycle funds.

The Position of Women in the Social Security System
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 7 (released July 1969)
by Ella J. Polinsky
The Positive Impact of Medicare on the Nation's Health Care Systems
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 7 (released July 1967)
by William H. Stewart
Postrecovery Experience of Disabled-Worker Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 9 (released September 1989)
by Janice M. Dykacz and John C. Hennessey
Postwar Changes in the Income Position of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 12 (released December 1988)
by Jacob Fisher
Postwar Changes in the Income Position of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 2 (released February 1954)
by Jacob Fisher
Postwar Economic Perspectives 1. Experience After World War I
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 12 (released December 1945)
by W. S. Woytinsky
Postwar Economic Perspectives II. Prewar Experience: The Labor Force and Employment
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 1 (released January 1946)
by W. S. Woytinsky
Postwar Economic Perspectives III. Prewar Experience: Production and Consumption
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 2 (released February 1946)
by W. S. Woytinsky
Postwar Economic Perspectives IV. Aftermath of the War
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 3 (released March 1946)
by W. S. Woytinsky
Postwar Trends in Aid to the Blind
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 2 (released February 1949)
Potential Income From Assets: Findings of the 1963 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 12 (released December 1964)
by Janet H. Murray
Poverty Among Single Elderly Women Under Different Systems of Old-Age Security: A Comparative Review
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 59 No. 3 (released July 1996)
by Jürg K. Siegenthaler

This study takes stock of available comparative research on the economic status of elderly single women in six industrialized countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. A systematic comparison of income has become easier due to such standardized data bases as the Luxembourg Income Study.

But an explanation for different poverty rates among older women who are on their own requires a further, differentiated assessment of the countries' retirement benefit structures. This article attempts such a review. It makes use of a variety of single-country sources and takes into account the institutional heterogeneity of old-age security systems. The study concludes with a view of the effectiveness of different old-age security systems in preventing poverty among older single women.

Poverty Guidelines for 1992
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 1 (released January 1992)
by Gordon M. Fisher
Poverty in Israel
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 11 (released November 1969)
by Doris Lewis
Poverty Study in Canada
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 2 (released February 1969)
Poverty-level Annuitization Requirements in Social Security Proposals Incorporating Personal Retirement Accounts
Issue Paper No. 2005-01 (released April 2005)
by Dave Shoffner, Andrew G. Biggs, and Preston Jacobs

In the current discussions of Social Security reform, voluntary personal retirement accounts have been proposed. Recent research and debate have focused on several aspects of these accounts, including how such accounts would affect aggregate saving, system finances, and benefit levels. Little attention, however, has been paid to policies that would govern the distribution of account balances. This analysis considers such policies with respect to the annuitization of account balances at retirement using the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the New Term (MINT) model and a modified version of a recent legislative proposal to evaluate the effects of partial annuitization requirements.

Predictors of Mortality Among Newly Retired Workers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 54 No. 3 (released March 1991)
by Howard M. Iams and John L. McCoy
Prepaid Medical Care at Trinity Hospital, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1941 and 1942
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 9 (released September 1949)
by Margaret C. Klem
Present Policies and Methods Regarding the Long-Term Adjustment of Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 10 (released October 1984)
by Harry C. Ballantyne
Present Protections and Relief for Members of the Armed Forces
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 12 (released December 1942)
by D. C. Bronson
Preserving State Unemployment Benefit Rights for Individuals Entering Military Service
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 3 (released March 1941)
by William H. Dillingham
President's Commission on Veterans' Pensions: Recommendations
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 8 (released August 1956)
by Michael S. March
The Prevalence of Disability in the United States With Special Reference to Disability Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 1 (released January 1941)
by I. S. Falk and Barkev S. Sanders
The Prevalence of Disability Recorded Through Four Monthly Sample Surveys
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 8 (released August 1943)
by Barkev S. Sanders and David Federman
Prevalence of Work Disability by State, 1976
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 5 (released May 1979)
by Mordechai E. Lando
Prevalence, Characteristics, and Poverty Status of Supplemental Security Income Multirecipients
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 73 No. 3 (released August 2013)
by Joyce Nicholas

This article looks at Supplemental Security Income (SSI) multirecipients. Using matched administrative and survey data, the author quantifies the prevalence of SSI recipients who live with other recipients (not including an SSI-eligible spouse). The author also conducts family- and household-level analyses to shed light on the social and economic characteristics of SSI multirecipients. The article reveals that SSI multirecipients represent about one-fifth of the SSI population and that their poverty rates vary according to family and household composition characteristics.

Price and Income Changes for the Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 1 (released January 1981)
by Benjamin Bridges and Michael D. Packard
Primary Benefit Amounts, December 31, 1947
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 7 (released July 1948)
Primary Benefit Awards
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 7 (released July 1950)
A Primer: Social Security Act Programs to Assist the Disabled
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 3 (released August 2006)

This summary is designed for those unfamiliar with the many current features of federally sponsored disability and health programs under the Social Security Act, including the Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) program, the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, Medicare, and Medicaid. It also provides an overview of the provisions and operations of the programs.

Private and Public Retirement Pensions: Findings from the 1968 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 9 (released September 1970)
by Walter W. Kolodrubetz
Private Consumer Expenditures for Medical Care and Voluntary Health Insurance, 1948–62
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 12 (released December 1963)
by Louis S. Reed and Dorothy P. Rice
Private Consumer Expenditures for Medical Care and Voluntary Health Insurance, 1948–63
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 12 (released December 1964)
by Louis S. Reed
Private Employee-Benefit Plans Today
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 1 (released January 1957)
by Joseph Zisman
Private Health Insurance in 1969: A Review
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 2 (released February 1971)
by Marjorie Smith Mueller
Private Health Insurance in 1970: Population Coverage, Enrollment, and Financial Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 2 (released February 1972)
by Marjorie Smith Mueller
Private Health Insurance in 1971: Health Care Services, Enrollment, and Finances
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 2 (released February 1973)
by Marjorie Smith Mueller
Private Health Insurance in 1972: Health Care Services, Enrollment, and Finances
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 2 (released February 1974)
by Marjorie Smith Mueller
Private Health Insurance in 1973: A Review of Coverage, Enrollment, and Financial Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 2 (released February 1975)
by Marjorie Smith Mueller
Private Health Insurance in 1974: A Review of Coverage, Enrollment, and Financial Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 3 (released March 1976)
by Marjorie Smith Mueller and Paula A. Piro
Private Health Insurance in 1975: Coverage, Enrollment, and Financial Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 6 (released June 1977)
by Marjorie Smith Mueller
Private Health Insurance in the United States, 1967
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 2 (released February 1969)
by Louis S. Reed and Willine Carr
Private Health Insurance in the United States: An Overview
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 12 (released December 1965)
by Louis S. Reed
Private Health Insurance in West Germany and Great Britain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 10 (released October 1970)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Private Health Insurance Plans In 1976: An Evaluation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 9 (released September 1978)
by Marjorie Smith Carroll
Private Health Insurance, 1968: Enrollment, Coverage, and Financial Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 12 (released December 1969)
by Louis S. Reed
Private Health Insurance: Coverage and Financial Experience, 1940–66
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 11 (released November 1967)
by Louis S. Reed
Private Health Insurance: Coverage and Financial Experience, 1965
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 11 (released November 1966)
by Louis S. Reed
Private Industry Health Insurance Plans: Employment Requirements for Coverage in 1974
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 3 (released March 1977)
by Andrea Novotny
Private Industry Health Insurance Plans: Type of Administration and Insurer in 1974
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 40 No. 3 (released March 1977)
by Daniel N. Price
Private Medical Care Expenditures and Voluntary Health Insurance, 1948–60
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 12 (released December 1961)
by Louis S. Reed
Private Medical Care Expenditures and Voluntary Health Insurance, 1948–61
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 12 (released December 1962)
by Louis S. Reed and Dorothy P. Rice
Private Pension Plan Terminations
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 12 (released December 1963)
by Joseph Krislov
Private Pension Plans in Six Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 8 (released August 1953)
by H. Walter Forster and Herman B. Brotman
Private Pension Plans, 1950–74
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 6 (released June 1976)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Private Pensions and Individual Savings
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 5 (released May 1966)
by George Katona
Private Pensions: 1982 Legislation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 8 (released August 1983)
by Gene Carter
Private Retirement Benefits and Relationship to Earnings Survey of New Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 5 (released May 1973)
by Walter W. Kolodrubetz
Private Social Welfare Expenditures, 1972–84
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 5 (released May 1987)
by Milton P. Glanz
Private Social Welfare Expenditures, 1972–85
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 8 (released August 1988)
by Wilmer L. Kerns and Milton P. Glanz
Private Social Welfare Expenditures, 1972–87
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 11 (released November 1989)
by Wilmer L. Kerns and Milton P. Glanz
Private Social Welfare Expenditures, 1972–88
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 54 No. 2 (released February 1991)
by Wilmer L. Kerns and Milton P. Glanz
Private Social Welfare Expenditures, 1972–90
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 3 (released July 1992)
by Wilmer L. Kerns
Private Social Welfare Expenditures, 1972–91
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 1 (released January 1994)
by Wilmer L. Kerns
Privatizing Social Security: The Chilean Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 59 No. 3 (released July 1996)
by Barbara E. Kritzer

In 1981, Chile introduced a new approach to social insurance, a system of individual capitalization accounts financed solely by the employee. This new privatized system was an improvement over Chile's failing pay-as-you-go arrangement. As many countries worldwide are facing financial problems with their social security system, they are now looking to the Chilean model in trying to find solutions. This article describes the conditions that led to the new system, the transition, and details of the new privatized system.

A Profile of Children with Disabilities Receiving SSI: Highlights from the National Survey of SSI Children and Families
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 2 (released May 2006)
by Kalman Rupp, Paul S. Davies, Chad Newcomb, Howard M. Iams, Carrie Becker, Shanti Mulpuru, Stephen Ressler, Kathleen Romig, and Baylor Miller

This article, based on interviews from the National Survey of SSI Children and Families conducted between July 2001 and June 2002, presents a profile of children under the age of 18 who were receiving support from the Supplemental Security Income program. The topics highlighted provide information of SSI children with disabilities and their families not available from administrative records, including demographic characteristics, income and assets, perceived health and disabilities, and health care utilization. While virtually every child in the SSI program is covered by some form of health insurance, primarily Medicaid, the data indicate substantial heterogeneity on other variables. This is true on many different dimensions, such as the perceived severity of the child's disabling conditions, health care utilization and service needs, the presence of other family members with disabilities, family demographics, and access to non-SSI sources of incomes.

A Profile of Social Security Child Beneficiaries and their Families: Sociodemographic and Economic Characteristics
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 1 (released February 2011)
by Christopher R. Tamborini, Emily Cupito, and Dave Shoffner

This article presents the sociodemographic and economic characteristics of Social Security child beneficiaries. Using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation matched with administrative benefit records, we find important differences in the incidence of child benefit receipt and average benefit amount across a number of individual and family-level characteristics. We also examine the demographic and income characteristics of the three beneficiary types: child of deceased worker, child of disabled worker, and child of retired worker.

Profile of Social Security Disabled Workers and Dependents Who Have a Connection to Workers' Compensation or Public Disability Benefits
Research and Statistics Note No. 2012-03 (released September 2012)
by Rene Parent, Incigul Sayman, and Kevin Kulzer

This note provides a comprehensive profile of the characteristics of disability beneficiaries with a connection to workers' compensation or public disability benefits (PDBs). The 8.3 percent of disabled workers who have this connection tend to be economically better off, more frequently middle aged, male, afflicted with a musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorder, and tend to wait longer to apply for social security disability benefits after onset than the general disabled-worker population. In our analysis, we have included a special focus on California, as this state represents a large portion of the PDB workload, and its experience has a substantial effect on the national picture.

Program and Demographic Characteristics of Supplemental Security Income Recipients, December 1985
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 5 (released May 1987)
by Arthur L. Kahn
Program Developments and Benefit Trends in Voluntary Health Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 11 (released November 1948)
by Margaret C. Klem and Margaret F. McKiever
A Program for the Nation: Recommendations from the Annual Report
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 1–2 (released February 1950)
Program Legislation Enacted in Early 1996
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 59 No. 2 (released April 1996)
by Rita L. DiSimone
Programs of Social Development: United Nations Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 12 (released December 1955)
A Progressivity Index for Social Security
Issue Paper No. 2009-01 (released January 2009)
by Andrew G. Biggs, Mark A. Sarney, and Christopher R. Tamborini

Using the Social Security Administration's MINT (Modeling Income in the Near Term) model, this paper analyzes the progressivity of the Old-Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program for current and future retirees. It uses a progressivity index that provides a summary measure of the distribution of taxes and benefits on a lifetime basis. Results indicate that OASDI lies roughly halfway between a flat replacement rate and a flat dollar benefit for current retirees. Projections suggest that progressivity will remain relatively similar for future retirees. In addition, the paper estimates the effects of several policy changes on progressivity for future retirees.

Project Moneywise
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 5 (released May 1969)
by Anne Hamilton
The Projected Effects of Social Security Benefit Increase Options for Older Beneficiaries
Policy Brief No. 2013-01 (released October 2013)
by Kevin Whitman and Dave Shoffner

In conjunction with larger Social Security solvency plans, many policymakers have proposed introducing benefit increases for older beneficiaries. This brief analyzes the projected effects of two such policy options on beneficiaries aged 85 or older in 2030 using the Modeling Income in the Near Term model. Both options target older beneficiaries' primary insurance amounts for a 5 percent increase, but they differ in how the increase would be calculated. Both proposals would increase monthly benefits for nearly all older beneficiaries, and both would reduce poverty levels among the aged, relative to currently scheduled benefits. However, the options differ in how the benefit increases would be distributed among older beneficiaries across shared lifetime earnings quintiles.

Projected Outcomes and Length of Time in the Disability Insurance Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 9 (released September 1989)
by John C. Hennessey and Janice M. Dykacz
Projecting Immigrant Earnings: The Significance of Country of Origin
ORES Working Paper No. 78 (released November 1998)
by Harriet Orcutt Duleep and Mark C. Regets

This paper asks whether information about immigrants other than their age, education, and years since migration can be productively used to project their earnings. Although many factors could affect immigrants' earnings, what is most useful for Social Security modeling purposes is relevant information that is readily available on a continuous basis. Country of origin is a good candidate as it is regularly and readily available from several administrative and survey data sources.

In this paper, microdata samples from the 1960–1990 censuses are used to examine the relationship between country of origin and the earnings of immigrants. By following cohorts of immigrants over 10-year intervals, we learn how country of origin affects the initial earnings of immigrants and how the relationship between country of origin and immigrants' earnings changes as immigrants live in the United States. The paper also presents theoretical insights and empirical evidence about the underlying causes of the link between country of origin and immigrants' earnings.

Projecting Immigrant Earnings: The Significance of Country of Origin
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 61 No. 4 (released October 1998)
by Harriet Orcutt Duleep and Mark C. Regets

This article asks whether information about immigrants beyond their age, education, and years since migration can be productively used to project their earnings. Although many factors could affect immigrant earnings, what is most useful for Social Security modelling purposes is relevant information that is readily available on a continuous basis. Country of origin is a good candidate, as it is regularly and readily available from several administrative and survey data sources.

In this article, microdata samples from the 1960-90 censuses are used to examine the relationship between country of origin and the earnings of immigrants. By following cohorts of immigrants over 10-year intervals, we learn how country of origin affects the initial earnings of immigrants and how the relationship between country of origin and immigrant earnings changes as immigrants continue to live in the United States. The article also presents theoretical insights and empirical evidence about the underlying causes of the link between country of origin and immigrant earnings.

Projecting Retirement Income of Future Retirees with Panel Data: Results from the Modeling Income in the Near Term (MINT) Project
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 4 (released April 2000)
by Barbara A. Butrica and Howard M. Iams

This article describes a model that projects the retirement income of Social Security beneficiaries from 1997 through 2031 using a number of panel data sources. With these data, we examine the composition of retirement income for future retirees in various birth cohorts, racial groups, marital states, and educational categories.

Projecting Social Security Earnings: Past Is Prologue
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 60 No. 2 (released April 1997)
by Howard M. Iams and Steven H. Sandell

Accurate projections of lifetime earnings are useful in projecting Social Security benefits, trust fund balances, and economic resources of the elderly and the effects of changes in Social Security policy. This article projects lifetime Social Security earnings until retirement using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) matched to Social Security records of annual earnings from 1951 through 1993.

We first develop, estimate, and test gender-specific multiple regression models of 10-year earnings intervals using the matched 1984 SIPP panel. We find strong relationships predicting the mean indexed monthly earnings level in the 10-year period of 1984-93. We then use the models to project (unobserved) Social Security earnings from 1994 through retirement for persons born between 1931 and 1955. By adding projected earnings to observed annual earnings to date, we forecast lifetime Social Security earnings for persons retiring early in the 21st century.

Projections of Economic Well-Being for Social Security Beneficiaries in 2022 and 2062
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 4 (released April 2007)
by Barbara A. Butrica, David B. Cashing, and Cori E. Uccello

This article assesses the prospects for retirement security among Social Security beneficiaries in 2022 and 2062. In absolute terms, beneficiaries in 2062 will be better off than those in 2022, at least assuming Social Security benefits scheduled under current law. Relative measures of well-being, however, suggest a decline in well-being between 2022 and 2062. Projected improvements over time would lessen, and declines would be exacerbated, if Social Security benefits are reduced according to what is payable under current-law taxes.

Promoting Job Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 6 (released June 1938)
by Frank Bane
Promotion of Subsidized Savings in the Federal Republic of Germany
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 10 (released October 1981)
Prompt Payment of Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 10 (released October 1951)
by Victor D. Carlson and Wave L. Perry
Proposals for Social Security Reform in the United Kingdom
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 8 (released August 1985)
by Daniel Wartonick
Proposals to Modify the Taxation of Social Security Benefits: Options and Distributional Effects
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 2 (released April 1993)
by David Pattison and David E. Harrington
Proposed Budget for Social Security and Related Programs, 1951–52
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 3 (released March 1951)
Proposed Budget for Social Security and Related Programs, 1952–53
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 3 (released March 1952)
Proposed Budget for Social Security Programs, 1950–51
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 3 (released March 1950)
Proposed Budget for Social Security Programs, 1954–55
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 3 (released March 1954)
Proposed Changes in the Social Security Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 1 (released January 1939)
Proposed Pension Reform in United Kingdom, 1972
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 8 (released August 1973)
by Martin B. Tracy
Proposed Social Security Budget for 1955–56
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 3 (released March 1955)
Proposed Social Security Budget, 1956–57
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 3 (released March 1956)
Proposed Social Security Budget, 1957–58
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 3 (released March 1957)
Proposed Social Security Budget, 1958–59
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 3 (released March 1958)
by Sophie R. Dales
Proposed Social Security Budget, 1959–60
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 3 (released March 1959)
by Sophie R. Dales
Proposed Social Security Budget, 1960–61
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 3 (released March 1960)
by Sophie R. Dales
Proposed Social Security Budget, 1962–63
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 3 (released March 1962)
by Sophie R. Dales
Prospects for Unemployment Insurance in Israel
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 9 (released September 1968)
Protection Against Income Loss During the First 6 Months of Illness or Injury
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 3 (released July 1994)
by Wilmer L. Kerns
The Protection and Use of Information Obtained Under the Social Security Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 5 (released May 1941)
by Ida C. Merriam
Provisions for the Protection of Children in Belgium and Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 6 (released June 1958)
by Margaret Emery
Provisions for the Protection of Children in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 9 (released September 1958)
by Margaret Emery
Psychosocial Factors and Financial Literacy
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 73 No. 1 (released February 2013)
by John L. Murphy

This article explores how psychosocial variables relate to financial literacy. Although prior research has examined mainstay economic variables, this study examines whether previously unexplored variables—financial satisfaction, hopelessness, and religiosity—impact financial literacy. The study uses Health and Retirement Study data and finds that financial satisfaction and religiosity are associated with financial literacy.

Public Aid Expenditures per Inhabitant, 1934-48
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 12 (released December 1948)
by Dorothy R. Bucklin
Public Aid for the Care of Dependent Children in Their Own Homes, 1932-38
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 4 (released April 1939)
by Dorothy R. Bucklin
Public Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 8 (released August 1945)
Public Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 9 (released September 1942)
Public Assistance as a Resource in the Mobilization and Utilization of Labor
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 5 (released May 1943)
Public Assistance Concepts in an International Agency
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 5 (released May 1951)
by Marie Dresden Lane
Public Assistance Employees: Their Education
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 2 (released February 1952)
by Elizabeth Epler
Public Assistance Employees: Their Salaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 3 (released March 1952)
by Ellen J. Perkins and Charles J. Lopes
Public Assistance Goals for 1947: Recommendations for Improving State Legislation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 12 (released December 1946)
Public Assistance Goals: Recommendations of the Social Security Board
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 11 (released November 1944)
Public Assistance Hearings
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 3 (released March 1950)
Public Assistance in Puerto Rico
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 7 (released July 1949)
Public Assistance Personnel, Jan.-June 1943
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 7 (released July 1944)
by Jack Charnow and Saul Kaplan
Public Assistance Provisions for Navajo and Hopi Indians: Public Law 474
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 6 (released June 1950)
by Wilbur J. Cohen
Public Assistance Recipients Newly Eligible for OASI Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 3 (released March 1952)
Public Assistance Supplementation of the Income of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 10 (released October 1949)
Public Assistance Terms
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 10 (released October 1957)
Public Assistance Terms
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 1 (released January 1953)
Public Assistance Terms
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 1 (released January 1951)
Public Assistance: Effect of the Increase in Current Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Benefits
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 9 (released September 1951)
Public Assistance: Report of the Advisory Council
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 2 (released February 1960)
Public Attitudes Toward Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 12 (released December 1989)
by Sally R. Sherman
Public Child Welfare Employees: Their Education
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 4 (released April 1952)
by Mignon Sauber and Jack Wiener
The Public Health Service Act, 1944
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 8 (released August 1944)
by Alanson W. Willcox
Public Pension Reform in Japan
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 4 (released September 2001)
by Lillian Liu

The March 2000 pension reform in Japan focused on the long-term financial sustainability of the country's two-tiered public pension system. This article describes the prereform system, the reform process, the key changes stipulated by the reform, and the projected impact of the reform on future pension costs.

Public Policy and Private Pension Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 7 (released July 1965)
Public Relations in the Administration of Social Legislation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 10 (released October 1939)
by Robert Huse
Public Social Welfare Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1984
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 6 (released June 1987)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Public Social Welfare Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1985
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 4 (released April 1988)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Public Social Welfare Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1985: Overview
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 1 (released January 1988)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Public Social Welfare Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1986
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 2 (released February 1989)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Public Social Welfare Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1988
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 54 No. 5 (released May 1991)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Public Social Welfare Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1989
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 2 (released April 1992)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Public Social Welfare Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1990
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 2 (released April 1993)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Public Social Welfare Expenditures, Fiscal Year 1991
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 1 (released January 1994)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Public Social Welfare Expenditures, Fiscal Years 1965–87
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 53 No. 2 (released February 1990)
by Ann Kallman Bixby
Public Welfare Amendments of 1962 and Proposals for Health Insurance for the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 10 (released October 1962)
by Wilbur J. Cohen and Robert M. Ball
Purchasing Power of U.S. Social Security Benefits Abroad, 1970–82
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 9 (released September 1983)
by Jonathan Aldrich, Alan Fox, and Eduard A. Lopez
Purposes for Which Credit Union Loans Were Made, 1961
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 10 (released October 1962)
by Ronald M. Gardner

Q

Quadrennial Advisory Council on Social Security: Summary of Major Findings and Recommendations
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 8 (released August 1975)
Quality-Quantity Measurement of the Public Assistance Visitor's Job
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 11 (released November 1954)
by Ellen J. Perkins
A Quarter Century of Social Security Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 8 (released August 1960)
by Daniel S. Gerig
A Quarter-Century of Monthly Benefits Under OASDI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 6 (released June 1965)
by S. Marjorie Johnston
Quarterly Employment and Pay Rolls Under Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, 1940
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 4 (released April 1942)
by J. R. Arnold, R. A. Keller, and George H. Trafton
Questions on Social Security and the Future Work Force
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 8 (released August 1976)
by Virginia P. Reno

R

Race, Nativity, Citizenship, Age, and Residence of 1,000,000 Recipients of Old-Age Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 6 (released June 1939)
Racial and Ethnic Differences in the Retirement Prospects of Divorced Women
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 1 (released February 2012)
by Barbara A. Butrica and Karen E. Smith

The authors use the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (version 6) to describe the likely characteristics, work experience, Social Security benefit status, and economic well-being of future divorced women at age 70, by race and ethnicity. Factors associated with higher retirement incomes include having a college degree; having a strong history of labor force attachment; receiving Social Security benefits; and having pensions, retirement accounts, or assets, regardless of race and ethnicity. However, because divorced black and Hispanic women are less likely than divorced white women to have these attributes, income sources, or assets, their projected average retirement incomes are lower than those of divorced white women.

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Wealth and Asset Choices
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 4 (released June 2003)
by Sharmila Choudhury

Analysis of the wealth held by white, black, and Hispanic households points to differences in saving behavior, notably a disinclination on the part of minority households to invest in riskier, higher-yielding financial assets. This finding may account for some of the great disparities in wealth across racial and ethnic groups that cannot be explained by income and demographic factors.

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Wealth Holdings and Portfolio Choices
ORES Working Paper No. 95 (released April 2002)
by Sharmila Choudhury

There are large differences in wealth across racial and ethnic groups, much of which remain unexplained even after controlling for income and demographic factors. This paper studies the issue of whether differences in saving behavior and rates of return on assets are a possible source of the differences in wealth. It uses data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine the differences in various components of aggregate wealth (including nonhousing equity, housing equity, financial assets, and risky assets) and to inspect differences in portfolio choices by race and ethnicity.

Descriptive tabulations of components of aggregate wealth and portfolio choices shown here point to differences between white and minority households in their saving behavior and choice of assets. These findings suggest that some of the large differences in wealth across racial and ethnic groups that remain unexplained even after controlling for income and demographic factors, may be attributable to the smaller participation in financial markets by minority households.

Railroad Retirement Act Amendments of 1951: Benefit Provisions and Legislative History
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 2 (released February 1952)
by Robert J. Myers and Wilbur J. Cohen
Railroad Retirement Act Amendments of 1951: Financial and Actuarial Aspects
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 3 (released March 1952)
by Robert J. Myers
Railroad Retirement Act as Amended in 1963
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 1 (released January 1964)
by Marice C. Hart
Railroad Retirement Act as Amended in 1965
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 2 (released February 1966)
by Marice C. Hart
The Railroad Retirement Act in 1954
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 2 (released February 1955)
by Robert J. Myers and John A. MacDougall
Railroad Retirement Act, As Amended in 1961
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 12 (released December 1961)
by Marice C. Hart
Railroad Retirement Amendments of 1966
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 2 (released February 1967)
by Marice C. Hart
The Railroad Retirement Amendments of 1968
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 6 (released June 1968)
by Orlo Nichols
The Railroad Retirement Amendments of 1970
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 11 (released November 1970)
by Orlo Nichols
Railroad Retirement and Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Work-History Records, 1937–50
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 4 (released April 1953)
by Irwin Wolkstein
Railroad Retirement Supplemental Annuities Revised
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 6 (released June 1970)
Railroad Retirement System: Ninth Actuarial Valuation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 2 (released February 1965)
by Abraham M. Niessen
Railroad Unemployment and Sickness Benefit Amendments of 1975
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 11 (released November 1975)
by Andrea Novotny
Railroad Unemployment Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 10 (released October 1939)
by Solomon Kuznets
Railroad Unemployment Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 1 (released January 1940)
The Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act and Unemployment Compensation Administration
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 8 (released August 1938)
by W. J. Couper
Railroad Workers with Employment Covered by the Social Security Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 11 (released November 1958)
by Samuel A. Block and Samuel Chmell
Railroad Workers with Employment Covered by the Social Security Act, 1959
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 11 (released November 1961)
by Alden F. Bixby
Raising Household Saving: Does Financial Education Work?
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 2 (released May 2012)
by William G. Gale, Benjamin H. Harris, and Ruth Levine

Financial illiteracy is prevalent in the United States, and low levels of financial literacy are associated with poor financial choices and negative economic outcomes. We examine previous work on the effect of financial education on household saving and find mixed results. Workplace financial education seminars positively affect household saving, but the size of this effect varies widely across studies. The effects of other financial education initiatives are less clear, highlighting the need for rigorous econometric evaluation of efforts to improve financial literacy.

The RAND HRS Data File: A User-Friendly Version of the Health and Retirement Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 2 (released August 2004)
by John W. R. Phillips
Reappraising Aid to Dependent Children as a Category
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 2 (released February 1945)
by Grace M. Marcus
Reasons for Opening Cases for Public Assistance, 1947–49
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 7 (released July 1950)
Reassessing the Relationship Between Disability Insurance and Workers' Compensation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 65 No. 4 (released May 2005)
by James B. Lockhart III
Receipt of Multiple Benefits by Disabled Worker Beneficiaries
ORES Working Paper No. 15 (released May 1980)
by L. Scott Muller

In 1971, 44 percent of workers who had been currently entitled to social security disability insurance benefits (SSDI) for 1 year or more received benefits from at least one income source in addition to SSDI. These recipients of multiple benefits (RMB's) were found to have average benefits from SSDI which were greater than the average SSDI benefit for those who did not receive income from these additional sources. On the average, total benefits to RMB's were double the benefits paid to those who received only SSDI. The combined benefits for overlappers produced median replacement rates for nonoverlappers. The rate of receipt of replacement rates in excess of 80 percent of predisability earnings was 70 percent larger for persons who were RMB's than for those who were not.

Based on the present research, consideration of replacement rates based solely on SSDI benefits substantially understates the extent to which benefits from public and private programs actually replace predisability earnings. Since replacement rates based solely on SSDI benefits are generally higher for persons receiving only SSDI than for persons who receive multiple benefits, employing policies which cap replacement rates based only on SSDI benefits may only serve to increase the differential in the total replacement of predisability earning which exists between those who receive multiple benefits and those who do not. Increasing this differential could be considered undesirable from both the adequacy and equity viewpoints.

Receipt of Multiple Benefits by Disabled-Worker Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 11 (released November 1980)
by L. Scott Muller
Recent Amendments to the Civil Service Retirement Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 4 (released April 1948)
by Robert J. Myers
Recent Changes in Earnings Distributions in the United States
ORES Working Paper No. 76 (released July 1998)
by Kelvin R. Utendorf

In this paper I use large, Social Security administrative data sets to examine changes in earnings distributions in the U.S. over the 1980s and early-1990s. Because the earnings information contained in these data sets comes directly from the W-2 forms filed by employers, the self-reporting errors and top-coding problems common in other data used for this type of analysis are minimized. Previous research has documented an increase in overall earnings inequality during the 1970s and the 1980s. While I too find that overall earnings inequality generally increased during the early- to mid-1980s, I find that this upward trend in earnings inequality might have slowed, or reversed, during the late-1980s and early 1990s. I also find that within-group inequality for various race and gender subgroups of the population generally increased over the period examined, confirming the results of others and extending those findings into the early 1900s. Finally, I find that women's earnings increased relative to men's earnings over the entire period and that the earnings of black males declined relative to the earnings of the other groups examined.

Recent Changes in Earnings Distributions in the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 61 No. 2 (released April 1998)
by Kelvin R. Utendorf

In this article, the author uses large, Social Security administrative data sets to examine changes in earnings distributions in the United States over the 1980s and early 1990s. Because the earnings information contained in these data sets comes directly from the W-2 forms filed by employers, self-reporting errors and top-coding problems, common in other data used for this type of analysis, are minimized. Previous research has documented an increase in overall earnings inequality during the 1970s and the 1980s. While the author also observes that overall earnings inequality generally increased during the early to mid-1980s, his analysis finds that this upward trend in earnings inequality might have slowed, or reversed, during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The data suggest that within-group inequality for various race and/or gender subgroups of the population generally increased over the period examined, confirming the results of others and extending those findings into the early 1990s. Finally, the author finds that female earnings increased relative to male earnings over the entire period, while the earnings of Black males declined relative to the earnings of the other groups examined.

Recent Changes in Earnings Distributions in the United States: Age and Cohort Effects
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 2 (released September 1999)
by Kelvin R. Utendorf

In this article, the author uses large, Social Security administrative data sets to examine changes in earnings distributions in the United States over the 1980s through the mid-1990s. Because the earnings information contained in these data sets comes directly from the W-2 forms filed by employers, self-reporting errors and top-coding problems, common in other data used for this type of analysis, are minimized. Previous research has documented an increase in overall earnings inequality during the 1970s and the 1980s. The author finds that this upward trend in overall earnings inequality continues into the mid-1990s, despite a period of nearly constant or slightly decreasing earnings inequality from 1988 through 1992. The data also suggest that between-group earnings inequality, whether dividing the sample into groups by age group or by birth cohort, is increasing. Despite the increase in between-group earnings inequality over the period examined, however, within-group earnings inequality remains by far the largest contributor to overall earnings inequality.

Recent Changes in Earnings Distributions in the United States: Age and Cohort Effects
ORES Working Paper No. 82 (released April 1999)
by Kelvin R. Utendorf

In this paper, the author uses large Social Security administrative data sets to examine changes in earnings distributions in the United States over the 1980s through the mid-1990s. Because the earnings information contained in these data sets comes directly from the W-2 forms filed by employers, the self-reporting errors and top-coding problems common in other data used for this type of analysis are minimized. Previous research has documented an increase in overall earnings inequality during the 1970s and the 1980s. The author finds that this upward trend in overall earnings inequality continues in the mid-1990s, despite a period of nearly constant or slightly decreased earnings inequality from 1988 through 1992. The data also suggest that between-group earnings inequality, whether dividing the sample into groups by age group or by birth cohort, is increasing. Despite the increase in between-group earnings inequality over the period examined, however, within-group earnings inequality remains by far the largest contributor to overall earnings inequality.

Recent Changes in French Family Allowance Policy
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 12 (released December 1979)
by Lynn M. Ellingson
Recent Changes in Mexican Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 7 (released July 1971)
by Robert W. Weise, Jr.
Recent Changes in Norwegian Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 1 (released January 1970)
by Leif Haanes-Olsen
Recent Changes in Russian Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 10 (released October 1972)
by Joseph G. Simanis
Recent Changes to the Chilean System of Individual Accounts
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 4 (released June 2003)
by Barbara E. Kritzer

Chile was the first country to replace its public pay-as you-go system with individual accounts. Since its inception in 1981, the new program has undergone a number of changes that offer workers more choices than they had before. This note describes those changes, which include an increase in the type and number of funds from which a worker may choose for an individual account, more incentives for making additional voluntary contributions, and the introduction of a separate mandatory individual account for unemployment benefits.

Recent Changes to the Railroad Retirement Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 12 (released December 1983)
Recent Changes to the Railroad Retirement Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 12 (released December 1981)
Recent Developments in Argentine Pension Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 6 (released June 1968)
by Robert Lucas
Recent European Trends in Disability and Related Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 57 No. 2 (released April 1994)
by Ilene R. Zeitzer
Recent Social Security Developments in Austria
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 2 (released February 1978)
by Lois S. Copeland
Recent Social Security Developments in Japan
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 10 (released October 1978)
by Angus Simmons
Recent Social Security Developments in the People's Republic of China
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 4 (released April 1987)
by Lillian Liu
Recent Social Security Reforms in France
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 1 (released January 1971)
by Dalmer D. Hoskins
Recent State Legislation Concerning Prepayment Medical Care
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 1 (released January 1947)
by Margaret C. Klem
Recent Trends in Health Near the Age of Retirement: New Findings From the Health Interview Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 2 (released February 1987)
by Martynas A. Yčas
Recent Trends in the Social Security Disability Insurance Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 8 (released August 1982)
by Mordechai E. Lando, Alice V. Farley, and Mary A. Brown
Recent Trends in Workers' Compensation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 1 (released August 2007)
by Ishita Sengupta and Virginia P. Reno

Workers' compensation pays for medical care immediately after injury and pays cash benefits for last work time after a 3- to 7-day waiting period. As a source of support for disabled workers, it is surpassed in size only be the Social Security Disability Insurance program. This article traces the development of workers' compensation coverage, benefits, and employer costs in 2004.

Recipients Accepted for Aid to the Blind in 1937-38
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 11 (released November 1939)
by John M. Lynch and Elizabeth S. Schumacher
Recipients of Old-Age Assistance: Income and Resources
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 4 (released April 1956)
by Charles E. Hawkins
Recipients of Old-Age Assistance: Personal and Social Characteristics
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 4 (released April 1957)
by Frank J. Hanmer
Recipients of Old-Age Assistance: Their Housing Arrangements
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 9 (released September 1957)
by Charles E. Hawkins
Recipients of Old-Age Assistance: Their Requirements
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 2 (released February 1957)
by Charles E. Hawkins
Recipients of Supplemental Security Income and the Student Earned Income Exclusion
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70 No. 2 (released May 2010)
by Mary Kemp

This article examines the Student Earned Income Exclusion (SEIE), which is part of the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. The SEIE is an incentive for work and education. The article presents statistics on the demographic characteristics of SSI recipients with SEIE; on the prevalence and intensity of SEIE use; on the seasonal patterns in SEIE use; and on the factors driving these seasonal patterns—including changes in earnings, student status, age, and SSI eligibility, as well as the effects of the annual SEIE limit.

Recommendations of the Commission on Railroad Retirement
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 11 (released November 1972)
Recommendations of the Task Force on Medicaid and Related Programs
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 33 No. 9 (released September 1970)
Recommendations of the White House Conference on Children and Youth
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 14 No. 2 (released February 1951)
Reconversion Unemployment Benefits for Seamen
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 8 (released August 1949)
by Olga S. Halsey
Recounting the Poor—A Five-Year Review
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 4 (released April 1966)
by Mollie Orshansky
Recovery and Benefit Termination: Program Experience of Disabled-Worker Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 6 (released June 1973)
by Jack Schmulowitz
Recovery of Disabled After Trust Fund Financing of Rehabilitation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 2 (released February 1973)
by Ralph Treitel
Recovery of Disabled Beneficiaries: A 1975 Followup Study of 1972 Allowances
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 4 (released April 1979)
by Ralph Treitel
Recruitment for Public Assistance Agencies
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 12 (released December 1943)
by Martha Strong Smith
Reduced Benefit Awards to Retired Workers: Measuring Extent of Early Retirement
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 10 (released October 1966)
by Harry Shulman
Reducing Poverty Among Elderly Women
ORES Working Paper No. 87 (released January 2001)
by Michael A. Anzick and David A. Weaver

Although the Social Security program has substantially reduced poverty among older Americans, 17.3 percent of nonmarried elderly women (widowed, divorced, or never married) are living in poverty today. This paper explores several policy options designed to reduce poverty by enhancing Social Security widow(er)'s benefits, Supplemental Security Income benefits, and Social Security's special minimum benefit. Depending on the option, 40 percent to 58 percent of the additional federal spending would be directed to the poor or near poor.

A Re-examination of the Link Between Social Security and Saving
ORES Working Paper No. 1 (released February 1979)
by John B. Hagens

This paper attempts to make two contributions to this research. The first one is expositional. A simple overlapping generation's model is developed and used to reinvestigate the wealth and endowment redistribution effects from the introduction of pay-as-you-go social security. Our second contribution is substantive and extends the analysis of the endowment redistribution effect. Finally, perspective is offered on the relationship between pay-as-you-go social security and private saving.

References on the Origin and Development of Social Security in the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 8 (released August 1965)
References on the Origin and Development of Social Security in the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 8 (released August 1960)
References on the Origin and Development of Social Security in the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 8 (released August 1955)
Reflections on the Income Estimates from the Initial Panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP)
ORES Working Paper No. 39 (released September 1989)
by Denton R. Vaughan

The Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) represents a major effort on the part of the Federal statistical community to improve the quality and comprehensiveness of information on the economic resources of the household sector and to permit a more accurate portrayal of the impact of government tax and transfer programs on the economic status of the population.

This paper will not offer a comprehensive and definitive statement on the quality of SIPP income data. Neither the time nor resources available to the author, nor indeed, the state of SIPP data products, would permit making such a statement. However, enough information is available to offer a tentative interpretation of important aspects of the income data available from the first SIPP panel. Two broad themes will be touched upon. Since it is generally believed that the major technical defect of income surveys is the substantial tendency to underidentify the sources and amounts of income received by the population, the issue of the completeness of the SIPP money income estimates will be the central issue. A second important aspect of income data has to do with its suitability for analytic purposes.

Regional and State Patterns of Population Change and Benefit Receipt, 1980–84
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 49 No. 4 (released April 1986)
Regional Differences in the Prevalence of Blindness
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 9 (released September 1950)
by Ralph G. Hurlin and Walter M. Perkins
Rehabilitation of Disabled Veterans in Germany
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 8 (released August 1943)
by A. MacGregor Ayer
Rehabilitation of the Disabled
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 3 (released March 1971)
by Ralph Treitel
Reinventing SSI Statistics: SSA's New Longitudinal File
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 59 No. 2 (released April 1996)
by Clark D. Pickett and Charles G. Scott

Supplemental Security Income (SSI) statistics have been published in the Social Security Bulletin since the program began in 1974. For the most part, these statistics have been snapshots of current caseloads. Now, a new SSI longitudinal file permits a retrospective look at past program data. It also permits us to redefine key program indicators and to produce new distributions for these data. In this article, we take a look back in time at SSI applications, caseloads, and awards, and describe how these data were obtained from the SSI administrative computer files.

Relation of Social Security Expenditures to Gross National Product in 45 Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 6 (released June 1965)
by Werner Hasenberg
The Relations of Social Security and Social Welfare Services
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 2 (released February 1962)
by Ida C. Merriam
Relationship as a Problem in Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 8 (released August 1977)
by Michael Fooner and Robert Francis
Relationship Between the Retirement, Disability, and Unemployment Insurance Programs: The U.S. Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 5 (released May 1985)
by Virginia P. Reno and Daniel N. Price
The Relationship Between Unemployment Compensation and Relief from a National Point of View
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 6 (released June 1938)
by Ewan Clague
The Relationships Between Public and Private Pension Schemes: An Introductory Overview
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 7 (released July 1987)
by Max Horlick
Relationships of Home Relief to Private Employment and to Other Public Programs in New York City, 1940-42
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 3 (released March 1943)
by Elizabeth Epler
Relative Importance of Income Sources of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 8 (released August 1973)
by Susan Grad
Relative Importance of Various Income Sources of the Aged, 1980
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 1 (released January 1983)
by Melinda M. Upp
Relatives in the Household of Mother-Child OASI Beneficiary Groups, 1957 Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 6 (released June 1962)
by Earl R. Moses
Relief Status of One Million Recipients Accepted for Old-Age Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 12 (released December 1938)
by Anne E. Geddes and Agnes Leisy
Relief Trends in Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1929-37
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 8 (released August 1938)
by Anne E. Geddes
Remarks by the Commissioner
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 9 (released September 1987)
by Dorcas R. Hardy
Remembering Mollie Orshansky—The Developer of the Poverty Thresholds
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68 No. 3 (released December 2008)
by Gordon M. Fisher

In a federal government career that lasted more than four decades, Mollie Orshansky worked for the Children's Bureau, the Department of Agriculture, the Social Security Administration, and other agencies. While working at the Social Security Administration during the 1960s, she developed the poverty thresholds that became the federal government's official statistical measure of poverty; her thresholds remain a major feature of the architecture of American social policy and are widely known internationally.

Remembering Robert J. Myers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70 No. 2 (released May 2010)
Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1948: Legislative History and Background
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 5 (released May 1948)
by Gladys R. Friedman
Report of the Advisory Council on Public Welfare
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 29 No. 9 (released September 1966)
Report of the Commission on the Evaluation of Pain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 1 (released January 1987)
Report of the Disability Advisory Council: Executive Summary
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 9 (released September 1988)
Report of the National Commission on Social Security Reform
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 2 (released February 1983)
Report of the National Commission on State Workmen's Compensation Laws
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 10 (released October 1972)
Report of the National Commission on Unemployment Compensation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 10 (released October 1981)
by Daniel N. Price
Report of the President's Commission on Pension Policy: Executive Summary
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 44 No. 5 (released May 1981)
Report of the Universal Social Security Coverage Study Group: Executive Summary
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 6 (released June 1980)
Report on the Earnings Sharing Implementation Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 3 (released March 1985)
Report on the Fifteenth General Assembly of the International Social Security Association
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 2 (released February 1965)
by William M. Yoffee
A Report on the Fourteenth General Meeting of the International Social Security Association
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 2 (released February 1962)
Report on the Nation's Health
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 11 (released November 1948)
Report on the World Social Situation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 8 (released August 1963)
A Report to the President by the Interdepartmental Committee to Coordinate Health and Welfare Activities
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 9 (released September 1940)
Reported Reasons Retired Workers Left Their Last Job: Findings From the New Beneficiary Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 3 (released March 1985)
by Sally R. Sherman
Reporting of Tips Under the Connecticut Unemployment Insurance Law
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 10 (released October 1948)
Reports of the 1971 Advisory Council on Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 6 (released June 1971)
Reports of the 1979 Advisory Council on Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 2 (released February 1980)
Reports to Congress on OASDHI Studies
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 3 (released March 1969)
Research and Social Security Policy in the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 50 No. 10 (released October 1987)
by Jane L. Ross
The Research Contributions of the Center for Retirement Research at Boston College
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 69 No. 4 (released December 2009)
by Steven A. Sass

This article reviews the research contributions of the Center for Retirement Research at Boston College over its 10-year history and their implications for Social Security and retirement income policy in three major areas: (1) Social Security's long-term financing shortfall, (2) the adequacy of retirement incomes, and (3) labor force participation at older ages as a means to improve retirement income security. The center has received substantial funding support from the Social Security Administration (SSA) in each area and has also successfully leveraged SSA's investment by attracting funding from other sources.

Research on Immigrant Earnings
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68 No. 1 (released August 2008)
by Harriet Orcutt Duleep and Daniel J. Dowhan

As the first in a trio of articles devoted to incorporating immigration into policy models, this article traces the history of research on immigrant earnings. It focuses on how earnings trajectories of immigrants differ from those of U.S. natives, vary across immigrant groups, and have changed over time. The highlighted findings underscore key lessons for modeling immigrant earnings and pave the way for representing the earnings trajectories of immigrants in policy models.

The Reservation Wages of Social Security Disability Insurance Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 4 (released May 2008)
by Sophie Mitra

Using the New Beneficiary Data System, this article examines the reservation wages of a sample of Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) beneficiaries with work capabilities. It analyzes the magnitude of the reservation wages of DI beneficiaries compared to the last wage earned and to benefit amounts. In addition, the article discusses the determinants of reservation wages for DI beneficiaries.

Residence, Race, and Age of Poor Families in 1966
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 6 (released June 1969)
by Carolyn Jackson and Terri Velten
Resource Allocation in the Hospital Industry: The Role of Capital Financing
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 10 (released October 1972)
by Paul B. Ginsburg
Resources of Aged Insurance Beneficiaries: 1951 National Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 8 (released August 1952)
by Edna C. Wentworth
Resources of Beneficiaries of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 11 (released November 1949)
by Edna C. Wentworth and Margaret L. Stecker
Resources of Old-Age and Survivors Insurance Beneficiaries in Three Southern Cities
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 9 (released September 1943)
by Marie Correll Malitsky
Resources of Supplemental Security Income Recipients
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 8 (released August 1989)
by Charles G. Scott
Resources of Widow and Child Beneficiaries in Seven Cities
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 11 (released November 1945)
by Marie Correll Malitsky
Response to Recipiency Under Public Assistance and SSI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 11 (released November 1978)
by Thomas Tissue
Restoration of Certain Minimum Benefits and Other OASDI Program Changes: Legislative History and Summary of Provisions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 3 (released March 1982)
by John A. Svahn
Restructuring the Railroad Retirement System
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 4 (released April 1975)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Results of the Office of Policy's 2001 User Satisfaction Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 4 (released June 2003)
by Hilary Waldron

Results of a 2001 Gallup poll indicate that the majority of users of the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) research, statistical, and policy products are satisfied with them and with the agency's performance in identifying and working on new and emerging areas of research and policy. Satisfaction varies with professional interests, length of time working with Social Security and Supplemental Security Income issues, work affiliation, and frequency of use of SSA's products.

Retired-Worker Beneficiaries Affected by the Annual Earnings Test in 1971
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 8 (released August 1975)
by Barbara A. Lingg
Retirement and Wealth
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 2 (released September 2002)
by Alan L. Gustman and Thomas L. Steinmeier

This article analyzes the relationship between retirement and wealth. Using data from the first four waves of the longitudinal Health and Retirement Study—a cohort of individuals born from 1931 to 1941—we estimate reduced-form retirement and wealth equations. Our results show that those who retire earlier do not necessarily save more and that even if one's primary interest is in the relationship between Social Security policy and the decision to retire, it is important to incorporate saving behavior and other key decisions into the analysis.

Retirement Benefits for Very Elderly
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 4 (released April 1971)
by Max Horlick
The Retirement Equity Act of 1984: A Review
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 5 (released May 1985)
by Edmund T. Donovan
Retirement History Study: Introduction
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 3 (released March 1988)
by Lola M. Irelan
Retirement History Study: Introduction
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 11 (released November 1972)
by Lola M. Irelan
Retirement History Study's First Four Years: Work, Health, and Living Arrangements
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 12 (released December 1976)
by Kathleen Bond
Retirement Income Security in the United Kingdom
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 62 No. 1 (released June 1999)
by Lillian Liu

This article examines the U.K. retirement income security system from the American perspective. It addresses issues that most concern U.S. analysts: how the United Kingdom has kept its future public pension costs at a manageable level, the extent to which privatization of public pensions has contributed to low pensions costs, the popular appeal of individual pension accounts, and the impact of privatization on retirement income. These issues are best understood in the context of the U.K. pension program's particular institutional structure and policies, two of which—"contracting out" of public pensions, and strong reliance on means-tested benefits—have been largely rejected in the evolution of U.S. policy to date.

Particular use is made of recently available data on coverage rates for public and private pension programs over the total working population and administrative records on inactive personal pension accounts.

Retirement Income Security in the United Kingdom
ORES Working Paper No. 79 (released November 1998)
by Lillian Liu

This study examines the United Kingdom's retirement income security system from the American perspective. It addresses issues that most concern U.S. analysts: how the United Kingdom has kept its future public pension costs at a manageable level, the extent to which privatization of public pensions has contributed to these savings, the popular appeal of individual pension accounts, and the impact of privatization on retirement income. These issues are best understood in the context of the U.K. pension program's particular institutional structure and policies, two of which—"contracting out" of public pensions and strong reliance on means-tested benefits—have been largely rejected in the evolution of U.S. policy to date.

Particular use is made of recently available data on coverage rates for public and private pension programs over the total working population and administrative records on inactive personal pension accounts.

Retirement Options Under the Swedish National Pension System
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 45 No. 11 (released November 1982)
by Michael D. Packard
Retirement Outcomes in the Health and Retirement Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 63 No. 4 (released September 2001)
by Alan L. Gustman and Thomas L. Steinmeier

This study examines retirement outcomes in the first four waves of the 1992–1998 Health and Retirement Study (HRS). The article compares outcomes under alternative definitions of retirement, describes differences in outcomes among demographic groups, compares retirement dynamics based on self-reported retirement status, and compares retirement flows in the 1990s and the 1970s and between cohorts of the HRS. Among other findings, measured retirement is seen to differ, sometimes substantially, with the definition of retirement used among the various groups analyzed.

Retirement Patterns Among Aged Men: Findings of the 1963 Survey of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 27 No. 8 (released August 1964)
by Erdman Palmore
Retirement Patterns for Self-Employed Workers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 43 No. 10 (released October 1980)
by Joseph F. Quinn
Retirement Patterns in the United States: Research and Policy Interaction
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 8 (released August 1976)
by Lenore E. Bixby
Retirement Payments for Railroad Workers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 7 (released July 1939)
by A. G. Silverman and Joseph J. Senturia
The Retirement Prospects of Divorced Women
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 1 (released February 2012)
by Barbara A. Butrica and Karen E. Smith

To project the retirement resources and well-being of divorced women, the authors use the Social Security Administration's Modeling Income in the Near Term (version 6). Findings show that Social Security benefits and retirement incomes are projected to increase for divorced women and that their poverty rates are projected to decline, due in large part to women's increasing lifetime earnings. However, not all divorced women will be equally well off; economic well-being in retirement varies by Social Security benefit type.

The Retirement Prospects of the Baby Boom Generation
ORES Working Paper No. 74 (released January 1998)
by Daniel B. Radner

This paper examines the financial prospects of the baby boomers in their elderly years. The paper primarily attempts to draw together and summarize results found by other researchers, but a few new estimates are presented. The consensus of the research appears to be the following. Up to this point, the baby boom generation as a whole has a higher economic status than their parents' generation did at the same ages, but this does not hold for some subgroups. When it becomes elderly, the baby boom generation as a whole probably will have a higher economic status than their parents' generation has and will have at those ages, but, again, this may not hold for some subgroups. It is uncertain whether the baby boom generation as a whole will have enough resources in retirement to maintain their preretirement standard of living without increasing their saving or retiring later, but some subgroups will be able to maintain their living standard without changing their behavior.

The Retirement Prospects of the Baby Boom Generation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 61 No. 1 (released January 1998)
by Daniel B. Radner

In this article, the financial prospects of baby boomers in their elderly years are examined. The article primarily attempts to draw together and summarize results found by other researchers, but a few new estimates are presented. The consensus of the research appears to be the following. Up to this pint, the baby boom generation as a whole has a higher economic status that did their parents' generation at the same ages, but this does not hold for some subgroups. When it becomes elderly, the baby boom generation as a whole probably will have a higher economic status that their parents' generation has and will have at those ages, but, again, this may not hold for some subgroups. It is uncertain whether the baby boom generation as a whole will have enough resources in retirement to maintain their preretirement standard of living without increasing their saving or retiring later, but some subgroups will be able to maintain their living standard without changing their behavior.

Retirement Protection for State and Local Employees: Ten Years of Growth
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 5 (released May 1953)
by Dorothy McCamman
The Retirement Research Consortium: Past, Present, and Future
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 69 No. 4 (released December 2009)
by Paul S. Davies and T. Lynn Fisher

This article provides an overview of the Retirement Research Consortium (RRC) from the Social Security Administration's perspective, including a brief history of the development of the RRC, a discussion of the aims of the RRC, and some thoughts on its future. The mission of the RRC is to plan and conduct a broad research program to develop Social Security and retirement policy information to assist policymakers, the public, and the media in understanding the issues. The RRC has been a remarkably successful extramural research venture that has advanced the knowledge base on Social Security and retirement issues, trained new scholars to become the next generation of Social Security and retirement policy experts, and provided objective, research-based input to the policymaking process.

The Retirement Test: An International Study
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 7 (released July 1974)
by Elizabeth Kreitler Kirkpatrick
The Retirement Test: Its Effect on Older Workers' Earnings
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 6 (released June 1968)
by Kenneth G. Sander
Retirement-Age Couples by Type of Wife's Social Security Benefit
ORES Working Paper No. 43 (released June 1990)
by Christine Irick

This study examines the work history and economic circumstances of wives soon after receiving Social Security retirement benefits. Findings are based on a nationally representative sample of married women, aged 62 or over, who received their first benefit either as retired workers or as spouses of retired workers between mid-1980 and mid-1981.

Retirement-Age Women and Pensions: Findings From the New Beneficiary Survey
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 51 No. 12 (released December 1988)
by John R. Woods
Retiring in Debt? An Update on the 2007 Near-Retiree Cohort
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70 No. 4 (released November 2010)
by Chris E. Anguelov and Christopher R. Tamborini

This research note uses 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF) data to update work reported in an earlier article, "Retiring in Debt? Differences between the 1995 and 2004 Near-Retiree Cohorts." The analysis documents whether there have been changes in the debt holdings of near-retirees in 2007, a point in time reflecting the start of the recent financial and economic crisis, relative to 2004. Results show that near-retirees' debt levels in 2007 were modestly higher than in 2004, overall and across a number of subgroups. The results do not capture the full impact of the financial crisis, which manifested at the end of 2007 and in 2008.

Retiring in Debt? Differences between the 1995 and 2004 Near-Retiree Cohorts
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 69 No. 2 (released July 2009)
by Chris E. Anguelov and Christopher R. Tamborini

This article uses the U.S. Federal Reserve Board's Survey of Consumer Finances to examine near retirees' (aged 50 to 61) debt holdings in 1995 and 2004. Employing a variety of measures on household borrowing, our results show that near retirees in 2004—the leading edge of the baby-boom cohort—had more consumer and housing debt than their counterparts in 1995. We observe a modest increase in the median debt service and debt-to-assets ratios between the two cohorts, but no statistical difference in their respective average. Analysis of several demographic and socioeconomic subgroups reveals certain population segments, such as single female households, with significantly higher debt service ratios in 2004.

Retooling Social Security for the 21st Century
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 60 No. 2 (released April 1997)
by C. Eugene Steuerle and Jon M. Bakija

Because of the imbalance between promised benefits and available taxes, some reform of Social Security is inevitable. At the same time, perceptions of Social Security are changing rapidly as it moves away from a system where all recipients—whether rich or poor—received more in benefits than they paid in taxes, and where those who were richer consistently received larger net transfers than those who were poorer. Reform is most likely to succeed if it returns to basic principles such as progressivity, equity, and efficiency.

Although these principles sometime conflict, they also provide much common ground. For example, if Social Security is meant to meet the greatest needs of the elderly, then increasing the retirement age (which mainly affects the younger and richer elderly) would be preferable to removal of the cost-of-living adjustment (which mainly affects the older and poorer elderly). Efficiency and equity principles, in turn, call attention to some groups—second earners in household, those with few employee tax preferences, those who work many years, and elderly workers—whose net benefits are lower than others who should have less claim to Social Security resources.

Retroactive Entitlement of Retired-Worker Beneficiaries Awarded Benefits in 1971
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 1 (released January 1975)
by Barbara A. Lingg
Return of Disabled-Worker Beneficiaries to the DI Program: Some Insights From the New Beneficiary Followup
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 61 No. 2 (released April 1998)
by Janice M. Dykacz

Beneficiaries in the DI program may experience a recovery termination. What factors affect their reentitlement to DI benefits? Data from the New Beneficiary Followup was used to model return to the DI program. Those former beneficiaries who had vocational or job training and paid work after the recovery termination showed a lesser tendency to return to the DI program. Younger individuals and those in the highest primary insurance amount quartile also showed a lesser tendency to return.

Review of Cooperative Research and Demonstration Grant Program
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 3 (released March 1965)
by Donald M. Pilcher
A Review of State Legislation Relating to Medical Services and to Cash Payments for Disability, Proposed During 1939
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 1 (released January 1940)
by Marjorie Shearon
A Review of the Net Revenue Estimates in Robbins and Robbins, "Paying People Not to Work"
ORES Working Paper No. 41 (released January 1990)
by David Pattison

This note discusses the net revenue estimates in the report "Paying People Not to Work: the Economic Cost of the Social Security Retirement Earnings Limit," by Aldona Robbins and Gary Robbins.

The Revised Benefit Schedule Under Federal Old-Age Insurance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 9 (released September 1939)
by Lyle L. Schmitter and Betti C. Goldwasser
Revised Coverage Estimates for Employee-Benefit Plan Series
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 38 No. 10 (released October 1975)
by Alfred M. Skolnik
Revision of Public Assistance Tables
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 16 No. 10 (released October 1953)
Robert M. Ball: A Life Dedicated to Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68 No. 3 (released December 2008)
by Carolyn Puckett

With the death of Robert Myers Ball at age 93 on January 29, 2008, the Social Security program lost one of its most committed supporters. In 2001, Ball's biographer, historian Edward D. Berkowitz, described Ball as "the major non-Congressional player in the history of Social Security in the period between 1950 and the present."

The Role of Behavioral Economics and Behavioral Decision Making in Americans' Retirement Savings Decisions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 70 No. 4 (released November 2010)
by Melissa A. Z. Knoll

This article outlines findings from the judgment and decision making (JDM) and behavioral-economics literatures that highlight the many behavioral impediments to saving that individuals may encounter on their way to financial security. It discusses how behavioral and psychological issues, such as self-control, emotions, and choice architecture can help policymakers understand which factors, aside from purely economic ones, may affect individuals' savings behavior.

The Role of Pensions in Retirement Income: Trends and Questions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 1 (released January 1993)
by Virginia P. Reno
The Role of Redistribution in Social Policy
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 6 (released June 1965)
by Richard M. Titmuss
The Role of Research and Statistics in the Development of Social Security
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 11 (released November 1985)
by Erma W. Barron
Role of the Contribution Ceiling in Social Security Programs: Comparison of Five Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 2 (released February 1971)
by Max Horlick and Robert Lucas
Role of the Private Sector in Financing Social Welfare Programs, 1972–92
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 1 (released January 1995)
by Wilmer L. Kerns
The Roles of Unemployment Insurance and Unemployment Assistance in Great Britain
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 3 (released March 1940)
by Ida C. Merriam and Diane Bochner

S

Sampling Technique for Obtaining Number of Covered Workers Under State Unemployment Compensation Laws
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 8 (released August 1940)
by Harry J. Winslow
Sampling Variance Estimates for SSA Program Recipients From the 1990 Survey of Income and Program Participation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 3 (released July 1993)
by Barry V. Bye and Salvatore J. Gallicchio
School Attendance Patterns of Student Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 10 (released October 1971)
by Barbara A. Kirsch
Seasonal Employers and Seasonal Workers Under State Unemployment Compensation Laws
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 11 (released November 1944)
by Marianne Sakmann Linnenberg
A Seasonal Index of Urban Relief
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 7 (released July 1938)
Seasonal Workers and Unemployment Compensation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 9 (released September 1938)
by Ida C. Merriam
Seasonal Workers and Unemployment Insurance in Great Britain, Germany, and Austria
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 12 (released December 1938)
by Franz Huber
Seasonal Workers Under the Minnesota Unemployment Compensation Law
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 4 (released April 1942)
by Edward F. Medley
Seasonal Workers Under the Mississippi Unemployment Compensation Law
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 2 (released February 1939)
by McDonald K. Horne, Jr.
Seasonality in Ohio Canning Establishments in Relation to Unemployment Compensation
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 1, No. 10 (released October 1939)
by William Papier
The Second Actuarial Valuation fo the Railroad Retirement Act
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 5 (released May 1944)
Second Pensions Among Newly Entitled Workers: Survey of New Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 34 No. 11 (released November 1971)
by Lenore E. Bixby and Virginia P. Reno
Second Session of UN's Social Commission
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 11 (released November 1947)
by Dorothy Lally
Selected Bibliography of the Social Security Administration's Research on Disability Issues
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 3 (released August 2006)

The Social Security Disability Insurance program was established in 1956. This selected bibliography highlights the research and statistical work that the Social Security Administration (SSA) has done on the subject of disability. It focuses on articles that have appeared in the Social Security Bulletin since 1956 and earlier Bulletin articles about events leading up to the program's establishment. The bibliography also includes ORES Working Papers and disability-related research done by the Center for Retirement Research at Boston College and the Michigan Retirement Research Center at the University of Michigan funded through grants from SSA.

Selected Characteristics and Self-Perceived Performance of Individual Social Security and Supplemental Security Income Representative Payees
Research and Statistics Note No. 2009-02 (released December 2009)
by Rene Parent, Jeffrey Hemmeter, and Nancy Early

Social Security beneficiaries and Supplemental Security Income recipients who are unable to manage their own benefits may be assisted by relatives, friends, or other interested individuals, called representative payees. This note examines the characteristics of these payees, the payees' assessment of their own performance, and whether they believe their beneficiaries' needs are met. Using results of a survey of representative payees conducted by Westat, Inc. for a 2007 National Research Council report, this note also examines the importance of indicators of potential misuse identified in that report.

Selected Child Welfare Expenditures by State and Local Agencies, 1951–52
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 7 (released July 1954)
by Mignon Sauber and Jack Wiener
Selected Sources of Money Income for Aged Persons
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 20 No. 12 (released December 1957)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Selected Sources of Money Income for Aged Persons, June 1958
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 12 (released December 1958)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Selected Sources of Money Income for Aged Persons, June 1959
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 12 (released December 1959)
by Lenore A. Epstein
Selection of Simple and Stratified Random Samples of Fixed Size Without Replacement
ORES Working Paper No. 9 (released June 1979)
by Michael H. Bostron

For the past few years, the Division of Disability Studies has been using simple random and stratified random sampling procedures for many of its studies. The beneficiary sample for the 1978 Survey of Disability and Work was a stratified random sample drawn from the Master Benefit Record. The samples used in the Study of Consistency and Validity of Initial Disability Decisions and the Trial Work Period Folder Study also used simple random sampling procedures. Simple random subsampling has been used to enable multivariate analysis to be performed on files that would otherwise have been too large for existing software.

Because of the Division of Disability Studies' wide use of simple and stratified random sampling designs, software was developed to efficiently accomplish these sampling schemes. This paper describes the algorithm and presents the computer programs that are currently being used in the division.

Self-Employed Doctors of Medicine Under OASDHI
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 32 No. 8 (released August 1969)
by Truman Wilson and Charles R. Helbing
Self-Employed Doctors of Medicine Under OASDHI, 1967
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 12 (released December 1972)
by Herbert R. Tacker
Self-Employment Income At Low Earnings Levels
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 2 (released February 1976)
by Aaron J. Prero
The Sensitivity of Proposed Social Security Benefit Formula Changes to Lifetime Earnings Definitions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 2 (released May 2012)
by Hilary Waldron

Several Social Security proposals have included benefit formula changes that apply to earners above a specified percentage of the combined male and female (unisex) lifetime earnings distribution. This study finds that if Social Security's median unisex average indexed monthly earnings (AIME) amount is used to define an earnings threshold below which benefits will be held unreduced, the percentage of fully insured men subject to benefit reductions (70 percent) will exceed the unisex estimate of the population subject to benefit reductions (50 percent) by 20 percentage points. If policymakers wish to adjust future benefits and focus benefit reductions on middle or high primary or full-time wage earners in a household, the male, rather than unisex, AIME would come closer to achieving such a goal.

Service Aspects of Public Assistance Administration Facilitating Rehabilitation of Persons in Need
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 2 (released February 1942)
by Lucille Martin Smith
Service, Compensation, and Age of Railroad Employees, 1941
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 3 (released March 1943)
by Ira Marshak
Services for Children: Three Programs of the Children's Bureau
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 5 (released May 1950)
Services for Crippled Children: The Program's Thirteenth Year
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 5 (released May 1952)
Services for Migrant Agricultural Workers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 11 (released November 1954)
by Jules H. Berman
Seventh Actuarial Valuation of the Railroad Retirement System
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 22 No. 5 (released May 1959)
by Abraham M. Niessen
Seventh International Conference of Social Work
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 11 (released November 1954)
by Dorothy Lally
Sex, Marital Status, and Living Arrangements of 1,000,000 Recipients of Old-Age Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 2 (released February 1939)
Sex-Specific Equivalent Retirement Ages: 1940–2050
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 47 No. 3 (released March 1984)
by Marilyn M. McMillen
The Shape of Poverty in 1966
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 3 (released March 1968)
by Mollie Orshansky
Shifting Income Sources of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 72 No. 3 (released August 2012)
by Chris E. Anguelov, Howard M. Iams, and Patrick J. Purcell

This article discusses the importance of 401(k)-type defined contribution plans and individual retirement accounts in providing retirement income for current and future retirees. The rising prevalence and importance of this type of income creates measurement errors in the Current Population Survey and other sources of data on the income of the aged because those sources substantially underreport the distributions from such retirement plans.

Shifting the Cost of Self-Pay for SSI Workers in Supported Employment
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 1 (released January 1993)
by Aaron J. Prero
Shifts in the Aged-Nonaged Income Relationship, 1979–85
ORES Working Paper No. 35 (released January 1988)
by Daniel B. Radner

In recent years there has been a substantial amount of discussion about the economic status of the aged. There is a widely accepted view that the status of the aged has improved relative to the nonaged. This view has affected the debate on modifications to the Social Security system and other retirement plans. This paper discusses changes in the economic status of the aged during the past several years, in terms of the real income of the aged and in terms of the income of the aged relative to the income of the nonaged. The analysis uses detailed age groups within both the aged and nonaged groups. This detail is important because summary age groups are not homogeneous. Income change at different income levels within each age group is also examined. Income is adjusted for size of family unit and, in some cases, age of head.

Sickness Insurance and California Farm Workers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 5 (released May 1968)
by Philip Booth
The Significance of the Money Payment in Public Assistance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 9 (released September 1944)
by Jane M. Hoey
Significant Events, 1935–55
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 8 (released August 1955)
Significant Events, 1935–60
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 23 No. 8 (released August 1960)
Simplifying the Supplemental Security Income Program: Options for Eliminating the Counting of In-kind Support and Maintenance
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 68 No. 4 (released March 2009)
by Richard Balkus, James Sears, Susan Wilschke, and Bernard Wixon

The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program's policies for both living arrangements and in-kind support and maintenance (ISM) are intended to direct program benefits toward persons with the least income and support, but they are considered cumbersome to administer and, in some cases, poorly targeted. Benefit restructuring would simplify the SSI program by replacing ISM-related benefit reductions with benefit reductions for recipients living with another adult. This article presents a microsimulation analysis of two benefit restructuring options, showing that the distributional outcomes under both options are inconsistent with a basic rationale of the SSI program.

Simulating Aggregate and Distributional Effects of Various Plans for Modifying the Retirement Earnings Test
ORES Working Paper No. 46 (released July 1990)
by David Pattison, Benjamin Bridges, Michael V. Leonesio, and Bernard Wixon

Social Security's retirement test continues to receive considerable attention among policymakers. During the past several years a variety of proposals have been advanced that would modify or eliminate the test for persons aged 65–69. In January 1989, we completed a study report, prepared for SSA internal use, that examined several of these proposals, analyzing their effect on earnings, taxes, and benefits in the first year of implementation, assumed to be 1990. The analysis included both aggregate estimates and estimates for selected population subgroups.

Although the specific proposals for modifying the retirement test have changed somewhat during the past 2 years, continued congressional interest has prompted the release of this initial version of our research for public discussion. Because we are in the process of revising the report for final publication, readers are cautioned that numbers and interpretations contained in this paper are subject to change.

Simulating the Long-Run Aggregate Economic and Intergenerational Redistributive Effects of Social Security Policy
ORES Working Paper No. 56 (released August 1992)
by Dean R. Leimer

This paper reports on the status of a long-run simulation model of the U.S. economy and its relationships with the Social Security program that was designed with these considerations in mind. The model was developed specifically to analyze the potential equity and efficiency effects of alternative Social Security policies in a long-run context.

Six Months of State Merit System Progress
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 7 (released July 1940)
by Albert H. Aronson
The Sixth Year of the Railroad Retirement System
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 10 (released October 1942)
by Jack M. Elkin
Size of Firms Covered by Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, 1945–48
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 11 (released November 1950)
Size of Firms Covered by Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, March 1946
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 9 (released September 1948)
Size of Income and Personal Characteristics of the Aged
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 10 (released October 1954)
Size of the Aged Labor Reserve
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 6 (released June 1952)
Slowing Down Pension Indexing: The Foreign Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 6 (released June 1983)
by Daniel Wartonick and Michael D. Packard
Social Characteristics and Employment Status of Urban Workers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 2 (released February 1941)
by Anne G. Kantor, Doris Carlton, and Barkev S. Sanders
Social Democracy in Sweden
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 2 (released February 1940)
by Helen Fisher Hohman
Social Insurance and Public Assistance Payments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 12 (released December 1943)
by Elva Marquard
Social Insurance and Related Measures in Wartime Europe
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 6 (released June 1940)
by Almon F. Rockwell
Social Insurance and Related Payments in 1947
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 11, No. 8 (released August 1948)
Social Insurance and Related Payments in 1948
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 12 No. 8 (released August 1949)
Social Insurance for Permanently Disabled Workers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 4, No. 3 (released March 1941)
by Arthur J. Altmeyer
Social Insurance for Special Groups in France
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 10 (released October 1939)
by Almon F. Rockwell
Social Insurance in Venezuela
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 4 (released April 1946)
by Oscar M. Powell
Social Insurance Legislation of 1972
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 2 (released February 1973)
Social Insurance Payments in the United States
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 3, No. 3 (released March 1940)
by Ruth Reticker
Social Insurance Provisions for Children With Disabilities in Selected Industrialized Countries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 3 (released July 1995)
by Ilene R. Zeitzer

In the United States, low-income families who have a child or children with a disability may be eligible for cash benefits payable under the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. In the last few years, the number of these children on the SSI rolls has increased dramatically due, in large part, to new standards developed in response to a 1990 Supreme Court decision and the subsequent retroactive activity as a result of that decision. The rise in the number of child beneficiaries has led to increased concerns as to whether cash benefits are the best way to help these children and their families deal with the additional needs and expenses caused by disabilities. This article begins with a summary of recent American developments regarding the childhood disability issue as background to an exploration of comparative practices.

In light of the current interest in the United States concerning children with disabilities, it seems timely to explore the approaches used by other countries' social insurance programs. This study details the practices and provisions of 14 European countries and 4 other developed countries (Australia, Israel, Japan, and New Zealand). In addition to examining the variables involved in making cash benefits available and awarding them to families on behalf of disabled children, the article also provides information of in-kind benefits to which such families would be entitled and gives some insight as to the philosophy and policy goals of selected foreign programs.

Social Insurance Reform in Czechoslovakia: Background and Plans
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 10, No. 6 (released June 1947)
by Max Bloch
Social Progress Through Credit Unions in Peru
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 25 No. 8 (released August 1962)
by William E. Allen
Social Reports of the German Federal Republic, 1970–71
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 35 No. 7 (released July 1972)
by Paul Fisher
Social Security: A Worldwide Issue
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 8 (released August 1979)
by Stanford G. Ross
Social Security Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 4 (released April 1968)
Social Security Abroad
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 5 (released May 1968)
Social Security Act Amendments
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 39 No. 3 (released March 1976)
Social Security Act Amendments of 1946
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 9, No. 9 (released September 1946)
by Angela J. Murray
Social Security Act Amendments of 1950 in Brief
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 9 (released September 1950)
Social Security Act Amendments of 1950: A Summary and Legislative History
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 10 (released October 1950)
by Wilbur J. Cohen and Robert J. Myers
Social Security Act Amendments of 1952
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 15 No. 9 (released September 1952)
by Wilbur J. Cohen
Social Security Act Amendments of 1954: A Summary and Legislative History
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 17 No. 9 (released September 1954)
by Wilbur J. Cohen, Robert M. Ball, and Robert J. Myers
Social Security Act Amendments, End of 1973
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 37 No. 4 (released April 1974)
The Social Security Act: The First Twenty Years
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 18 No. 8 (released August 1955)
by Charles I. Schottland
Social Security Administration Created as an Independent Agency: Public Law 103-296
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 58 No. 1 (released January 1995)
by Rita L. DiSimone
The Social Security Administration's 10-Percent Sample File of OASDI Beneficiaries
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 55 No. 1 (released January 1992)
by John W. Wagner
The Social Security Administration's Continuous Work History Sample
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 52 No. 10 (released October 1989)
by Creston M. Smith
The Social Security Administration's Death Master File: The Completeness of Death Reporting at Older Ages
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 64 No. 1 (released April 2002)
by Mark E. Hill and Ira Rosenwaike

To provide a more detailed assessment of the coverage of deaths of older adults in the Social Security Administration's Death Master File (DMF), this research note compares age-specific death counts from 1960 to 1997 in the DMF with official counts tabulated by the National Center for Health Statistics, the most authoritative source of death information for the U.S. population. Results suggest that for most years since 1973, 93 percent to 96 percent of deaths of individuals aged 65 or older were included in the DMF.

The Social Security Administration's Disability Service Improvement Process
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 66 No. 3 (released August 2006)
by Jo Anne B. Barnhart

Statement by Social Security Commissioner Jo Anne B. Barnhart before the Subcommittee on Social Security, House Committee on Ways and Means, June 15, 2006.

Social Security Administration's Master Earnings File: Background Information
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 69 No. 3 (released October 2009)
by Anya Olsen and Russell E. Hudson

The Social Security Administration (SSA) receives reports of earnings for the U.S. working population each year from employers and the Internal Revenue Service. The earnings information received is stored at SSA as the Master Earnings File (MEF) and is used to administer Social Security programs and to conduct research on the populations served by those programs. This article documents the history, content, limitations, complexities, and uses of the MEF (and data files derived from the MEF). It is intended for researchers who use earnings data to study work patterns and their implications, and for those interested in understanding the data used to administer the current-law programs.

Social Security Advisory Councils
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 26 No. 9 (released September 1963)
by James E. Marquis
Social Security Agreements in Western Europe
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 13 No. 4 (released April 1950)
Social Security Amendments of 1956: A Summary and Legislative History
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 19 No. 9 (released September 1956)
by Charles I. Schottland
Social Security Amendments of 1958: A Summary and Legislative History
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 21 No. 10 (released October 1958)
by Charles I. Schottland
Social Security Amendments of 1961: Summary and Legislative History
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 24 No. 9 (released September 1961)
by Wilbur J. Cohen and William L. Mitchell
Social Security Amendments of 1965: Summary and Legislative History
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 9 (released September 1965)
by Wilbur J. Cohen and Robert M. Ball
Social Security Amendments of 1967: Summary and Legislative History
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 2 (released February 1968)
by Wilbur J. Cohen and Robert M. Ball
Social Security Amendments of 1972: Summary and Legislative History
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 36 No. 3 (released March 1973)
by Robert M. Ball
Social Security Amendments of 1977: Legislative History and Summary of Provisions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 3 (released March 1978)
by John Snee and Mary Ross
Social Security Amendments of 1983: Legislative History and Summary of Provisions
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 46 No. 7 (released July 1983)
by John A. Svahn and Mary Ross
Social Security and Development Planning: Some Issues
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 30 No. 6 (released June 1967)
by Paul Fisher
Social Security and Economic and Development: Seminar Report
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 3 (released March 1968)
by Thomas C. Blaisdell, Jr.
Social Security and Immigrant Earnings
ORES Working Paper No. 69 (released June 1996)
by Harriet Orcutt Duleep and Mark C. Regets

Immigrant cohorts have varied over time in many ways that have important implications for projecting the contributions immigrants make to the Social Security system. Using immigrant cohorts in the 1970, 1980, and 1990 decennial censuses, we find that immigrant men experience faster earnings growth than native-born men and that there has been a large increase over time in immigrant earnings growth rates. Thus, recent reductions in immigrant entry earnings are significantly compensated for by faster immigrant earnings growth.

Social Security and Immigrant Earnings
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 59 No. 2 (released April 1996)
by Harriet Orcutt Duleep and Mark C. Regets

Immigrant cohorts have varied over time in many ways that have important implications for projecting the contributions immigrants make to the Social Security system. Using immigrant cohorts in the 1970, 1980, and 1990 decennial censuses, we find that immigrant men experience faster earnings growth than U.S.-born men; that there has been a large decline in initial immigrant earnings over time; and that there has been an accompanying large increase over time in immigrant earnings growth rates. Thus, recent reductions in immigrant entry earnings are significantly compensated for by faster immigrant earnings growth.

Social Security and Job-Creation Measures: Recent French Experience
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 41 No. 9 (released September 1978)
by Lois S. Copeland
Social Security and Marginal Returns to Work Near Retirement
Issue Paper No. 2009-02 (released April 2009)
by Gayle L. Reznik, David A. Weaver, and Andrew G. Biggs

Using the Social Security Administration's MINT (Modeling Income in the Near Term) model, this paper calculates the marginal returns to work near retirement, as measured by the increase in benefits associated with an additional year of employment at the end of an individual's work life. With exceptions for certain population subgroups, the analysis finds that marginal returns on Social Security taxes paid near retirement are generally low. The paper also tests the effects on marginal returns of a variety of potential Social Security policy changes designed to improve incentives to work.

Social Security and Older Workers
ORES Working Paper No. 53 (released December 1991)
by Michael V. Leonesio

Many observers have noted that the long-term decline in labor force participation by older Americans may reflect the evolution of social institutions that effectively discourage work. Often-cited factors include employer discrimination against older workers, private pension plans that penalize continued employment, and the Social Security system. Various policies, such as eliminating Social Security's retirement test, have been proposed with a view to eliminating or lessening employment barriers.

This paper summarizes the economic evidence that addresses the role played by the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance (OASI) programs in retirement decisions. OASI is shown to have statistically significant effects on both the timing of retirement and the amount of post-retirement work; however, the influence is not large relative to the many other factors that determine the labor-supply decisions of older workers. Consequently, changes in Social Security policy of the type and magnitude that are politically feasible are unlikely to result in large changes in retirement behavior.

Social Security and Older Workers
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 56 No. 2 (released April 1993)
by Michael V. Leonesio
Social Security and Post-War Planning
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 5, No. 12 (released December 1942)
by George E. Bigge
Social Security and Private Saving: A Reexamination of the Time Series Evidence Using Alternative Social Security Wealth Variables
ORES Working Paper No. 19 (released November 1980)
by Dean R. Leimer and Selig D. Lesnoy

In an important article in the Journal of Political Economy [1974], Martin Feldstein estimated that the introduction of the social security system had reduced personal saving by 50 percent, with serious consequences for capital formation and output. His conclusion was based on a consumer expenditure function estimated with U.S. time series data and incorporating a social security wealth variable of his construction.

The original intent of this paper was to examine the sensitivity of Feldstein's conclusions to certain assumptions underlying his construction of the social security variable. In particular, we wanted to examine the implication of his assumptions concerning how individuals perceive future benefits and taxes.

Social Security and Private Saving: An Examination of Feldstein's New Evidence
ORES Working Paper No. 31 (released October 1983)
by Dean R. Leimer and Selig D. Lesnoy

In a recent article in the Journal of Political Economy (Leimer and Lesnoy 1982), we presented new time series evidence that cast considerable doubt on earlier evidence presented by Martin Feldstein (1974) which implied that social security had a large and statistically significant negative effect on personal saving in the United States. Our results may be summarized as follows: First, the social security wealth variable used by Feldstein was seriously flawed as a result of a computer-programming error. Simply correcting this error substantially changes the estimated effect of social security on saving. Second, the statistical evidence depends upon assumptions which are embedded in the construction of the social security wealth variable. These assumptions relate, first, to how individuals form their expectations about the social security benefits they expect to receive and the social security taxes they expect to pay and, second, to estimates of the number of workers, dependent wives, and surviving widows who will receive benefits. Adopting reasonable assumptions that differ from those used by Feldstein leads to generally weaker estimates of the relationship between social security and saving. Finally, the estimated relationship between social security and saving is acutely sensitive to the period of estimation examined. We concluded that the time series evidence simply does not support the hypothesis that social security has substantially reduced personal saving in the United States.

Social Security and Private Saving: Another Look
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 42 No. 5 (released May 1979)
Social Security and Private Saving: New Time Series Evidence with Alternative Specifications
ORES Working Paper No. 22 (released September 1981)
by Selig D. Lesnoy and Dean R. Leimer

The purpose of this paper is to consider several alternative specifications of the consumer expenditure function.

Social Security and Private Saving: Theory and Historical Evidence
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 48 No. 1 (released January 1985)
by Selig D. Lesnoy and Dean R. Leimer
Social Security and Retirement
ORES Working Paper No. 17 (released August 1980)
by John B. Hagens

Empirical evidence suggests that Social Security causes many individuals to retire earlier than otherwise. An important policy question is whether the program should be designed to lessen or eliminate this induced retirement effect. This paper proposes a framework for analyzing the socially desirable relationship between Social Security and retirement. Two common rationales for the program, forced saving and retirement insurance, are examined. If importance is attached to either of these rationales, then it is shown that retirement neutrality should probably not be a feature of Social Security.

Social Security and Social Change
from Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 8 (released August 1968)
by Wilbur J. Cohen