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ANDI Alerts

This page provides detailed information about ANDI's Accessibility Alerts.

What is an Accessibility Alert?

When ANDI is launched, it scans every HTML element on the page and automatically analyzes each element for conditions that commonly cause accessibility issues. When it finds such a condition, ANDI generates an Alert which helps a user pinpoint potential accessibility issues.

This help page explains the conditions which cause the Alerts to appear, the reasons for accessibility concerns, and what steps can be taken to resolve the Alerts thus making the page more accessible.

What are the Alert levels?

Alerts are categorized into three priority levels:

1. danger icon Danger Alerts
Red Alerts containing a triangle icon with an "x" signify the highest alert level, Danger Alerts.

These Alerts provide notification that accessibility defects are highly likely. These scenarios must be corrected for the page to be made accessible by all types of users.
2. warning icon Warning Alerts
Orange Alerts containing a triangle icon with an "!" signify the medium alert level, Warning Alerts.

These Alerts signal that screen reader inconsistencies are likely and information on the page may not be communicated consistently to all users.
3. caution icon Caution Alerts
Yellow Alerts containing a triangle icon with a "?" signify the lowest alert level, Caution Alerts.

These Alerts signal that accessibility issues could exist but need further investigation.

Does an Alert mean a defect/non-conformance is certain?

No, not necessarily. It is up to a human to evaluate ANDI's results and make the final decision on whether or not a scenario is a true accessibility defect or non-conformance. ANDI is merely an inspection tool used for this purpose.

Elements with No Accessible Name


Alert: No Accessible Name (Danger)

  • danger icon Form Element has no accessible name, associated label, or title.
  • danger icon Element has no accessible name, or title.
  • danger icon Image has no accessible name, alt, or title.
  • danger icon Table has no accessible name, caption, or title.
  • danger icon Figure has no accessible name, figcaption, or title.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element has no HTML markup that would provide an accessible name for the element. This is the most common Alert.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A screen reader would either read nothing for this element or make a guess.

What should be done?

Add HTML markup that will provide a name for the element.

Add one "Namer" to the element depending on the type of element:
  • All elements can use aria-labelledby or aria-label attributes.
  • Form elements can use an explicit <label> with a for attribute pointing to the id of the form element, or a <label> that contains the form element.
  • Images can use the alt attribute.
  • Tables can use the <caption> tag.
  • Figures can use the <figcaption> tag.
  • Container type elements <p>, <div>, <li>, etc. can contain text which will provide a name.
  • All elements can use the title attribute.

Alert: Placeholder, But No Name (Warning)

  • warning icon Placeholder provided, but element has no accessible name.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This input or textarea element has no HTML markup that would provide an accessible name for the element, but it does have a placeholder attribute.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A screen reader may read the placeholder text, however, placeholder is not part of the accessible name calculation.

What should be done?

Add one Namer or Describer that will provide an accessible name for the element such as aria-labelledby, aria-label, or an associated <label>.

Duplicate Attributes Found


Alert: Duplicate ID (Danger)

  • danger icon Duplicate 'id' attributes: [value]

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element has an id (unique identifier) that matches another element's id (unique identifier).

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Because the accessibility components aria-labelledby, aria-describedby, table cell headers, and for attribute of a <label> use reference ids, they could be referencing an incorrect element and therefore providing the wrong text to the screen reader.

What causes this?

Often, this is the result of a developer copying and pasting an element and forgetting to change the id. Other times, a developer does not know that ids must be unique according to W3C standards.

What should be done?

The value of each id on the page should be made unique.


Alert: Duplicate For (Danger)

  • danger icon Duplicate 'for' attributes associate with this element's id: [value]

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element is associated with a <label> whose for attribute value matches the value of another label's for attribute. i.e. a "duplicate for".

Why is this an accessibility concern?

When a screen reader is trying to make an associate between a form element and a label, if there are multiple label's with the same for value, a screen reader might read the label that was not intended to be associated with the element. W3C specifications do not explicitly state that duplicate for attributes should not be used, however screen readers do not support such usage.

What causes this?

Often, this is the result of a developer copying and pasting a label and forgetting to change the value of the for attribute on the pasted label.

What should be done?

Ensure that the for attributes are unique, and correctly pointing to the id of the associating form element.

If the concatenation of the text of multiple labels is the intention, then use the aria-labelledby attribute whose value is a space delimited list of ids which point to the ids of the labels.

more info about label

Components That Should Not Be Used Alone


Alert: ARIA-describedBy Alone (Danger)

  • danger icon Cannot use aria-describedby alone on this element.

Why did ANDI alert this?

The only HTML markup found on the element that provides accessibility information is the aria-describedby attribute.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Screen readers expect an accessible name to be provided when aria-describedby is used. If there is no name, a screen reader might fail and read irrelevant text or make a guess.

What should be done?

One option is to simply use aria-labelledby instead of aria-describedby. Another option is to provide an accessible name along with the aria-describedby by adding an aria-labelledby, aria-label, or other element-specific "Namer".

more info about aria-describedby

Alert: Legend Alone (Danger)

  • danger icon Cannot use legend alone on this element.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This type of element, can make use of the <legend> tag, however <legend> should not be used as the only means of which to name or describe an element.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

For all elements except a fieldset, legend does not technically provide a name. When used alone, screen readers may not read correctly or may double speak.

What should be done?

If a <legend> tag is being used to describe a group of form elements, the best practice to name each individual form element is to add a <label> tag associated with the form element (<label for="id">) or contain the form element within a label.

more info about legend

Misspelled ARIA Attributes


Alert: Misspelled attribute (Danger)

  • danger icon Misspelled attribute: [attributes]

Why did ANDI alert this?

The element contains a typo or misspelling of an ARIA attribute.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Most screen readers do not check for attribute misspellings or attempt to interpret syntax errors. Therefore, the misspelled ARIA attributes will not provide the intended accessibility information.

What should be done?

The misspelling should be corrected since a developer explicitly attempted to add additional accessibility information.

ANDI checks for the following misspellings:
  • aria-labeledby
  • arialabelledby
  • labelledby
  • ariadescribedby
  • describedby
  • arialabel

Alert: ARIA-Role Not Valid (Danger)

  • danger icon Aria-role not a valid attribute, use role instead.

Why did ANDI alert this?

The element contains an attribute that does not exist: aria-role.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Most screen readers do not check for attribute misspellings or attempt to interpret syntax errors. Therefore, aria-role will not provide the intended accessibility information.

What should be done?

Most likely, the attribute role was intended to be used on this element.

Table Alerts


Alert: Scope Value Invalid. (Danger)

  • danger icon Scope attribute value is invalid: [value]

Why did ANDI alert this?

ANDI's Table Analysis Mode is set to "scope" and this element has a scope attribute but the value is invalid.

If scope associations are not appropriate for this table's design, change the Table Analysis Mode to "headers".
How to choose the right Table Analysis Mode

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A screen reader will not make the correct cell associations if the value is invalid.

What should be done?

Change the value of the scope attribute to col, row, colgroup, or rowgroup.


Alert: Headers Only for TH, TD. (Danger)

  • danger iconHeaders attribute only allowed on th and td tags.

Why did ANDI alert this?

ANDI's Table Analysis Mode is set to "headers" and this element has a headers attribute but is not a <td> or <th>

If headers associations are not appropriate for this table's design, change the Table Analysis Mode to "scope".
How to choose the right Table Analysis Mode

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A screen reader will not make the intended cell associations.

What should be done?

Move the headers attribute to a table cell such as a <td> or <th> and ensure that the reference id is pointing to the correct <th>.


Alert: Table Has No TH. (Danger)

  • danger iconTable has no th cells.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This table doesn't have any <th> cells.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A data table should have <th> cells so that a screen reader can associate header cells with the data cells.

What should be done?

If the table is a "presentation" table used for layout instead of data, then role="presentation" should be added to the <table> and no <th> tags should be used.

Otherwise, if the table is intended to provide data, use <th> cells to make the header associations. In addition, for accessibility, table headers must have additional markup to make the associations: scope or headers/id. More information here: How to make data table cell associations.


Alert: Table Mixing Scope and Headers. (Danger)

  • danger iconTable using both scope and headers, choose one association method.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This table has cells using both scope attributes and headers/id.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A screen reader may not correctly associate the cells since it has to account for both scope and headers/id. If modifications are made to this table in the future, the associations may become broken and its accessibility would suffer.

What should be done?

As a best practice, choose one cell association method appropriate for the table design: either scope or headers/id. More information here: How to make data table cell associations.


Alert: Table Has No Headers/ID. (Danger)

  • danger iconTable Has No Headers/ID associations.

Why did ANDI alert this?

ANDI's Table Analysis Mode is set to "headers" and This table has no headers/id associations.

If headers associations are not appropriate for this table's design, change the Table Analysis Mode to "scope".
How to choose the right Table Analysis Mode

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A screen reader may not correctly associate header cells to the data cells.

What should be done?

Tables must make header cell associations using either headers/id or scope. If applicable for this table, add id attributes to the <th> cells and headers attributes to the <td> cells which point at the id of their associated <th>. More information here: How to make data table cell associations.


Alert: Switch Table Analysis Mode. (Danger)

  • danger iconTable has no scope but does have headers, switch Table Analysis Mode to headers.
  • danger iconTable has no headers/id but does have scope, switch Table Analysis Mode to scope.

Why did ANDI alert this?

ANDI is suggesting that the user test the table in the other Table Analysis Mode because it has detected accessibility markup for the other mode.

What should be done?

Change the Table Analysis Mode and determine if the table is accessible. How to choose the right Table Analysis Mode


Alert: No Scope at TH Intersection. (Danger)

  • danger iconScope association missing at <th> intersection.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This table contains column or row headers (<th>) that intersect. One or more <th> at the "intersection" positions are missing a required scope attribute.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

When a <th> cell is positioned at an "intersection" of table headers a screen reader may not be able to correctly assume the direction in which the <th> points.

What should be done?

To all <th> cells at table header intersections, add a scope attribute with a value that indicates the direction in which the cell points. (scope="col" or scope="row").


Alert: Too Many Scope Levels. (Warning)

  • warning iconToo many levels of scope (rows/columns).

Why did ANDI alert this?

ANDI's Table Analysis Mode is set to "scope" and this table has cells using the scope attribute but there are more than two "levels".

The following is an example of a table with too many levels of scope. Notice that the third row exceeds the scope limit of 2 levels max.

<table>
<caption>too many levels of scopes table</caption>
<tr><th scope="col">good</th><th scope="col">good</th></tr>
<tr><th scope="col">good</th><th scope="col">good</th></tr>
<tr><th scope="col">good</th><th scope="col">good</th></tr>
<tr><th scope="col">bad </th><th scope="col">bad </th></tr>
<tr><td>data</td><td>data</td></tr>
</table>

If scope associations are not appropriate for this table's design, change the Table Analysis Mode to "headers".
How to choose the right Table Analysis Mode

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A screen reader may not associate all header cells intended.

What should be done?

There are several remediation options:

  • Reorganize the table to minimize the complexity and depth of header cells.
  • Divide the table into multiple tables.
  • Remove all scope attributes and strictly use headers/id.

More information here: How to make data table cell associations


Alert: Presentation Table Markup. (Warning)

  • warning iconPresentation tables should not have [components].

Why did ANDI alert this?

This layout table, marked with role="presentation", has HTML markup reserved for data tables.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A screen reader may see the data table markup, and make cell associations or add verbosity to the elements within the presentation table.

What should be done?

For this presentation table, remove HTML markup intended for data tables.

  • <caption>: replace with a heading tag (h1, h2, h3...)
  • <th>: replace with <td>
  • scope: remove this attribute
  • headers/id: remove any headers attributes
  • summary: remove this attribute


Alert: Table Has No Scope. (Caution)

  • caution iconTable has no scope associations.

Why did ANDI alert this?

ANDI's Table Analysis Mode is set to "scope" and this table has no scope attributes.

If scope associations are not appropriate for this table's design, change the Table Analysis Mode to "headers".
How to choose the right Table Analysis Mode

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A screen reader may not correctly associate header cells to the data cells.

What should be done?

Tables must make header cell associations using additional markup. If applicable for this table design, add scope attributes to the <th> cells using the appropriate values: col, row, colgroup, or rowgroup. More information here: How to make data table cell associations.

Accesskey Alerts


Alert: Accesskey Multiple Values (Danger)

  • danger icon Accesskey value has more than one character: [value]

Why did ANDI alert this?

An accesskey with more than one character as its value was found on this element.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Multi-character accesskeys do not work in any browser. Some browsers support space delimited values, but such use is not a recommended practice.

What should be done?

Set the accesskey value to use only one character.

more info about accesskey

Alert: Accesskey Empty (Danger)

  • danger icon Accesskey is Empty.

Why did ANDI alert this?

An accesskey was found on this element but its value was empty.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

The element does not have a working accesskey.

What should be done?

If the accesskey was truly intended to be placed on the element, add a single character as the value of the accesskey Otherwise, remove the accesskey attribute from the element as it serves no purpose.

more info about accesskey

Alert: Accesskey Duplicate (Danger/Caution)

  • danger icon Duplicate AccessKey found on button [value].
  • danger icon Duplicate AccessKey found on link [value].
  • caution icon Duplicate AccessKey found [value].

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element has an accesskey attribute that matched another element's accesskey.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

The accesskey functionality may not work as intended. Accesskeys on buttons and links must be unique. Some browsers allow for a "focus jump" functionality when duplicate accesskeys are placed on elements that aren't links and buttons. However, when a shared accesskey is placed on links or buttons, usually only the first button or link will be selected.

What should be done?

As a best practice, make each accesskey unique. If multiple buttons or links share the same function, put the accesskey on only one.

more info about accesskey

Alert: Accesskey Without Focus (Warning)

  • warning icon Found AccessKey that might not gain visual focus: [value]

Why did ANDI alert this?

An accesskey was found on an element in which tab focus cannot be placed using a keyboard (the element is not natively focusable and did not have a positive tab index).

Why is this an accessibility concern?

If the accesskey combination is pressed, focus may not shift to the element, or visual indication of focus may not be displayed.

What should be done?

If the accesskey was truly intended to be placed on this non-natively focusable element, add a tabindex attribute with a numeric integar value such as tabindex="0". Doing so will allow the browser to add its defult focus ring.

more info about accesskey

Reference Alerts


Alert: ARIA-labelledBy References No Text (Danger)

  • danger icon Element's aria-labelledby references provide no name text.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element is using an aria-labelledby attribute, but the elements it references do not provide a usable accessible name.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Since the references of the aria-labelledby attribute return no useable name, if no other HTML markup for this element can provide an accessible name, then this element will not be accessible and a screen reader may read nothing or make a guess.

What causes this?

The referenced elements themselves have no HTML markup that would provide an accessible name such as innerHTML.

What should be done?

Either modify the referenced elements to return an accessible name by adding text contents, or point the aria-labelledby at the id of a different element that does provide an accessible name. Alternatively, aria-label can be used instead of aria-labelledby to explicitly define the element's accessible name.

more info about aria-labelledby | more info about aria-describedby

Alert: ARIA-describedBy References No Text (Danger)

  • danger icon Element's aria-describedBy references provide no description text.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element is using an aria-describedby attribute, but the elements it references do not provide a usable accessible description.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Since the references of the aria-describedby attribute return no usable description, no description would be read by a screen reader.

What causes this?

The referenced elements themselves have no HTML markup that would provide an accessible description such as innerHTML.

What should be done?

Either modify the referenced elements to return an accessible description by adding text contents, or point the aria-describedby at the id of a different element that does provide an accessible description. Alternatively, title can be used instead of aria-describedby to explicitly define the element's accessible description.

more info about aria-describedby

Alert: ARIA Reference ID Not Found (Danger)

  • danger icon Element referenced by (ARIA-*) with [value] not found.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element has an aria-labelledby or aria-describedby that points to an id that cannot be found on the page. Note: if more than one id was not found, ANDI will throw a different alert.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Important accessibility information might be missing. Screen readers will not notify a user that the id could not be found.

What causes this?

A developer may have intended to reference an element that was later removed or the id was changed. Another reason may be that the developer did not understand that aria-labelledby and aria-describedby only work with id references, and tried to add text directly into the attribute's value.

What should be done?

A discussion with the developer may needed to investigate why the id is missing. Check the semantics of the accessible name to make sure it provides text equivalency to the screen reader user.

more info about aria-labelledby | more info about aria-describedby

Alert: Improper Reference Attribute Possible (Danger)

  • danger icon Improper use of (REFERENCE ATTRIBUTE) possible: Referenced ids [list] not found.

Why did ANDI alert this?

More than one id referenced by an aria-labelledby, aria-describedby, or cell headers cannot be found on the page. ANDI suggests that the attribute is not being used properly.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Important accessibility information might be missing. Screen readers will not notify a user when the id references cannot be found.

What causes this?

This is typically caused by the developer not understanding that aria-labelledby, aria-describedby, headers values are meant to contain id references and literal text was mistakenly added directly into the attribute's value. Another possibility is that a developer may have intended to reference elements that were later removed or the id values were changed.

What should be done?

Ensure that the attribute is being used properly: A list of id references only and not literal text.

more info about aria-labelledby | more info about aria-describedby | more info about data table cell associations

Alert: Headers Reference Not TH (Danger)

  • danger icon Element referenced by headers attribute with (value) is not a <th>.

Why did ANDI alert this?

ANDI's Table Analysis Mode is set to "headers" and this cell is referencing an element that is not a <th>.

If headers associations are not appropriate for this table's design, change the Table Analysis Mode to "scope".
How to choose the right Table Analysis Mode

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A screen reader will not make the intended cell association.

What should be done?

The headers attribute should reference the id of a <th>.


Alert: Image map reference not found (Danger)

  • danger icon Image referenced by image map not found.

Why did ANDI alert this?

ANDI found an image map (<map>) that references an (<img>) that does not exist on the page.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

The image map will not work for all users.

What should be done?

Ensure that the name attribute of the <map> points to an <img> that has a matching usemap.


Alert: Headers References No Text (Warning)

  • warning icon Element's headers references provide no associating text.

Why did ANDI alert this?

ANDI's Table Analysis Mode is set to "headers" and this cell is using a headers attribute but the elements it references do not provide header cell association text.

If headers associations are not appropriate for this table's design, change the Table Analysis Mode to "scope".
How to choose the right Table Analysis Mode

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A screen reader will not communicate the intended header cell associations.

What causes this?

The referenced cell has no HTML markup that would provide text such as innerHTML.

What should be done?

Either modify the referenced elements by adding text contents, or point the headers at the id of a different element that does provide text.


Alert: Anchor Target Not Found (Warning)

  • warning iconIn-page anchor target not found [id].

Why did ANDI alert this?

This link's href points to the id of an element on the page that cannot be found. NOTE: ANDI should not throw this alert if a javascript "click event handler" is attached to this link.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

If this link is intended to be used as an in-page jump, or skip to content link, it may not function as intended.

What should be done?

Testers should click on the link to discover if the link is functional as an in-page jump/bookmark. If the link has no function, add the element with the id to the page or remove the link. Further evaluation or a discussion with the web author may be needed to determine the purpose of this link.


Alert: Headers Reference is TD (Warning)

  • warning icon Headers attribute with (value) is referencing a <td>.

Why did ANDI alert this?

ANDI's Table Analysis Mode is set to "headers" and this cell is referencing an element that is a <td>.

If headers associations are not appropriate for this table's design, change the Table Analysis Mode to "scope".
How to choose the right Table Analysis Mode

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A screen reader may not make the intended cell association.

What should be done?

The headers attribute should reference the id of a <th>. The web author may be able to simply convert the <td> into a <th>


Alert: ARIA Reference has ARIA-label (Caution)

  • caution icon (ARIA-*) reference contains aria-label.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element has an aria-labelledby or aria-describedby that points to an element that has an aria-label.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Although WCAG specifications allow for this usage, not all screen readers support the functionality. Therefore, differences in screen reader output is likely.

What should be done?

Remove the aria-label from the referenced element, point to a different element, or use other HTML markup on this element such as aria-label or title.

more info about aria-labelledby | more info about aria-describedby

Invalid HTML Alerts


Alert: Page Title Empty (Danger)

  • danger icon Page title cannot be empty.

Why did ANDI alert this?

A <title> tag was found in the page's <head> but the contents were empty.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A screen reader would not read a concise, logical title for the page, and would instead read the url.

What should be done?

Add text contents to the <title> tag in the page's <head>.


Alert: No Page Title (Danger)

  • danger icon Page has no title.

Why did ANDI alert this?

A <title> tag could not be found in the page's <head> or the document.title was not set.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A screen reader would not read a concise, logical title for the page, and would instead read the url.

What should be done?

Add a <title> tag in the page's <head>.


Alert: Multiple Page Titles (Danger)

  • danger icon Page has more than one title tag.

Why did ANDI alert this?

More than one <title> tag was found in the page's <head>.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A screen reader would not read both <title> tags. Therefore, it could read the semantically "wrong" one.

What should be done?

Ensure that only one <title> tag is in the page's <head>.


Alert: More Legends Than Fieldsets (Danger)

  • danger icon There are more legends than fieldsets: [Legends: (number)] [Fieldsets: (number)]

Why did ANDI alert this?

More <legend> tags were found on the page than <fieldset> tags.

What causes this?

A <legend> could have been placed on the page without being contained in a <fieldset>. Another possibility is that more than one <legend> could have been placed in a <fieldset>.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

<legend> tags serve no semantic purpose outside of a <fieldset>. Moreover, each <fieldset> should contain only one <legend>. Either of these scenarios could signify that a developer did not add proper markup to the page, and therefore the accessible name and descriptions of the form elements could be semantically incorrect.

What should be done?

Ensure that this page's <legend> tags are contained within a <fieldset> and are at a 1:1 ratio. Remember that a <legend> only describes a group of form elements; each form element must have an explicit label to provide an accessible name.

more info about legend

Alert: More Figcaptions Than Figures (Danger)

  • danger icon There are more figcaptions than figures: [Figcaptions: (number)] [Figures: (number)]

Why did ANDI alert this?

More <figcaption> tags were found on the page than <figure> tags.

What causes this?

A <figcaption> could have been placed on the page without being contained in a <figure>. Another possibility is that more than one <figcaption> could have been placed in a <figure>.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

<figcaption> tags serve no semantic purpose outside of a <figure>. Moreover, each <figure> should contain only one <figcaption>. Either of these scenarios could signify that a developer did not add proper markup to the page, and therefore the accessible name and description of elements could be semantically incorrect.

What should be done?

Ensure that each of this page's <figcaption> tags are contained within a <figure> and are at a 1:1 ratio. Remember that a <figcaption> names a <figure> and by default does not name or describe other elements contained within the figure. If an element within the figure should be named or described by the <figcaption>, point an aria-labelledby or aria-describedby at the <figcaption>.

more info about figcaption

Alert: More Captions Than Tables (Danger)

  • danger icon There are more captions than tables: [Captions: (number)] [Tables: (number)]

Why did ANDI alert this?

More <caption> tags were found on the page than <table> tags.

What causes this?

A <caption> could have been placed on the page without being contained in a <table>. Another possibility is that more than one <caption> could have been placed in a <table>.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

<caption> tags serve no semantic purpose outside of a <table>. Moreover, each <table> should contain only one <caption>. Either of these scenarios could signify that a developer did not add proper markup to the page, and therefore the accessible name and description of elements could be semantically incorrect.

What should be done?

Ensure that each of this page's <caption> tags are contained within a <table> and are at a 1:1 ratio.

more info about caption

Alert: Tabindex Not A Number (Danger)

  • danger icon Tabindex value is not a number: [value]

Why did ANDI alert this?

An element was found on the page with a non-numeric value for the tabindex attribute.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Browser behavior is inconsistent in this scenario. Some browsers will replace the value with a negative tabindex, others will not change the value. Regardless, a keyboard user will not be able to place focus on such an element.

What should be done?

Ensure that the value of the tabindex attribute is a numeric, positive or negative integer. Remember that only positive values allow for keyboard focus using the tab key. Negative values are meant for programmatically controlling focus with JavaScript.

more info about tabindex

Alert: List Item No Container (Danger)

  • danger icon List item <li> is not contained by a list container <ol> or <ul>.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This list item (<li>) is not contained by a list container tag (<ol> or <ul>).

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Since the list item tag carries a semantic meaning, it should be contained within a list container.

What should be done?

If the list item (<li>) is meant to be part of a list, contain it within a list container tag (<ol> or <ul>). Otherwise, use a different tag for the item such as <strong>, <em>, or <span>.


Alert: Description List Item No Container (Danger)

  • danger icon Description list item is not contained by a description list container <dl>.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This description list item (<dd> or <dt>) is not contained by a description list container tag (<dl>).

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Since the description list item tags carry semantic meaning, they should be contained within a description list container.

What should be done?

If the description list item (<dd> or <dt>) is meant to be part of a description list, contain it within a description list container tag (<dl>). Otherwise, use a different tag for the item such as <strong>, <em>, or <span>.


Alert: Deprecated Attribute (Warning)

  • warning icon Using HTML5, found deprecated (attribute/tag)

Why did ANDI alert this?

ANDI detected an HTML5 doctype and the presence of a deprecated attribute or tag.

ANDI will throw this Alert when it finds:

  • A summary attribute on a table
  • A name attribute on an a link
  • A scope attribute on an table td cell

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Screen readers may not support deprecated HTML.

What should be done?

Abide by the specifications of the doctype being used.

With HTML5,

  • Instead of deprecated summary on a table, use <caption>
  • Instead of name on an a link, use id
  • Instead of scope attribute on an td, use a th (table header) cell

Misuses of Alt attribute


Alert: Alt Only For Images (Warning)

  • warning icon Alt attribute only allowed on Images.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element has an alt attribute and is not an image: <img>, <input[type=image]>, or <area>.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Not all screen readers will announce the alt attribute for non-image elements. Therefore, some accessibility information that was intentionally added in the alt value may not be spoken.

What should be done?

Do not use the alt attribute for non-images. Instead use the global attribute aria-label to provide an accessible name or title to provide an accessible description.

more info about alt | more info about aria-label | more info about title

Misuses of Label Tag


Alert: Explicit Label For Form Elements (Warning)

  • warning icon Explicit Label only allowed on form elements, excluding buttons.

Why did ANDI alert this?

The for attribute of a <label> is pointing to the id of this element which is not a form element.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Some screen readers will not announce an explicit label on non-form elements. Therefore, the associating <label> may not be read as part of the accessible name of this element.

What should be done?

Consider removing the <label>, or at minimum, the for attribute from the label and add other HTML markup to the element to provide an accessible name, such as aria-labelledby or aria-label.

more info about label

Alert: Explicit Label Not For Buttons (Warning)

  • warning icon Explicit Label not allowed on buttons.

Why did ANDI alert this?

The for attribute of a <label> is pointing to the id of this element which is a button: <button>, <input[type=submit]>, <input[type=button]>, <input[type=reset]>.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Some screen readers will not announce an explicit label on buttons. Therefore, the associating <label> may not be read as part of the accessible name of this button.

What should be done?

Consider removing the <label>, or at minimum, the for attribute from the label and add other HTML markup to the button to provide an accessible name, such as aria-labelledby, aria-label, value, or innerHTML.

more info about label

Risky Component Combinations


Alert: Do Not Combine Components (Warning)

  • warning icon Do not combine components: [components]

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element contains multiple accessibility components which ANDI's "One Namer, One Describer" methodology discourages.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

When elements have multiple Namers or multiple Describers, screen reader precedence differs wildly. To minimize these differences and ensure consistent screen reader output, follow ANDI's methodology.

What should be done?

Only one Namer should be used at a time. Only one Describer should be used at a time.

ANDI defines the following components as Namers. Choose one:
  • aria-labelledby
  • aria-label
  • label (form elements)
  • alt (images)
  • value (input buttons)
  • figcaption (figure)
  • caption (table)
  • innerText (container elements)
ANDI defines the following components as Describers. Choose one:
  • aria-describedby
  • legend (form elements & only with label)
  • title
more info about Namers | more info about Describers

JavaScript Events to Investigate


Alert: Mouse Event Without Keyboard Access(Caution)

  • caution icon Mouse event found on Element without Keyboard Access: [event]

Why did ANDI alert this?

An element was found that cannot gain keyboard access and it has a mouse event. Events ANDI scans for: onMouseOver

Why is this an accessibility concern?

If this element has functionality that can only be triggered using a mouse, then a keyboard-only user will not be able to conveniently trigger the functionality.

What should be done?

Ensure that the page does not prevent keyboard-only users from accessing areas of the page/application or triggering important functionality.


Alert: JavaScript Event Found (Caution)

  • caution icon JavaScript event found: [event]

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element has a JavaScript event. Events ANDI scans for: onBlur, onChange

Why is this an accessibility concern?

The presence of JavaScript events does not mean there is a definite accessibility issue. However, depending on what the JavaScript was programmed to do when the event is activated, an accessibility issue could arise.

If the onChange event occurs on a select box, a keyboard user must be able to make selections without a mouse. If the page is submitted using an onChange event of a form element, focus should be properly maintained on the new page.

If the onBlur event causes something to change dynamically, a visually impaired user should be notified.

What should be done?

Test the element to ensure that the JavaScript events do not cause accessibility issues such as focus loss, keyboard traps, or dynamic screen changes without notification.

Tab Order Alerts


Alert: Focusable Element Not In Tab Order (Caution)

  • caution icon Focusable element not in tab order.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element has a tabindex value that is negative.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Elements with negative tabindex values cannot achieve focus using the keyboard's tab key. However, focus can be placed on such elements programmatically using JavaScript.

What should be done?

Ensure that not being able to tab to the element is acceptable and related functionality is not restricted to mouse use only.

more info about tabindex

Alert: Element Not In Tab Order, No Name (Caution)

  • caution icon Focusable element not in tab order and has no accessible name.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element has a tabindex value that is negative and it has no accessible name.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Elements with negative tabindex values cannot achieve focus using the keyboard's tab key. However, focus can be placed on such elements programmatically using JavaScript. Also, elements must have an accessible name.

What should be done?

Ensure that not being able to tab to the element is acceptable and related functionality is not restricted to mouse use only. Also ensure that when focus is shifted to the element, a proper accessible name is provided.

more info about tabindex | more info about accessible name

Alert: Disabled Elements Found (Caution)

  • caution icon Page has (x) disabled elements not in the tab order.

Why did ANDI alert this?

Disabled Elements (disabled="disabled") were found on the page.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Elements disabled using the disabled attribute are not in the tab order. Therefore, a person who is visually impaired and using a keyboard to tab through the page may not know that the field is disabled.

What should be done?

Provide an accessible alternative so that all users know which fields are disabled. There are a number of ways to do so:

  • Provide a text description on the page that fields are disabled.
  • Use the readonly or aria-readonly attributes combined with CSS to make the element look disabled (grayed out).
  • Instead of using the native semantic tag (<input>, <button>, <a>) use a generic tag <div>, <p>, <span> with a tabindex="0" to present the uneditable/unalterable information.
  • Completely remove the element if it is not necessary.
  • Rather than disabling buttons/links, allow the user to press the button/link as normal and provide a message to the user saying that the function is not permitted for whatever reason.


Alert: Iframe is in the tab order. (Warning/Caution)

  • warning iconIframe is in the tab order and has no accessible name or title.
  • caution iconIframe is in the tab order.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This iframe has not been programmatically removed from the tab order.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Elements in the tab order, but not intended to be in the tab order, reduce a person's effiency while navigating using a keyboard.

NOTE: Some browsers consider iframes natively tabbable, while others do not.

What should be done?

Removing the iframe from the tab order (add tabindex='1') will resolve the alert and not cause confusion for a person who is visually impaired and using a keyboard. If the iframe is meant to be in the tab order for a functional reason, provide an accessible name using a title attribute, aria-label, or aria-labelledby and disregard ANDI's caution alert.

Empty Components Found


Alert: Empty Component (Caution)

  • caution icon Empty Component: [component]

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element contains an accessibility component with an empty string as its value or empty contents.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Some components in certain scenarios have no functional reason to be left empty. A screen reader does not typically give notification when components are empty.

What should be done?

The intention for the empty component should be investigated. Ensure that the element has an accessible name. If no functional reason for the empty component can be found and the element has an accessible name, the component can be removed.

What about Images with an empty alt?

ANDI recognizes the long-standing practice of setting an alt attribute to an empty string for decorative, non-descriptive images. However, if the image is focusable or interactive, an empty alt is not always acceptable: A focusable/interactive image should have an accessible name.


Alert: Empty Header Cell. (Caution)

  • caution iconEmpty Header Cell.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This cell is a <th> and it is empty (has no Namer).

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A screen reader will not read anything for this header since it is empty.

What should be done?

Add text to categorize the purpose of the column or row. Table header cells should not be empty.

Exclusions

With some table designs it is acceptable for a header cell to be empty. For example, when it is at the intersection of a row of headers and a column of headers. For header cells at the upper left position of a table, ANDI will not throw this alert.

Unused Child Components


Alert: Child Unused Text (Caution)

  • caution icon Child contains unused text.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element's child (child elements) contain accessibility components that will not be used in the accessible name calculation.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Important contextual information might not be provided to a screen reader user.

What should be done?

Ensure that the semantics of this element's accessible name is sufficient and no important information in the child is being left out.

more info about child

Excessive Text


Alert: Attribute Length Exceeds Character Limit (Warning)

  • warning icon Attribute length exceeds 250 characters.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element's title, alt, or aria-label attribute value has a length that exceeds 250 characters.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

An accessible name should be a concise identifier of an element. A screen reader has no way of skipping through sections of long accessible names. Shortening the accessible name will help with efficient page navigation using a screen reader.

What should be done?

If a long amount of text is needed, shorten the accessible name and use the aria-describedby attribute. The aria-describedby provides a screen reader user a way to make a selection to hear more information about an element.

more info about aria-describedby

Link Alerts



Graphics Alerts


Alert: Marquee Found (Danger)

  • danger icon Marquee element found, do not use.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element is a <marquee>.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

This element can trigger seizures in some individuals when the content is large. In addition the constantly moving text within a <marquee> element can be difficult to read for people with low vision or who have cognition disorders like dyslexia.

What should be done?

Do not use the <marquee> tag and do not allow any text to constantly move or scroll on the page.



Alert: Server Side Image Map (Danger)

  • danger icon Server side image map found.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element contains a sever side image map.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Server side image maps cannot be navigated by screen reader users and keyboard-only users.

What should be done?

Do not use server side image maps. Client side image maps are acceptable but must be made accessible by adding alt attributes to the <area> tags.


Alert: Image Alt Not Descriptive (Danger)

  • danger icon Image alt text is not descriptive.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This image has alt text that does not provide an equivalent text description conveying the purpose and/or function of the image.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

If the image does not have a text alternative description that contains a meaningful representation of the image, then the image is not accessible to a person who is blind or visually impaired and uses a screen reader.

What should be done?

The image alt text or other Namer/Describer should provide a text alternative or brief description of the image.

Alternatively, if the image is purely decorative and does not require an explanation, add role=presentation to the image or set the alt value to an empty string alt="". Doing so will ensure that the screen reader does not try to describe the image.


Alert: Area Not In Map (Danger)

  • danger icon <area> not contained in <map>.

Why did ANDI alert this?

ANDI has found an an image map element, (<area>), that is not contained within a <map> element.

What should be done?

To create a proper client-side image map, <area> elements must be within a <map> element.


Alert: Image Alt File Name (Warning)

  • warning icon Image alt text contains file name.

Why did ANDI alert this?

The image alt text contains a file name such as ".jpg", ".gif", ".png".

Why is this an accessibility concern?

If the image does not have a text alternative description that contains a meaningful representation of the image, then the image is not accessible to a person who is blind or visually impaired and uses a screen reader.

What should be done?

The image alt text or other Namer/Describer should provide a text alternative or brief description of the image.

Alternatively, if the image is purely decorative and does not require an explanation, add role=presentation to the image or set the alt value to an empty string alt="". Doing so will ensure that the screen reader does not try to describe the image.


Alert: Image Alt Redundant Phrase (Caution)

  • caution icon Redundant phrase in image alt text.

Why did ANDI alert this?

The image alt contains a redundant phrase such as "image of ...", "photo of ...".

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A screen reader will automatically announce the word "graphic" when an <img> tag is being used, therefore, including the redundant phrase in the alt text increases verbosity.

What should be done?

Remove the redundant phrase.


Alert: Ensure Background Images Are Decorative (Caution)

  • caution icon Ensure that background images are decorative.

Why did ANDI alert this?

ANDI has found at least one element that contains a CSS background-image.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

If the background image is not decorative or contains important information, a person who is visually impaired may miss important information if the image does not have a text description or text equivalent somewhere on the page.

What should be done?

Ensure that all non-decorative background images have a text alternative description somewhere on the page.

Improper ARIA Usage


Alert: Heading Role No Aria-Level (Danger)

  • danger icon Role='heading' used without aria-level.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element was declared a heading using role="heading" but it was not given a heading level using aria-level.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

A screen reader will not be able to accurately determine the level of the heading.

What should be done?

Use semantic HTML headings (<h1>, <h2>, <h3>, <h4>, <h5>, <h6>) instead of role="heading" or add the aria-level attribute to the element and assign it a numeric value.

Alert: Tabbable Element has Aria-level (Danger)

  • danger icon Tabbable element is hidden from screen reader using aria-hidden='true'.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element is tabbable and intentionally hidden from a screen reader using aria-hidden="true".

Why is this an accessibility concern?

If an element is tabbable, it should be able to be read by a screen reader. In this scenario, a screen reader will either speak nothing or will speak the wrong information.

What should be done?

If the element must be tabbable it should have a proper accessible name and/or description and it should not be hidden from a screen reader using aria-hidden="true". Otherwise, if the element must be hidden from the screen reader because the information was provided to the screen reader by other means or the element is decorative, then the element should not be tabbable.

Button Alerts


Alert: Non-Unique Button (Warning)

  • warning icon Non-unique button: same name/description as another button.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This button has the same accessible name and description as another button.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

If the buttons perform different functions or use a different set of data, then the buttons need to be uniquely identified. A person who is visually impaired may not be aware of the buttons context (its location on the page). If two or more buttons have the same accessible name and description, then functionality should also be the same no matter which buttons is pressed.

For example when buttons are placed within rows of a data table, and every row has a button labeled "Delete". In this case, a unique identifying description about what is going to be deleted must be programmatically associated with the button, otherwise a user may delete the wrong data.

What should be done?

If the buttons perform a different function or use a different set of data, either rename the buttons or attach a unique description to the button using the aria-describedby or title attributes. Otherwise, if the buttons are truly identical and perform the same function, no change is required.

Structure Alerts


Alert: Not Using Semantic Heading Markup (Warning)

  • warning icon Element visually conveys heading meaning but not using semantic heading markup.

Why did ANDI alert this?

This element appears to be a false heading.

Why is this an accessibility concern?

Headings (text that is concise, has a large font size or bold font weight) provide a way to visually organize and categorize sections of a web page. Users of assitive technology are able to quickly navigate web pages when headings exist on a page. However, headings must be coded properly using semantic heading tags (<h1> through <h6>) in order for users of AT to navigate.

What should be done?

Convert this false heading, and any others on the page, into one of the semantic heading tags: <h1>, <h2>, <h3>, <h4>, <h5>, <h6>.