These provisions extend or reduce the categories of workers or the amount of earnings covered under the Social Security system. We provide a summary list of all options (printer-friendly PDF version) in this category. For each provision listed below, we provide an estimate of the financial effect on the OASDI program over the long-range period (the next 75 years) and for the 75th year. In addition, we provide graphs and detailed single year tables. We base all estimates on the intermediate assumptions described in the 2018 Trustees Report.

Choose the type of estimates (summary or detailed) from the list of provisions.

Number Table and graph selection
F1 Starting in 2019, cover newly hired State and local government employees.
F2 Starting in 2019, exempt individuals with more than 180 quarters of coverage from the OASDI payroll tax. Earnings exempted from OASDI payroll tax would not be used in computing benefits.
F3 Expand covered earnings to include employer and employee premiums for employer-sponsored group health insurance (ESI). Starting in 2022, phase out the OASDI payroll tax exclusion for ESI premiums. Set an exclusion level at the 75th percentile of premium distribution in 2022, with amounts above that subject to the payroll tax. Reduce the exclusion level each year by 10 percent of the 2022 exclusion level until fully eliminated in 2031. Eliminate the excise tax on ESI premiums starting in 2022.
F4 Expand covered earnings to include contributions to voluntary salary reduction plans (such as Cafeteria 125 plans and Flexible Spending Accounts). Starting in 2019, subject these contributions to the OASDI payroll tax, making the payroll tax treatment of these contributions like 401(k) contributions.
F5 Tax Reform for Business: Establish a value added tax (VAT) of 3.0 percent for 2020 and 6.5 percent for 2021 and later. Assume about 75% of personal consumption expenditures is subject to the VAT.
F6 Apply a 6.2 percent tax on investment income as defined in the Affordable Care Act (ACA), with unindexed thresholds as in the ACA ($200,000 for single filer, $250,000 for married filing jointly), starting in 2020. Proceeds go to the OASI and DI Trust Funds.