Benefit Calculation Examples for Workers Retiring in 2018
Primary Insurance Amount
The basic Social Security benefit is called the primary insurance amount (PIA).
Typically the PIA is a function of average indexed monthly earnings
We determine the PIA by applying a PIA formula
to AIME. The formula we use depends on the year of first eligibility
(the year a person attains age 62 in retirement cases).
||Formula bend points
||Formula applied to AIME
||.9(895) + .32(4059 - 895) = $1,817.98|
||.9(816) + .32(4917 - 816) + .15(9144 - 4917) = $2,680.77|
Because the worker in case A is first eligible for benefits in 2018,
and also retires in 2018, there are no applicable
cost-of-living adjustments, or COLAs,
to the amount computed above. Therefore, the case-A PIA is the case A amount
computed above truncated to the next lower dime, or $1,817.90.
The worker in case B is first eligible in 2014 (the year case B reached age 62).
Thus the case-B PIA is the case B amount computed above truncated to the next lower
dime and increased by cost-of-living adjustments, or COLAs, for 2014 through
2017. These COLAs are 1.7 percent, 0.0 percent, 0.3 percent, 2.0 percent, respectively.
The resulting PIA is $2,788.90.
Benefit based on PIA and age
The amount of retirement benefits paid depends on a person's age when he or
she begins receiving benefits. We reduce benefits taken before a person's
normal (or full) retirement age
and we increase benefits
taken after normal retirement age.
We assume the worker in case A begins receiving benefits at the earliest possible
age, which is age 62. Because case A's normal retirement age is 66 years and 4 months,
the benefit amount for case A is reduced for 52 months of
The $1,817.90 PIA is thus reduced to a monthly benefit of $1,333.00.
The benefit amount for case B, assuming that benefits begin exactly at normal
retirement age of 66 years, is not reduced except for rounding down to the
next lower dollar. The $2,788.90 PIA is thus reduced to a monthly benefit of
In addition to case B, we also have other benefit examples for
workers whose earnings have equalled or exceeded
maximum taxable amounts. These examples show AIME and benefit amounts for
retirement at ages 62, 65, and 70.