(a) Scope and application—(1) Scope. The standards set forth in this subpart apply to the compromise of administrative debts pursuant to 31 U.S.C. 3711. We may exercise such compromise authority for debts arising out of activities of, or referred or transferred for collection services to, the agency when the amount of the debt then due, exclusive of interest, penalties, and administrative costs, does not exceed $100,000 or any higher amount authorized by the Attorney General.
(2) Application. Unless otherwise provided by law, when the principal balance of a debt, exclusive of interest, penalties, and administrative costs, exceeds $100,000 or any higher amount authorized by the Attorney General, the authority to accept a compromise rests with the Department of Justice (DOJ). We will evaluate the compromise offer using the factors set forth in this subpart. If an offer to compromise any debt in excess of $100,000 is acceptable to the agency, we will refer the debt to the Civil Division or other appropriate litigating division in the DOJ using a Claims Collection Litigation Report (CCLR). A CCLR may be obtained from the DOJ's National Central Intake Facility. The referral will include appropriate financial information and a recommendation for the acceptance of the compromise offer. DOJ approval is not required if we reject a compromise offer.
(b) Bases for compromise—(1) Compromise. We may compromise a debt if the agency cannot collect the full amount based upon the debtor's inability to pay, inability to collect the full debt, the cost of collection, or if we are doubtful that the debt can be proven in court.
(i) Inability to pay. We may compromise a debt if the debtor is unable to pay the full amount in a reasonable time, as verified through credit reports or other financial information. In determining a debtor's inability to pay the full amount of the debt within a reasonable time, we will obtain and verify the debtor's claim of inability to pay by using credit reports and/or a current financial statement from the debtor, executed under penalty of perjury, showing the debtor's assets, liabilities, income, and expenses. We may use a financial information form used in connection with the agency's programs or may request suitable forms from the DOJ or the local United States Attorney's Office. We also may consider other relevant factors such as:
(A) Age and health of the debtor;
(B) Present and potential income;
(C) Inheritance prospects;
(D) The possibility that assets have been concealed or improperly transferred by the debtor; and
(E) The availability of assets or income that may be realized by enforced collection proceedings.
(ii) Inability to collect full debt. We may compromise a debt if the Government is unable to collect the debt in full within a reasonable time by enforced collection proceedings.
(A) In determining the Government's ability to enforce collection, we will consider the applicable exemptions available to the debtor under State and Federal law, and we may also consider uncertainty as to the price any collateral or other property will bring at a forced sale.
(B) A compromise affected under this section should be for an amount that bears a reasonable relation to the amount that can be recovered by enforced collection procedures, with regard to any exemptions available to the debtor and the time that collection will take.
(iii) Cost of collection. We may compromise a debt if the cost of collecting the debt does not justify the enforced collection of the full amount.
(A) The amount accepted in compromise of such debts may reflect an appropriate discount for the administrative and litigation costs of collection, with consideration given to the time it will take to effect collection. Collection costs may be a substantial factor in the settlement of small debts.
(B) In determining whether the costs of collection justify enforced collection of the full amount, we will consider whether continued collection of the debt, regardless of cost, is necessary to further an enforcement principal, such as the Government's willingness to pursue aggressively defaulting and uncooperative debtors.
(iv) Doubtful debt can be proven in court. We may compromise a debt if there is significant doubt concerning the Government's ability to prove its case in court.
(A) If significant doubt exists concerning the Government's ability to prove its case in court for the full amount claimed, either because of the legal issues involved or because of a legitimate dispute as to the facts, then the amount accepted in compromise should fairly reflect the probabilities of successful prosecution to judgment, with due regard to the availability of witnesses and other evidentiary support for the Government's claim.
(B) In determining the litigation risks involved, we will consider the probable amount of court costs and attorney fees a court may impose pursuant to the Equal Access to Justice Act, 28 U.S.C. 2412, if the Government is unsuccessful in litigation.
(2) Installments. We may not accept compromises payable in installments. This is not an advantageous form of compromise in terms of time and administrative expense. If, however, payment in installments is necessary in cases of compromise based on paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (iii) of this section, we will obtain a legally enforceable written agreement providing that, in the event of default, the full original principal balance of the debt prior to compromise, less sums paid thereon, is reinstated. In cases of compromise based on paragraph (b)(1)(iv) of this section, we will consult with the Office of the General Counsel concerning the appropriateness of including such a requirement in the legally enforceable written agreement. Whenever possible, we will obtain security for repayment in the manner set forth in § 422.809.
(c) Enforcement policy. Subject to the Commissioner's approval, we may compromise statutory penalties, forfeitures, or claims established as an aid to enforcement and to compel compliance if our enforcement policy, in terms of deterrence and securing compliance, present, and future, will be adequately served by the agency's acceptance of the sum to be agreed upon.
(d) Joint and several liability. (1) When two or more debtors are jointly and severally liable, we will pursue collection against all debtors, as appropriate. We will not attempt to allocate the burden of payment between the debtors but will proceed to liquidate the indebtedness as quickly as possible.
(2) We will ensure that a compromise agreement with one debtor does not automatically release the agency's claim against the remaining debtor(s). The amount of a compromise with one debtor will not be considered a precedent or binding in determining the amount that will be required from other debtors jointly and severally liable on the claim.
(e) Further review of compromise offers. If we are uncertain whether to accept a firm, written, substantive compromise offer on a debt that is within the agency's statutory compromise authority, we may use a CCLR with supporting data and particulars concerning the debt to refer the offer to the DOJ's Civil Division or other appropriate litigating division. The DOJ may act upon such an offer or return it to the agency with instructions or advice.
(f) Consideration of tax consequences to the Government. In negotiating a compromise, we will consider the tax consequences to the Government. In particular, we will consider requiring a waiver of tax-loss-carry-forward and tax-loss-carry-back rights of the debtor. For information on discharge of indebtedness reporting requirements, see § 422.848(e).
(g) Mutual release of the debtor and the Government. In all appropriate instances, a compromise that is accepted will be implemented by means of a mutual release. The terms of such mutual release will provide that the debtor is released from further non-tax liability on the compromised debt in consideration of payment in full of the compromise amount, and the Government and its officials, past and present, are released and discharged from any and all claims and causes of action arising from the same transaction that the debtor may have. In the event a mutual release is not executed when a debt is compromised, unless prohibited by law, the debtor is still deemed to have waived any and all claims and causes of action against the Government and its officials related to the transaction giving rise to the compromised debt.