Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Asia and the Pacific, 2018
The 2019 regional volume for The Americas was the last edition of Social Security Programs Throughout the World published by SSA. Our publication partner the International Social Security Association will continue to provide country profiles on its website.
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The 2018 profile for Singapore incorrectly listed the age for the employer's 17% provident fund contributions under the "Source of Funds - Employer" section of "Old Age, Disability, and Survivors" in the original version of this report. It also contained an incorrect employer contribution percentage for employees aged 66 and older in the same section. The correct information now appears in this report.
The profiles for Hong Kong and Taiwan omitted their status relative to China in the original version of this report. The names used for both have been modified throughout the report to include (China).
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This second issue in the current four-volume series of Social Security Programs Throughout the World reports on the countries of Asia and the Pacific. The combined findings of this series, which also includes volumes on Africa, the Americas, and Europe, are published at six-month intervals over a two-year period. Each volume highlights features of social security programs in the particular region.
The information contained in these volumes is crucial to our efforts, and those of researchers in other countries, to review different ways of approaching social security challenges that will enable us to adapt our social security systems to the evolving needs of individuals, households, and families. These efforts are particularly important as each nation faces major demographic changes, especially the increasing number of aged persons, as well as economic and fiscal issues.
Social Security Programs Throughout the World is the product of a cooperative effort between the Social Security Administration (SSA) and the International Social Security Association (ISSA). The ISSA is the principal international institution bringing together social security agencies and organizations around the world. Founded in 1927, the ISSA is located at the International Labour Office in Geneva.
Previous editions of this report, which date back to 1937, were issued as one volume and were prepared by SSA staff. ISSA has researched and written the publication since the introduction of the four-volume format in 2002, and beginning with the volume on the Americas 2015, the publication is co-financed by both institutions. The ISSA has conducted the research largely through its numerous country-based correspondents, as well as its social security databases and other types of data that are drawn together to update this report. Social Security Programs Throughout the World is based on legislation in effect in July 2018, or the last date for which information has been received by SSA or ISSA. We added a new country, Cambodia, to this volume, and omitted the summary for Iraq since information could not be verified.
Harald Braumann, Luisa Carmona, and Megan Gerecke managed the data collection and analysis for the ISSA, and John Jankowski and Ben Danforth performed a technical review of the report for SSA. Staff of the Office of Information Resources at SSA edited the report and prepared it for publication.
Jason D. Brown
Associate Commissioner for Research, Evaluation, and Statistics
- Table 1. Social security programs, by country and type
- Table 2. Mandatory old-age income security programs, by country and type
- Table 3. Demographic and other social-security related statistics, by country, 2016–2018
- Table 4. Insured and employer contribution rates, by country and program type, 2018