These provisions modify the formula used for calculating the basic Social Security monthly benefit called the Primary Insurance Amount (PIA). We provide a summary list of all options (printer-friendly PDF version - coming soon) in this category. For each provision listed below, we provide an estimate of the financial effect on the OASDI program over the long-range period (the next 75 years) and for the 75th year. In addition, we provide graphs and detailed single year tables. We base all estimates on the intermediate assumptions described in the 2019 Trustees Report.

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B1.1 Price indexing of PIA factors beginning with those newly eligible for OASDI benefits in 2026: Reduce factors so that initial benefits grow by inflation rather than by the SSA average wage index.
B1.2 Progressive price indexing (30th percentile) of PIA factors beginning with individuals newly eligible for OASDI benefits in 2026: Create a new bend point at the 30th percentile of the AIME distribution of newly retired workers. Maintain current-law benefits for earners at the 30th percentile and below. Reduce the 32 and 15 percent factors above the 30th percentile such that the initial benefit for a worker with AIME equal to the taxable maximum grows by inflation rather than the growth in the SSA average wage index.
B1.3 Progressive price indexing (40th percentile) of PIA factors beginning with individuals newly eligible for OASDI benefits in 2026: Create a new bend point at the 40th percentile of the AIME distribution of newly retired workers. Maintain current-law benefits for earners at the 40th percentile and below. Reduce the 32 and 15 percent factors above the 40th percentile such that the initial benefit for a worker with AIME equal to the taxable maximum grows by inflation rather than the growth in the SSA average wage index.
B1.4 Progressive price indexing (50th percentile) of PIA factors beginning with individuals newly eligible for OASDI benefits in 2026: Create a new bend point at the 50th percentile of the AIME distribution of newly retired workers. Maintain current-law benefits for earners at the 50th percentile and below. Reduce the 32 and 15 percent factors above the 50th percentile such that the initial benefit for a worker with AIME equal to the taxable maximum grows by inflation rather than the growth in the SSA average wage index.
B1.5 Progressive price indexing (60th percentile) of PIA factors beginning with individuals newly eligible for OASDI benefits in 2026: Create a new bend point at the 60th percentile of the AIME distribution of newly retired workers. Maintain current-law benefits for earners at the 60th percentile and below. Reduce the 32 and 15 percent factors above the 60th percentile such that the initial benefit for a worker with AIME equal to the taxable maximum grows by inflation rather than the growth in the SSA average wage index.
B1.6 (2023) Progressive price indexing (30th percentile) of PIA factors beginning with individuals newly eligible for OASI benefits in 2023: Create a new bend point at the 30th percentile of the AIME distribution of newly retired workers. Maintain current-law benefits for earners at the 30th percentile and below. Reduce the 32 and 15 percent factors above the 30th percentile such that the initial benefit for a worker with AIME equal to the taxable maximum grows by inflation rather than the growth in the SSA average wage index. Disabled workers are: (a) not affected prior to normal retirement age; and (b) subject to a proportional reduction in benefits, based on the worker's years of disability, upon conversion to retired-worker beneficiary status. Young survivors (children of deceased workers and surviving spouses with a child in care) are not affected.
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B1.6 (2028) Progressive price indexing (30th percentile) of PIA factors beginning with individuals newly eligible for OASI benefits in 2028: Create a new bend point at the 30th percentile of the AIME distribution of newly retired workers. Maintain current-law benefits for earners at the 30th percentile and below. Reduce the 32 and 15 percent factors above the 30th percentile such that the initial benefit for a worker with AIME equal to the taxable maximum grows by inflation rather than the growth in the SSA average wage index. Disabled workers are: (a) not affected prior to normal retirement age; and (b) subject to a proportional reduction in benefits, based on the worker's years of disability, upon conversion to retired-worker beneficiary status.
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B1.7 Progressive price indexing (40th percentile) of PIA factors for individuals newly eligible for OASI benefits in 2027 through 2064: Create a new bend point at the 40th percentile of the AIME distribution of newly retired workers. Maintain current-law benefits for earners at the 40th percentile and below. Reduce the 32 and 15 percent factors above the 40th percentile such that the initial benefit for a worker with AIME equal to the taxable maximum grows by inflation rather than the growth in the SSA average wage index. Disabled workers are: (a) not affected prior to normal retirement age; and (b) subject to a proportional reduction in benefits, based on the worker's years of disability, upon conversion to retired-worker beneficiary status. Young survivors (children of deceased workers and surviving spouses with a child in care) are not affected.
B1.8 Progressive price indexing (50th percentile) of PIA factors for individuals newly eligible for OASI benefits in 2024 through 2063: Create a new bend point at the 50th percentile of the AIME distribution of newly retired workers. Maintain current-law benefits for earners at the 50th percentile and below. Reduce the 32 and 15 percent factors above the 50th percentile such that the initial benefit for a worker with AIME equal to the taxable maximum grows by inflation rather than the growth in the SSA average wage index. Disabled workers are: (a) not affected prior to normal retirement age; and (b) subject to a proportional reduction in benefits, based on the worker's years of disability, upon conversion to retired-worker beneficiary status.
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B2.1 Beginning with those newly eligible for OASI benefits in 2029, multiply the PIA factors by the ratio of life expectancy at 67 for 2024 to the life expectancy at age 67 for the 4th year prior to the year of benefit eligibility. Unisex life expectancies, based on period life tables as computed by SSA's Office of the Chief Actuary, are used to determine the ratio. Disabled workers are: (a) not affected prior to normal retirement age; and (b) subject to a proportional reduction in benefits, based on the worker's years of disability, upon conversion to retired-worker beneficiary status.
B3.8 Beginning with those newly eligible for OASDI benefits in 2026, create a new bend point at the 50th percentile of the AIME distribution of newly retired workers and gradually reduce all PIA factors except for the 90 percent factor. By 2059: a) the 32 percent PIA factor below the new bend point reduces to 30 percent; b) the 32 percent PIA factor above the new bend point reduces to 10 percent; and c) the 15 percent PIA factor reduces to 5 percent.
B3.9 Beginning with those newly eligible for OASDI benefits in 2032, gradually reduce the 15 percent PIA factor in each year so that it reaches 10 percent for those newly eligible in 2061 and later.
B3.10 Beginning with those newly eligible for OASDI benefits in 2026, gradually increase the first PIA bend point in each year so that it is 15 percent higher for those newly eligible in 2040 and later.
B3.11 Increase the first PIA factor from 90 percent to 93 percent for all beneficiaries eligible as of January 2021 and for those newly eligible for benefits after 2020.
B3.12 Use an annualized "mini-PIA" formula beginning with retired workers newly eligible in 2026. For each indexed earnings year, compute an individual AIME and an individual PIA. Sum these individual PIAs for the 40 highest years of indexed earnings and divide that total amount by 37 to get the PIA for this provision. Phase-in over five years, meaning that in 2026, 80 percent of the benefit would be based on the old 35-year average PIA formula and 20 percent on the new mini-PIA formula, shifting by 20 percentage points each year until 100 percent is based on the new mini-PIA formula for those attaining age 62 in 2030. Disabled worker benefits are unchanged under this provision.
B3.13 For retired worker beneficiaries newly eligible in 2026 (excluding disabled workers), add a new bend point at the wage-indexed equivalent of the 50th percentile of the AIME distribution minus $100 (for 2015 eligibility) and change the PIA factors to 95/32/15/5. Also move the current-law first bend point from the wage-indexed equivalent of $926 in 2019 to $1,177 in 2019. Phase this provision in over 10 years (2026-2035). The phase-in would work on a weighted-average basis: 90% of CL formula + 10% of proposal formula for 2026, 80% of CL formula + 20% of proposal formula for 2027, and so on.
B3.14 Beginning with those newly eligible for OASDI benefits in 2021, reduce the 15 percent PIA factor by 2 percentage points per year so that it reaches 5 percent for those newly eligible in 2025 and later.
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B3.15 Increase the 90 percent PIA formula factor to 91 percent for beneficiaries newly eligible in 2024, 92 percent for those newly eligible in 2025, ..., reaching 95 percent for those newly eligible in 2028 and later.
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B3.16 For retired worker and disabled worker beneficiaries becoming initially eligible in January 2026 or later, phase in a new benefit formula (from 2026 to 2035). Replace the existing two primary insurance amount (PIA) bend points with three new bend points as follows: (1) 25% AWI/12 from 2 years prior to initial eligibility; (2) 100% AWI/12 from 2 years prior to initial eligibility; and (3) 125% AWI/12 from 2 years prior to initial eligibility. The new PIA factors are 95%, 27.5%, 5% and 2%. During the phase in, those becoming newly eligible for benefits will receive an increasing portion of their benefits based on the new formula, reaching 100% of the new formula in 2035.
B4.1 Increase the number of years used to calculate benefits for retirees and survivors (but not for disabled workers) from 35 to 38, phased in over the years 2020-2024.
B4.2 Increase the number of years used to calculate benefits for retirees and survivors (but not for disabled workers) from 35 to 40, phased in over the years 2020-2028.
B4.3 For the OASI and DI computation of the PIA, gradually reduce the maximum number of drop-out years from 5 to 0, phased in over the years 2021-2029.
B4.4 Reduce the number of computation years (increase dropout years) for parents having a child in care under the age of 6. The parent must have no earnings (covered or non-covered) for the year to be eligible for the credit. Only one parent can claim the childcare added dropout year for a given earnings year. Each parent can earn at most 2 dropout years per child, and a maximum of 5 dropout years in total. The years designated as childcare years do not have to be the years that could otherwise be included in the computation of the average indexed monthly earnings (AIME). The provision would be effective for all benefits payable for entitlement in January 2021 and later (without regard for when the beneficiary became initially eligible).
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B4.5 For retired and disabled workers, reduce the maximum number of dropout years to 4 for workers newly eligible in 2021, to 3 for workers newly eligible in 2022, and to 2 for workers newly eligible in 2023 and later.
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B5.1 Increase the PIA to a level such that a worker with 30 years of earnings at the minimum wage level receives an adjusted PIA equal to 120 percent of the Federal poverty level for an aged individual. This provision takes full effect for all newly eligible OASDI workers in 2037, and is phased in for new eligibles in 2028 through 2036. The percentage increase in PIA is lowered proportionately for those with fewer than 30 years of earnings, down to no enhancement for workers with 20 or fewer years of earnings. (Year-of-work requirements are "scaled" for disabled workers based on their years of potential work from age 22 to benefit eligibility). The benefit enhancement percentage is reduced proportionately for workers with higher average indexed monthly earnings (AIME), down to no enhancement for those with AIME at least twice that of a 35-year steady minimum wage earner.
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B5.2 Beginning for those newly eligible in 2020, reconfigure the special minimum benefit: (a) A year of coverage is defined as a year in which 4 quarters of coverage are earned. (b) At implementation, set the PIA for 30 years of coverage equal to 125 percent of the monthly poverty level (about $1,265 in 2018). For those with under 30 years of coverage, the PIA per year of coverage over 10 years is $1,265/20 = $63.25. (c) Index the initial PIA per year of coverage by wage growth for successive cohorts.
B5.3 Beginning for those newly eligible in 2020, reconfigure the special minimum benefit: (a) A year of coverage is defined to be either a year in which 4 quarters of coverage are earned or a child is in care. Childcare years are granted to parents who have a child under 5, with a limit of 8 such years. (b) At implementation, set the PIA for 30 years of coverage equal to 125 percent of the monthly poverty level (about $1,265 in 2018). For those with under 30 years of coverage, the PIA per year of coverage over 10 years is $1,265/20 = $63.25. (c) Index the initial PIA per year of coverage by wage growth for successive cohorts.
B5.4 Beginning for those newly eligible in 2026, reconfigure the special minimum benefit: (a) A year of coverage is defined as a year in which 4 quarters of coverage are earned. (b) At implementation, set the PIA for 30 years of coverage equal to 125 percent of the monthly poverty level (about $1,265 in 2018). For those with under 30 years of coverage, the PIA per year of coverage over 10 years is $1,265/20 = $63.25. (c) From 2018 to the year of implementation, 2026, index the PIA per year of coverage using the chain-CPI index. Then, for later years, index the PIA per year of coverage by wage growth for successive cohorts. (d) Scale work requirements for disabled workers, based on the number of years of non-disabled potential work.
B5.5 Beginning for those newly eligible in 2021, reconfigure the special minimum benefit: (a) A year of coverage is defined as a year in which either 20 percent of the "old law maximum" is earned or a child is in care. Childcare years are granted to parents who have a child under 6, with a limit of 8 such years. (b) At implementation, set the PIA for 30 years of coverage equal to 133 percent of the Census monthly poverty level (about $1,335 in 2018). For those with under 30 years of coverage, the PIA per year of coverage over 19 years is $1,335/11 = $121.40. (c) Index the initial PIA per year of coverage by wage growth for successive cohorts. (d) Scale work requirements for disabled workers, based on the number of years of non-disabled potential work.
B5.6 Beginning for those newly eligible in 2020, reconfigure the special minimum benefit: (a) A year of coverage is defined to be either a year in which 4 quarters of coverage are earned or a child is in care. Childcare years are granted to parents who have a child under 6, with a limit of 5 such years. (b) At implementation, set the PIA for 30 years of coverage equal to 100 percent of the monthly poverty level (about $1,041 in 2019). For those with under 30 years of coverage, the PIA per year of coverage over 10 years is $1,041/20 = $52.05. (c) From 2019 to the year of implementation, 2020, index the PIA per year of coverage using the CPI index. Then, for later years, index the PIA per year of coverage by wage growth for successive cohorts. (d) Scale work requirements for disabled workers, based on the number of years of non-disabled potential work.
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B5.7 Beginning for those newly eligible in 2022, reconfigure the special minimum benefit: (a) The number of years of work (YOWs) is determined as total quarters of coverage divided by 4, ignoring any fraction. Childcare years are granted to parents who have a child under 6, with a limit of 5 such years. (b) At implementation, set the PIA for 30+ YOWs equal to 100 percent of the monthly HHS poverty level for the year prior to eligibility. For workers between 11 and 29 YOWs, reduce the special minimum by 3 1/3 percentage points per YOW so that at 29 YOWs the minimum would be 96 2/3% of poverty, ..., down to 11 YOWs at 36 2/3% of poverty. No minimum for 10 or fewer YOWs.
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B5.8 Beginning in 2024, create a Basic Minimum Benefit (BMB) within Social Security (i.e., the cost of the BMB would be charged as a cost to the OASI Trust Fund), with the following specifications: (1) Eligibility for the BMB would be limited to OASI beneficiaries who have attained normal retirement age (NRA) or above. OASI beneficiaries under NRA would not be eligible for the BMB. (2) The BMB would be calculated on a household basis and split equally between members of the household. In the case of a married couple, both spouses would need to claim any Social Security benefits for which they are eligible before they could receive the BMB. If both spouses have claimed and one is NRA or above and the other has not yet attained NRA, only the half of the BMB for the spouse over NRA would be payable. (3) The BMB amount for single beneficiaries would be equal to either: 1) the BMB base ($604 in 2015) - 0.70 * current monthly OASI benefit (not including any BMB), if positive; or 2) zero. (4) The BMB amount for married beneficiaries would be equal to either: 1) the BMB base ($906 in 2015) - 0.70 * total household monthly OASI benefits (not including any BMB), if positive; or 2) zero. (5) The BMB bases for singles and couples would be updated annually for changes in the average wage index (AWI). (6) Single filers with Adjusted Gross Income (AGI) over $30,000 and joint filers with AGI (including taxable SS benefits) over $45,000 would be subject to clawback of the BMB through the income tax system. Any BMB would be reduced by one dollar for every dollar of income above the thresholds. (Thresholds, in 2015 dollars, would be indexed to chained CPI-U.) Clawbacks would be credited back to the OASI Trust Fund.
B5.9 Beginning for those newly eligible in 2021, reconfigure the special minimum benefit: (a) A year of coverage is defined as a year in which 4 quarters of coverage are earned. (b) At implementation, set the PIA for 40 years of coverage equal to 125 percent of the monthly Aged Federal poverty level (about $1,254 in 2018). For those with 20 or fewer years of coverage, phase up linearly from 0 percent of the poverty level for 10 years of coverage to 100 percent of the poverty level. For those having between 20 and 40 years of coverage, phase up linearly from 100 percent of the poverty level at 20 years of coverage to 125% of the poverty level for 40 or more years of coverage. (c) For newly eligible workers in 2021 and 2022, index the applicable poverty level using the CPI index, to the year prior to eligibility. Then, for newly eligible workers in 2023 and later, index the PIA per year of coverage by wage growth for successive cohorts. (d) Disabled workers have a somewhat similar minimum benefit, with work requirements scaled based on the number of years of non-disabled potential work.
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B5.10 Reconfigure the special minimum benefit, phased in for retired and disabled workers newly eligible from 2026 through 2035: (a) A year of work (YOW) coverage is equal to earnings at or above $10,875 in 2019 (reflecting a full-time worker earning the federal minimum wage), adjusted thereafter for wage growth. (b) At implementation, set the minimum PIA at zero percent of AWI for those with 10 or fewer YOWs to 15 percent of AWI for those with 15 YOWs, increasing linearly so that it reaches 19 percent for 19 YOWs. Then the minimum PIA would jump up to 25 percent of AWI for those with 20 YOWs, increasing linearly so that it equals 35 percent of AWI for those with 35 or more YOWs. (c) Use the AWI for two years prior to the year of initial eligibility in the minimum PIA calculation with COLA increase after the year of initial eligibility. (d) Scale the YOW requirements for disabled workers, based on the number of years of non-disabled potential work.
B6.1 Provide a 5 percent increase to the monthly benefit amount (MBA) of any beneficiary who is 85 or older at the beginning of 2020 or who reaches their 85th birthday after the beginning of 2020.
B6.2 Provide the same dollar amount increase to the monthly benefit amount (MBA) of any beneficiary who is 85 or older at the beginning of 2020 or who reaches their 85th birthday after the beginning of 2020. The dollar amount of increase equals 5 percent of the average retired-worker MBA in the prior year.
B6.3 Provide an increase in the benefit level of any beneficiary who is 85 or older at the beginning of 2021 or who reaches their 85th birthday after the beginning of 2021. Increase the beneficiary's PIA based on an amount equal to the average retired-worker PIA at the end of 2020, or at the end of the year age 80 if later. Increase the beneficiary's PIA by 5 percent of this amount for those older than 85 at the beginning of 2021 and by 5 percent of this amount at age 85 for others, phased in at 1 percent per year for ages 81-85.
B6.4 Starting in 2020, provide a 5 percent uniform benefit increase 24 years after initial benefit eligibility. Phase in the benefit increase at 1 percent per year from the 20th through 24th years after eligibility. For disabled workers, the eligibility age is the initial entitlement year to the benefit. The benefit increase is equal to 5 percent of the PIA of a worker assumed to have career-average earnings equal to SSA's average wage index. Auxiliary beneficiaries receive benefit enhancement based on the PIA of the governing worker.
B6.5 Starting in 2022, provide a 5 percent uniform PIA increase 20 years after benefit eligibility. Phase in the PIA increase at 1 percent per year from the 16th through 20th years after eligibility. The full PIA increase is equal to 5 percent of the PIA of a worker assumed to have career-average earnings equal to the SSA average wage index. Auxiliary beneficiaries receive benefit enhancement based on the PIA of the governing worker.
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B6.6 Starting in 2026, provide a uniform PIA increase in the 24th year of benefit eligibility. Phase in the PIA increase at 0.5 percent per year from the 15th through the 24th years of eligibility. The full PIA increase is equal to 5 percent of the average retired worker PIA in December of the 14th year of benefit eligibility. A similar additional PIA increase applies in the 43rd year of benefit eligibility (age 104), phased in from the 34rd through the 43nd years of eligibility. For those past the 15th year of eligibility in 2026 (over age 76 for retirees), phase in the PIA enhancement over 10 years starting in 2026. Auxiliary beneficiaries receive benefit enhancement based on the PIA of the governing worker.
B6.7 Starting in January 2026, provide an addition to monthly benefits for all beneficiaries who have been eligible for at least 20 years, with the following specifications: (1) Augment benefits (not the PIA) for those of qualifying age and eligibility duration with a MAGI below about $27,000 if single and $54,000 if married. MAGI is set to equal the IRMAA definition (AGI plus tax-exempt interest income). Index these thresholds after 2026 by the increase in the C-CPI-U; (2) The full additional amount is applicable for those born 1959 and later, once 24 years elapse from initial eligibility. The basic additional amount is calculated as 5 percent of the PIA for a hypothetical worker with earnings equal to the AWI each year; (3) For those born prior to 1960, the full additional amount is multiplied by the number of years they have been affected by the C-CPI-U, divided by 24; (4) Beneficiaries will receive 20 percent of their additional amount in their 20th year after initial eligibility, 40 percent in their 21st year after initial eligibility,..., and 100 percent of their additional amount in their 24th and later years after benefit eligibility; (5) Retired and disabled worker beneficiaries, dually entitled spouse beneficiaries, and all survivor beneficiaries received their addition as described above. Spousal beneficiaries (aged or with child in care) and child beneficiaries of a living retired or disabled worker receive 50 percent of the additional amount described above. Other beneficiary types (such as parents of deceased workers) will receive the percentage of the flat benefit that equals the percentage of the insured worker's PIA that they receive; (6) The AWI used is for the second year prior to the beneficiary's initial eligibility year, with applicable COLAs applied up to the age when the addition is received; and (7) The additional amount is added to the monthly benefit after reductions for early claiming or increases for delayed claiming have been applied.
B7.2 Reduce benefits by 5 percent for those newly eligible for benefits in 2020 and later.
B7.3 Give credit to parents with a child under 6 for earnings for up to five years. The earnings credited for a childcare year equal one half of the SSA average wage index (about $27,038 in 2019). The credits are available for all past years to newly eligible retired-worker and disabled-worker beneficiaries starting in 2020. The 5 years are chosen to yield the largest increase in AIME.
B7.5 Increase benefits by 5 percent for all beneficiaries as of the beginning of 2020 and for those newly eligible for benefits after the beginning of 2020.
B7.7 Reduce individual Social Security benefits if modified adjusted gross income, or MAGI (AGI less taxable Social Security benefits plus nontaxable interest income) is above $60,000 for single taxpayers or $120,000 for taxpayers filing jointly. This provision is effective for individuals newly eligible for benefits in 2024 or later. The percentage reduction increases linearly up to 50 percent for single/joint filers with MAGI of $180,000/$360,000 or above. Index the MAGI thresholds for years after 2024, based on changes in the SSA average wage index.
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B7.8 Replace the Windfall Elimination Provision (WEP) and Government Pension Offset (GPO) with a revised reduction for most OASI benefits based on all earnings, beginning with beneficiaries newly eligible in 2026.
B7.9 Beginning for newly eligible retired workers and spouses in 2026, all claimants who are married would receive a specified joint-and-survivor annuity benefit (i.e., surviving spouses would receive 75 percent of the decedents' benefits, in addition to their own) that would be payable if both were still alive. Initial benefits would be actuarially adjusted to keep the expected value of benefits equivalent to what would otherwise be current law.
B7.10 Replace the current-law WEP with a new calculation for most OASI and DI benefits based on covered and non-covered earnings, phased in for beneficiaries becoming newly eligible in 2026 through 2035. For this new approach, compute a PIA based on all past earnings (covered and non-covered), and multiply by the "non-covered earnings ratio." This ratio is equal to the current-law concept of the average indexed monthly earnings computed without non-covered earnings divided by a modified average indexed monthly earnings that includes both covered and non-covered earnings in our records.
B7.11 Beginning in January 2022, eliminate the retirement earnings test for all beneficiaries under normal retirement age, including retired workers, aged spouses, aged widow(er)s, young spouses with a child in care, young surviving spouses with a child in care, and children.
B7.12 Provide an option to split the 8-percent delayed retirement credit (DRC) to offer a lump sum benefit at initial entitlement equal to 2 percent of the 8 percent DRC earned, and a 6 percent DRC on subsequent monthly benefits, effective for workers newly entitled to retired worker benefits in 2022 and later. Widows are held harmless from the lump-sum decision.